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M P U T 




Latter from the Chairman of Amstrad 

Dear New Customer 

I am first of all delighted to welcome you to the world of Amstrad, 

with your purchase of this new Notebook computer. 

This product is known inside our company as one of my "BABIES". 
The background to its inception stemmed from my personal desire 
to be able to use a computer. 

Yes - I am embarrassed to say that, as the Chairman of one of 
Europe's largest manufacturers of computers, I have never been 
able to use one! A while ago I called a meeting with some of my 
engineering staff and explained that I wanted us to make a simple 
to use computer. I explained that I am not interested in knowing 
what's inside the machine and what the specification of the 
machine is. I just want a machine that is simple to operate and 

After many months of development and many meetings in which I 
was asked to give my opinion on the simplicity of its operation, 
the first of this product type evolved. This product is the third 
of a long line of our generation of simple to use computers. 

Although the Notebook is very simple to use, it should not be 
underestimated. I decided to write the first section (Section 1) 
of this instruction book to cover very simply the main functions 
for the first time novice user. The second section of the book 
has been written by the "BOFFINS" and uncovers a vast world of 
the machine's operation. If you still have any problems in 
understanding the Notebook, see page 460 for details of our 
telephone hotline support. 

I am sure that if you have never used a computer before that once 
you have started to use the Notebook, you will be delighted with 
the results - so remember that it was AMSTRAD that put you in 
touch with the world of computing. 

If you are delighted with your new skills, please show them off 
and recommend a friend or colleague. Help us to make AMSTRAD the 
entry-level computer standard. 

Yours sincerely 

Alan Sugar 


The best way to follow this 
section is to read a bit and 
then do a bit! Have the 
machine in front of you and 
read carefully step-by-step. 

Take your time. 

Setting Up 

s55:S*P ! flfl! 

Unpack the box and check you have the following items: 






This will enable us to mail you from time to time on updates and 

improvements to your new Notebook. 


To set up the Notebook, turn the unit face down and pull the white 
plastic film so that it comes COMPLETELY out of the Notebook. 

Pull out white plastic tab. 

Remove the main battery cover and insert five C ceil batteries, as 
shown below (alternatively you may choose to use just the supplied 
power adaptor to power the unit): 


Put the battery cover back on and turn the Notebook face up and 

open it so you can see the keyboard and screen. Then press the 
ON/OFF key (Under hinge of display). See diagram below. 


On/Ofl key 

The machine should make a 'bleeping'"sbund and thescffeen will 
come on. 

The screen display should be as below. If not, adjust the Brightness 
control ( slider next to the On/Off switch ): 
Hour Minutes 



f 1 Jon 1^93 J 

Set the t im#. . ■ „ 
Prf** t± to odju&t th» hour- 
Press *J when F in i*.h#d 

Press S*«# to &x i t 

Date Month Year 

To set today's time and date, turn to the next page, 

.vards the top left of the screen you will see a small dark section 
. /er the two zeros 00, these are the hour digits. 

iet today's current hour by pressing the up or down keys (Tl CD 
you will use these keys many times in future so remember them), 
■Vatch the screen while you are pressing the keys. 

J Key 


t 1 

— ; 



The Notebook is 
set to operate as a 
24 hour clock. So, 
for example, set 
5pm as 1 7 or 9am 
as 09, 

.ocate the (~Ll key (you will use this key many times in future so 
■emember it! ) See diagram above and press it ONCE ONLY. J 

"ne small dark section is now over the minutes digits so use the [TJ 
iZ keys to set the minutes. Watch the screen while you are doing 
* Once you have set the minutes, press the f— H key. 

"he small dark section is now over the date digit, so use the CD CB j 
<eys to enter in today's date in the month. Once you have set this J 

oress the ElI key. f 

"ne small dark section is now over the month section, now use the. 

T. LE keys to select this month, once you have selected this v 

Tionth, press the G=L) key. ^ 

"ne small dark section is now over the year digits, now use the CT) 

I ~ keys to select this year. Once you have selected this year, press 
•ne L*^ key. 

If you make a mistake, hold down the YELLOW key, then press 
the BLUE key. now press the BLUE key on its own. Finally press the 
WHITE key and start again. To adjust the time due to 
summer/winter one hour changes, see setting date and time in 


- You have now set up your Notebook. 
This is how the screen should now look: 

This area shows 
today's date 

H you are not in Britain T"' 8 area show* 
turn to page 79 today's time 

To p lay the 



To us© the 



To use the 


To use the 


Using the Notebook with the Mains Adaptor 

When you use the Notebook at home or at work, we recommend 
you use it with the Mains Adaptor provided. Simply plug the 

Mains Adaptor into any 240V 13 Amp wall socket and plug the 
lead into the back of the Notebook. Place the Notebook close 
to the socket to avoid unnecessary strain on the lead, 

NEVER use other power adaptors - only use the Mains Adaptor 
supplied with the Notebook, 

When you have finished using the Notebook, we recommend the 
adaptor is removed from the wall socket and the cable is 
removed from the rear of the Notebook. (Remeber to switch off 
before removing the lead from the back of the Notebook). 


Using the Notebook 


The first thing to do is to familiarise yourself with the seven mosf 
commonly used keys. 

These keys will be referred to throughout this section of the book 






n some cases you will be asked to press both the Yellow and Red 
Keys, the Yellow and Green keys, the Yellow and Blue keys or the 
Yellow and White keys. The best way to do this is to press and hold 
down the Yellow key first with one finger followed by the other 
coloured key with another finger. 

After pressing the POWER ON key any time in the future, you will 
generally return back to the screen shown below. There are five 
■nain function areas or sections together with the date and time 
display. We shall refer to this in future as the MAIN SCREEN. 


To p I ay tite 



To us* tt^e- 


' .*•<%. "■** ? 

To use the Calculator 

Most of us know how to use a calculator, As this is an easy function 
for most of us to understand, we shall start with this section first of 

Do as the centre panel of the main screen says - press the Yellow 
and Green keys AT THE SAME TIME. 

the GREEH numbers on 
Press Stor to e: 

the- keyboard 


As you can see from the new screen message above, you are 
invited to use the green numbers/characters on the keyboard. To 

use the calculator, use only the keys with green characters. No 
others wiil have any effect. 

We assume you are familiar with the functions of a calculator and 
so we have no more to say in this section other than to advise you 
how to get back to the main screen. When you have finished using 
the calculator, simply press the F^ key (top left corner). 

If you leave the Notebook switched on without using the 
keyboard for more than five minutes, it will automatically switch 
off. Simply press the power key and the screen will return. 

STEP 10; 

■r- A- 

Using the Word Processor 

-or those of you who have used a typewriter or computer before 
we apologise now for boring you, Throughout this section of the 
oook we are assuming the user is a novice. 

After returning to the main screen or switching on the Notebook 
ngain the main screen will appear. 

To p lou the 


To use the 


To use the 



To use the 


•IflRV / CLOT* 




"d use the word processor section simply follow the Instructions on 
-ne screen and press the Yellow and Red keys. 

"nis operation will bring you to a new screen as below: 

Uord processor 



T he first message on the left is to start a new document, so we will 
„se this first of all and ignore the other two messages for the 
moment. Follow the instructions and press the Red key ONLY. 

After pressing the Red key, the next screen (as shown befov 

invite you to give the new document/letter a name. The reason for 
giving it a name is so you can identify it amongst a list of many 

documents you will produce in the future. 

Follow the instructions and give the document a name by typing it 
in. For example, let's call this document first. Simply type in 
first by pressing the F I R S and T keys on the main keyboard 

As you will see from the new screen below, the dark line at the top 

shows the Document Name, and also that you are on page 1 . 

In the left corner on the second line you will see a rectangular 
shaped block flashing on and off. This item is called a CURSOR. 
Remember the word CURSOR - we will refer to it many times in the 


You will also see the message: 

<— Start typing new text here 

As soon as you hit any key this message will go away.- -t !•.-- :i --..■ 

STEP 11; 

Before we go any further you will need to (earn some simple 
principles to do with typing, ( For those who already know it all - 

Press the ED 
the screen, 

key five times. You will see the cursor move down 

Now locate the keys shown below: 


As you will see, they atl have 
arrows on them, pointing in 
different directions. 

Press the Green key four times 
and you will see the cursor move 
to the right. 

■;ow press the (T] key four times and you will see the cursor move 
.o the screen. 

•.ow press the Red &t3 key four times and you will see the cursor 
-iove to the left. 

nally, press the BJue CE key four times and you will see the cursor 
-ove down the screen. 

* you imagine a cluster of arrow keys as shown below the cursor 
.•.Ml move in the direction of the arrow you press. 

"•tow type In the following :- 

.ou will see the cursor is flashing at the end of the word, 
ocate the S Q keys shown below ( top right comer ), 


=¥ess the S key three times and you will see three letters 
disappear ( The Boffins say were DELETED. Got it? Dei is short for 

Press the Red ® key four times arid you wilt se^ttie' cursor* now 
over the letter a 

Now press the E key four times and you will see the remaining four 
letters are deleted. 

You can imagine now that all letters LEF of the cursor will be 
deleted when you press the FH and all letters RIGHT of the cursor 
will be deleted when you press the F~! key. 

Now type in the word: 

Then locate the large bar at the bottom of the keyboard as shown 

below ( This is known as the space bar ). 

Press the bar once and you will see the cursor jump to the right of 
the word amstrad, 

Now type in: 


You will see the two words are now spaced apart. 

Any time you wish to space words apart, simply use the space bar. 

Now you have experienced these features it's time to write your 1 
first document. ' 

Press the E"3 key and hold it down to clear the screen. , 

Now off you go - DO IT! 


-iy don't you type in:- 
-his is the first time i have ever used a computer 

•ou will now see_fhe CURSOR flashing at the end of your sentence. 
'jow press the G=L key (you must remember this key by now! ) and 
-owtype in:- 

-hia i« the second line of the firet document i have ever written on • 

-s you can see, what you have written on the second line was too 
~iuch for one line and it has overlapped onto the third line. 

\ow press the fe key (top left corner). 


- you have written your first document on a computer. 

"o write a second document, press the Red key and once again 
■vpe in a name for the second document. Let's call this one 
second. Don't forget to press the tl! key (that key again!) 

\ow type the following: 

i seem to be getting good at this now 

Dnce again press me key. 

"jow type: 

i have noticed there are no capital letters in 
■y sentences . a 


It is true - so far everything you have written is in lower case 

(Boffin talk fornon capital letters). On the keyboard locate the keys 
shown in the diagram below. These are known as the SHIR keys, 


Press the ED key. . 

Now hold down either of the above shift keys with one finger and 

type the following with another finger: 

(Upper Case is Boffin talk for Capital tetters) 
Press the ED key again. 

This time type in the following sentence but put capital letters 
(upper case) and lower case letters where they are expected to 
be. Do this by holding down a SHIFT F 7 "~1 key onjy when you wish 
to type a capital letter, and release the SHIR E_J key when you 
type lower case letters. 

Now I am getting quite good on this Notebook 

Press the ED key again. 

Look at the dark line at the top of the screen and you will see it 

says Press STOP to finish or print. 

It should be noted at this time that the B key (top left corner) 
is going to be a very good friend to you, as pressing it will always 
take you out of what you are doing and back to the previous 

So press FEB now, then press it again. You will see you are now 
back at the original main screen. 


dw press Yellow and Red (at the same time). As you will see, you 
•e back to the main screen in the word processing section. You 
^ve used the Red key message to the left to write two documents 
-d we have so far ignored the other two messages, 

e will now explore the middle message so press the Green key as 


enu t<r DC 

-e screen shows a list of the two documents you have written. 

:cate the (T\ CD keys (bottom right corner)- 

. pressing the White ( t] key you will see the dark band move from 
e word second onto the word first. 

. Dressing the Blue CD key once you will see the dark band move 
:ck to the word second. If you have lots more documents in the 
: 'ebook you can move the dark band up and down this screen 
*n the CTJ CD keys to locate on any of your document names. 

'ove the dark band back over the word first then press the 

- key (yes - me again! ) and you will see your first document 
: cpear. Now press the B key ( life saver ) and you will come 

3Ck to the main word processor screen. 

ess the Green key again and this time move the dark band down 
.er the word second by using the Blue 3D key and then press 

- e E key and you will see your second document appear, 

ess the Blue CD key four times and read on. 

>ome Useful Tips 

. :w you can practise writing a new document. After reading these 
rs. go back to page 7 and do it all again, but this time write what 
; j want, call the documents what you want and generally find 
: jr way around these areas. Remember, the S key will bring 
: j out to the previous screen message. 


One other tip to remember is that by using our good old friend the 
GHj key you can skip lines and space out your sentences in any 
document you wish to write. For example, as soon as you get into 
the new document section where the cursor is flashing in the corner 
and you are invited to <- Start typing new text here you 
can press the ii± key a few times first. This will mean that when 
you finally print out your document the writing will not start right at 
the top of the page/paper. Similarly, after you have typed in a few 
lines, if you want tospace the next paragraph away from the first, 
you can use the G3 key. Try it now! 

Another useful tip is if you wish to type everything in capital letters 
and you don't want to hold your finger on the SHIFT key all of the 
time, simply press the key marked CAPS LOCK once ( third from 
the bottom on the left ) and everything you type will appear in 
upper case letters (capitals ).' A letter 'C u appears at the top right 
of the screen when you have switched Caps Lock on, 

To get back to normal lower case use just press the &3ED key 
once again. 

The final tip is to advise you how to use the characters which are 

printed above the number keys on the top row of the keyboard, or 
indeed how to use any character that is printed on the top of a 


These can be used by pressing the SHIFT key with one finger and 
pressing the character you wish to use with another finger. 

For example, let's say you wish to use the & sign, which is located 
above the figure 7 on the top row of the keyboard. Simply hold 
down the SHIFT key, (T D. with one finger and press the &/7 key, 
@_/j, with another. Do this a few times. Now release the SHIFT key 
and press the &/7 key again and you will see it prints 7. Holding 
down a SHIFT key makes another key print the character shown on 
its top section. 

Now press the Q key twice to exit to the main screen. 


If you leave the Notebook switched on without using the 
keyboard for more than five minutes, it will automatically switch 
off. Simply press the power key and the screen will return. 

So far the instructions you have been given for the word processor 
section have been very basic. There are many other functions and 
wonderful things that can be done within this section. All of the 
features of the word processor are explained in greater detail in 
the second section of this book. 

If you have any problems, see page 460 for details of our telephone 
hotline support. 

Using the Spellchecker Dictionary 

inside the micro chips and memory of this machine there is a 48,000 
word dictionary and function which allows you to check if you have 
spelt words correctly. This facility also allows you to spell a word 
correctly whilst you are in the middle of writing a document. 

To demonstrate the spellchecker and dictionary function, return to 
the main screen by pressing the FEE key. As usual press the Yellow 
and Red keys together, followed once again by the Red key only 
and type in the name of this new document spell and press the 
ED key. 

Now type in the text shown below, which as you can see has many 
spelling mistakes. Please type it in exactly as you see it below and 
do not alter it at all. 

4e are gomq to uritte q memo with del liberate mistokkes so that we 

can use the spellchecker, We are also going to write in q word which 
not only is spelt wrong but is actual ly the leFFt word ye mean to use 
in this particular sentence written on the OBJ 


Now place one finger on the Yellow key and press the 1 key located 
next to the S key. You will now see the screen as. shown below. 

Se lect opt ion 
L ~ Lookup word r 
S — Store word > 
X — Ignore- word * 
E ~ Ea > fc uord ! ■ 

On the right-hand side of the screen you will see the word 
writte highlighted in a dark bar. On the left-hand side of the 
screen you can see the same word writte also highlighted. This 
is the first mistake in your document, What the speilchecker is doing 
is asking you a list of questions which can be seen on the right-hand 
side of the screen. 

e lect opt ion 
L - Lookup uord.. 
S - Store uord/ 
I - Ignore uord , 
E - Ea i t uord ; I 

Obviously this is an incorrectly spelt word and the first question l 
invites you to look up a word which you meant to use. Therefore 
press the letter L on the keyboard. As soon as you press the letter L 
you will see on the right-hand side of the screen that the Notebook 
Is looking for words which are similar but spelt correctly and as you 
can see from the display below, the Notebook has given you a 
choice of three words which it thinks you really meant to use. 

le are going to BiaiiE o memo uitft deliberate mistakes 
can use the spe 1 1 checker , We ore also going to urite in a 
not only is spelt wrong but is actually the lePf't uord ue 
in this particular sentence written on the NC208, 

Press tW to se lect 
Press Stop to exit 



Obviously we meant to use the word write. By using the Blue (3D 
key you can move the dark bar down onto the word write. Once 
you have done this press the U key. You will notice on the 
left-hand side of the screen in your document the word write 


has been corrected but a new incorrectly spelt word has been 

Once again press the letter L to look up the word. As you will see, 
the Notebook has found the correct spelling of the word 
deliberate. Once again press the ED key. You will see the word 
deliberate has been corrected in your document and the 
Notebook has found another spelling mistake. Once again, press 
•he L key and as you will see, the Notebook again finds the correct 
spelling so press the ED key again to correct the word in your 

You will now see from the diagram below that the Notebook has 

stopped on the word spellchecker. 

are goin g to urite a memo uith deliberate mistakes so 
can use the H£ WEiiT51g3J. We are also going to urite in a 
not only is spelt wrong but is actually the JefF't uord ue 
in this particular sentence written on the NC2B8 . 

elect option 
L - Lookup uord.. 
S - Store word.. 
I - Ignore word, 
E - Edit uord: | 

You may be wondering why it has stopped on this word, as clearly 
t seems to be spelt correctly. The reason for this is that spellchecker 
is not really a word usually found in a dictionary. It is a name given 
to something, similar to your own name or your company's name 
which, of course, you would not expect to find in a dictionary. 
However, the dictionary inside the Notebook will always stop on 
things that it cannot recognise, Two of the questions on the 
'ight-hand side of the screen; s - store word or i - ignore 
word can be used in these circumstances. If the word spellchecker 
s something very common to you and you are always going to use 
t in your documents in the future, then what you can do is to store 
t in the memory of the Notebook so that if you ever use it again 
♦he Notebook dictionary will ignore it if it is spelt correctly. 

Let us in this instance decide to store the word spellchecker in the 
'user dictionary' for future use. Press the letter S. The word 
spellchecker has now been stored in the dictionary. If you ever use 
it again in one of your documents it will be ignored if spelt correctly. 
This facility is very useful if you are going to use a name or term 
many times in your documents which is not normally found in a 


As you win see, the spellchecker has now found another incorrectly 
spelt word ( lefft ). However, when we wrote this sentence we 
did not really mean to use this word. Not only is it spelt incorrectly 
but it is not the word we wanted to use. In this case you can use 
the question on the right-hand side e - Edit word. Press the E 
key, As you will see the cursor is now at the start of the word lef ft. 
By using the M key, delete the whole word lefft and then type 
in the word wrong, then press the EH key. 

Finally, you will now see that the Notebook has found nc. The 
reason is obvious - this is the prefix of a model number of the 
Notebook (NC200) and no-one would expect to find this in a 
dictionary. You may decide that you wish to refer to this prefix many 
times in future documents that you write, in which case you can 
decide to store it in your user dictionary by pressing the S key as we 
did before with the word spellchecker. However, it is unlikely that 
you would wish to use a model number such as this again and 
therefore you can simply advise the Notebook's spellchecker to 
ignore it by pressing the i - ignore word. As you will see, after 
pressing I, the Notebook's spellchecker has completely checked 
the entire document. 

As usual, press R to exit and press £5 again to return to the 

main screen. 

If you have any problems, see page 460 for details of our 

telephone support 

STEP 1 5: 

Using the Spellchecker to assist you in spelling a 
word correctly whilst writing a document. 

It is annoying sometimes when you are writing to find that you have 
forgotten how to spell a certain word. The next demonstration wilt 
show you how to use the Notebook's spellchecker to assist you in 
finding the correct spelling of a word whilst you are writing a 


Starting from the main screen, press the Yellow and Red IcSyT 
together, followed by the Red key only. Type in a name for the new 
document; let us use howspeii, then press the EC key as usual. 

Type in the following text: 

The library has many versions of the encyclopaedia 

For those clever ones amongst us, you will see from the above that 
we have indeed spelt the word encyclopaedia correctly. There 
are, however, those of us that are not so confident in our ability to 
spell correctly. With the cursor flashing at the end of the word 
encyclopaedia hold down the Control key with one finger (the 
Control key is next to the fellow key on the bottom row of the 
keyboard ) and press the 1 key (next to the H key) and you 
will see that the top ( dark ) line of the screen states - word is in 
dictionary. This means that the word is spelt correctly and, 
therefore, you can simply carry on typing. 

Now carry on typing and add the following (exactly, do not alter ):- 

There does not seem to be enough space to 


Once again, for those of us who are not so sure, the word 
accomodate may be spelt incorrectly. With the cursor flashing at 
the end of the word accomodate hold down the Control key with 
one finger and press the figure 1 key. As you will see from the 
screen, the word has been picked up by the Notebook's 
spellchecker as incorrect. Simply press the letter L to look up the 
correct spelling of the word. When the Notebook has found the 
correct spelling of the word, press the E key. The word 
accommodate has now been corrected and you are able to 
continue typing the rest of your document. 

As usual, press the fci^) key to exit and press the key again 

to return to the main screen. 

We suggest that you experiment in this area and we are sure that 
you will find the spellchecker section a great help in the future use 
of this product. 


STEP 16: 

How to print out your Documents 

The matter ot printing out documents can become very 
complicated and is covered in much more detail in the second 
section of this book ( page 119). This may be obvious, but we'll say 
it anyway < Sorry ). To print a document you need a printer. 

Unfortunately you cannot use the printer supplied with the Amstrad 
PCW range of computers. 

These days, most printers have a socket on the back of them 
named PARALLEL. 

You will see on-the back of the Notebook that it also has a PARALLEL 


With the Notebook switched off the first thing to do is to connect 
the Parallel socket on the Notebook to the Parallel socket on the 
printer with a cable ( known as a printer cable, usually Included 
with a printer ), 

To progress any further the next advice is maybe also obvious but 
we will say it anyway! SORRY AGAIN. 

Make sure the printer is switched on with paper in it and it is set up 
ready to print, according to the manufacturer's instructions. 

Once connected to the printer press the Notebook's On/Off key, 

Then press the Yellow and Red keys, followed by the Blue key and 
your list of stored documents will appear as you will see from the 
screen below: 


Using the ( T) QD keys, move the dark band over the document you 
wish to print and press the Qj key. 

Your document will now print out on the printer. 

Press the H key twice to return to the main screen. 


One of the virtues of the Notebook is that it is portable. This 

means you can take it with you wherever you go. In most offices 
or hotels in Britain or, indeed, anywhere in the world, printers are 
used. When visiting you can simply plug the Notebook into most 
printers and print out what you want there and then. 


What floppy disks are used for: 

You now have several documents stored In the memory of the 
Notebook. You will find that if you switch off the Notebook, next 
time you switch on they are still there, This is one of the great things 
about the Notebook. At any time, such as when the phone rings, 
you can switch off, safe in the knowledge that the information you 
have written so far will be safely held in the Notebook's memory 
until the next time you turn on again. 

However, the memory within the Notebook Is limited. When you first 
start to use the Notebook there is enough free memory to store 
about 1 1 0,000 characters. As you keep on writing new documents 
this memory will eventually get used up, 

This is not a problem because you can easily take copies of the 
documents from memory on to a floppy disk. Then you can delete 
the originals from memory to make space for new documents. 
When you later need to work on those documents they can just as 
easily be copied back from the floppy disk to memory. Once a 
document is copied back to memory it can then be worked on just 
as before. 


The 3V2" disks used with the Notebook have their information 
recorded in the same format as used by the MS-DOS operating 
system on IBM PC compatible computers. This means that 
documents you copy from the Notebook memory to a floppy disk 
have a secondary advantage in that they can easily be read into 
other programs on another computer that reads MS-DOS 
compatible disks. Documents from a PC can also be read back in 
to the Notebook. 

One further advantage of copying documents from the Notebook 
memory to a floppy disk is that documents stored on disk will be 

remembered for many years unless you choose to delete them. 
Documents in the Notebook's own memory are only stored as long 
as the batteries are connected. If they go flat or something 
happens to make them lose contact it is possible that documents 
In the Notebook memory could be lost. By copying them to floppy 
disk you will always have a copy to return to if such a disaster should 

This last point is so important that we would suggest you copy your 
work in progress to a disk at the end of every day (at least, perhaps 
even more often - every hour, say). Even if your Notebook were 
damaged or stolen the worst thing that could then happen is that 
you have lost one day's work. Copying your documents to a disk 
wiii only take a couple of minutes each day and could save you 
many many hours, even days, of lost work. 

It's not just documents from the word processor that can be copied 
to disk. You can do the same with worksheets from the spreadsheet 
program that you will learn about in Section 2 of the manual. You 

can even copy your address book and diary information. These are 
all described in Section 2 of the manual. 

As there is more than just documents that can be stored on a floppy 
disk, there is a more general word used to describe each item held 
on a disk: the word is FILE. When talking about the word processor 
we always use the word "document" to mean the pieces of text 
that you work on because it is a more meaningful word, but you 
will see the word "file" used as well and normally it will mean the 
same thing. 


Preparing floppy disks for use - Formatting 

Before you can copy information from the Notebook memory to a 
loppy disk there is one vital process that must be performed on the 
loppy disk before it can be used. It must be FORMATTED. This 
cocess must be performed once on each new disk that you buy, 
During formatting the completely empty space on the surface of 
me disk is divided up into neat little "pigeon holes" that the 
computer later uses to store the information in. 

'echnical note: The circular surface on each side of the disk is 

divided into 80 tracks and each of those tracks is divided into 9 
sectors ("pigeon holes"), Each sector can hold 512 chcracters so 
-ne total storage space on a floppy disk is 737,280 characters - In 
-omputing terms this number will often be referred to as 720 
' obytes or just 720K, (80 * 2 " 9 * 512 = 737,280 = 720 * 1024) 

Note: there is a second type of 3V2" disk used on PC computers. 
"nese are called "High Density" disks dnd have 18 sectors per track 
-stead of just 9. This means that their total storage capacity is 
474,560 characters (also known as 1 ,44MB). The Notebook cannot 
ead or write this type of disk, High Density disks are usually 
identifiable by having an "HD" logo on the disk. They also have a 
- ole punched through them in bottom right corner of the disk. 

As well as preparing brand new disks, you can use the formatting 
process to completely erase everything that has previously been 
stored on a floppy disk. This can be quite useful to quickly remove 
all documents from a disk but you can also see that it could be 
quite dangerous - you might inadvertently erase hundreds of 
documents that you had stored on disk. Be careful when formatting 
disks - be sure that you are formatting the disk you intend to. 

To format a new floppy disk ready for use proceed as follows: 

Place a disk (not supplied) in the drive of the NC200. Insert it, metal 
shutter first, through the drive door at the right hand end of the 
Notebook. The disk should be inserted label uppermost (the central 
metal spindle of the disk should point downwards), 

Push the disk in until it clicks into place. The disk eject button ot the 
top right corner will click out - you can later press this button when 
you want to remove the disk from the drive. 


From the front screen of the Notebook press Yellow and Red keys 
together to access the Notebook's Word Processor menu. 

Then press the Green key on its own to select the List Stored 

Documents option. Once the list of stored documents is showing on 
screen press the fc-^i key, 

p - ■ 

B - 

C - 

T > 

_'* I et e 

(spocel to mark 
Copy marked Files to disk 
Lis* df*k Pi les 

Format t i ng and export funct i Otis 
Transrer Punct I oris (Lapcat ) ... 

Towards the bottom of the list of options that appears you will see 

the entry F » Formatting and export f unctions . . . YOU can 

press the Blue, HT, key 8 times followed by the [±±\ key to select this 
option but a quicker way is to just press the F key on the keyboard 

to immediately select this option. 

fi - Export marked Pi 
w - Export marked fi 

es as ASCII 
es as Wordstar 

You will now see a further list of options. The one we want to use is 
f - Format disk. Just push F again to quickly select this option. 

You are now asked if you ready want to format the disk in the drive. 
Only press Y to start the formatting process if you are absolutely 
sure that there is nothing on the disk that you might want to keep, 

If you change your mind, press N to stop the formatting process. 
Once formatting has begun anything that was previously on the 
disk will be totally obliterated. 

Once you press Y the formatting process will begin. You will see 
the track number count up from to 79. When it is complete you 
should see the following message: 


The disk is now Formatted and ready for use 
Press St«f to exit ., , 

Just press © after you have read "this message. 

Copying files (documents) to a disk 

Now that you have a formatted disk you are ready to copy flies to 

it. You should currently be at the List of Stored Documents, 

If necessary, use the White (D key to move the dark band to the 
top of the list so that first is highlighted. 

Press the space bar on the keyboard. Notice that the dark band 
moves to the second name in the list and, at the same time, the 
name "first" is written in bold type. 

Keep pressing the space bar and you will see that each name is 
written in bold and the band moves down the list. 

When it gets to the bottom of the list you will see that the last entry 
is written in bold and the dark band stays over it. 

Move the dark band back up the list using the White VD key until 
it is over the document called howspeii. Press the space bar once 
more. This time the entry is written back in normal text. 

Each time you press the space bar on a name it switches between 
normal and bold text. A document name that is written in bold text 
is said to be "marked". 

Currently you have three files marked (first, second and spell). Now 
press the G^l key. The following menu appears: 

D - D*I»te 

P - Print 

R - Rename . , 

- < space i to marl: ,. , 

« _.. ..__- pii^ s to disk 

. i les _ 

r»g and #xport Funct ions . . ■ 
"unct i on*- l Lopcot J , < > >y™ 


You want to use the C - Copy marked filas to disk option so 
just press the C key. 

You will now be asked to confirm that you want to proceed with 
this copying operation. The copying operation will always overwrite 
documents of the same name that have been stored on the disk 

You could press N to stop the copying operation if you realised 
that there were older copies of the document on disk that you 
wished to keep (they can be renamed before the copy option is 
used - see instructions in Section 2). 

As we haven't copied anything to the disk yet it is safe to press Y 
the copying process will start. The name of each document will be 
printed as it is copied. Finally you will be returned to the list of 

documents stored in memory. 

You will now have copies of your documents both on disk and in 
the Notebook's memory. In a minute we'll see how to list what is on 
the disk. 

Suppose you decided that you had now finished working on the 
documents called first and second. You can delete them from 
memory, safe in the knowledge that you still have copies stored on 

To delete them, you should position the dark band oyer each of 
these document names in turn and press either F? orli£3 . For each 
you will be asked to press Y to confirm that you want to delete the 

There is a quick way to delete a group of documents. This is 

explained in Section 2 of the manual. 

Listing files on disk and copying back to memory 

In the previous step you copied three files to the floppy disk and 
then deleted two of them from memory. Suppose you now want to 
check which files are storeO on disk and copy one back to memory 
to continue working on it - simple! 


From the list stored documents screen that is currently showing press 
ET3 once more, The now familiar menu appears again: 

- Delete 
P - Print 
R - Renome 

- C space) to mark . , 
C - Copy worked Piles to disk 
L - List disk Files , „ 

F » Formatting and. export Funotions 
T » Transfer runct ions (Lopcat I ■ ■ ■ 

This time press the L key to select l - List disk files. You will 

then see a screen similar to this: 

133 15-06-93 11:48 
SECOND , 181 15-86-93 11:49 

SPELL 271 15-06-93 11:50 

The first part of the top line shows you how much free space is 
available on the disk. (IK = 1024 characters so 709K means 709 * 
1024 = 726,016 characters). 

The part, which says Dir : \notebook is not really important unless 
you are going to use the stored information on another computer 
(this is explained in Section 2 of the manual), 

Each file stored on disk is listed with its name followed by the 
number of characters it contains and the date and time when it 
//as created or last edited on the Notebook, 

At the top of the list is an entry called (pabent) , once again, this 

is not important to understand unless you will be copying files to 
another type of computer (see Section 2). 

Press the Blue ITE key and you will see that, just like on the list of 
documents stored in memory, you can move the dark band onto 
any of the names. If it is more than 30 seconds since the files were 
listed you may have noticed that there was some delay before the 
band moved, This is normal, it is because the floppy disk motor had 
been switched off to save battery life. When ever you press a key 
on the list of disk files screen, the motor will be switched on again 
if it was off. This operation takes a few seconds. 

Move the band down to the file called SECOND and press the 
space bar, 


Just like on the list of documents stored in memory you can mark 
names on disk by pressing the space bar. Pressing it again over the 
same name would un-mark a file name. 

With the name SECOND showing in bold text press the I 

Disk Operations menu will appear: 

key. The 

«J*.L. I 

c — Copy mar ke< 

t — Delete fnorked F i I »J 

N — flak* Hew directory 
F — Format disk 

o memory 

It probably won't come as much surprise to see that there is an 

Option C - Copy marked files to memory this is just like the 
C - Copy marked files to disk option that we used before. 

Press the C key now and then Y to confirm the operation, 

After the copy operation is complete you will be left with the list of 
documents on disk showing on screen. Press S to return to the list 
of documents stored in memory. 

The file SECOND has been successfully retored to memory from the 
disk and you can now move the dark band over it and press to 
edit it. Press F™ when you have finished. 

Notice that when the file was originally written it was given the 
name "second" but now it has the name "SECOND", The name was 
actually changed to upper case when it was first copied from 
memory to disk. 

The reason for this is that in order for the floppy disks to be MS-DOS 
compatible (for use on other computers) the document names 

used within the Notebook must be restricted to match with MS-DOS 
file name conventions. This means that ail characters are converted 
to upper case, some special punctuation characters and spaces 
will be removed or converted to underline characters and, if a 
name is more than eight characters long, it will have a full stop 
inserted at the ninth character and ail subsequent characters will 
be moved one position to the right, the twelth character being lost. 


As you've seen, when such an amended name is copied back to 
the Notebook it retains the name it had on disk - it does not revert 
to the name that was originally given to It on the Notebook. 


To summarise the use of disks: Floppy disks must be formatted 
before use. When you first access the List Stored Documents screen 
it shows the documents held in the Notebook's battery backed up 
memory. The Space bar is used to mark file names. Marked files can 
then be copied to disks. The files on a disk can be listed. Once this 
list is shown on screen entries can also be marked, Those marked 
files can then be copied back from disk to memory. 

Floppy disk drive battery usage 

The disk system uses a lot of battery power to operate and it is 

probably best to try and use it only when operating from the mains 
adaptor to prolong battery life. The batteries may reach a stage at 
which there is still plenty of power to run the Notebook for many 
hours but insufficient to operate the disk system. You will see a 
warning message if this is the case when you try to use the disk 

The batteries ore too low for disk usoge 
Press Stop to exit 

To give you an idea of relative power consumption. If normal 

consumption is when the Notebook is switched on but the back 
light and floppy disk are not used, consumption increases to three 
times normal level when the back light is on. Consumption 
increases to twelve times normal when the floppy disk is being used 
and consumption is fifteen times normal when both back light and 
floppy disk are used together. 


Using the Diary /Clock/ Address Book Section 

So far we have used the word processor and calculator section on 

the main screen. 



To use th» \ 

Press 1 

To use th* 


To use tht„. 

DiftRv s £ti£* 


Now we will explore the next- section on the main screen, the 

Diary/Ciock/Address Book section. 

As directed by the main screen, press the Yellow and Blue keys. You 
will now see the new screen as shown below, 


TiSE u nnNiiE?H 

You will notice that the new screen is broken up again into three 
main sections. For the purpose of this exercise we will concentrate 
first of all on the Address Book section. The Notebook has a section 
within it that allows you to store names and addresses, telephone 
numbers, fax numbers, and car phone numbers of all your 
associates, relatives, companies etc, 


Using the Address Book 

Press the Red key as indicated. You wilt see from the display below 
the new screen which should be considered as a blank page in 
your address book, 

qdd/Ed it address 

Nome itf'M 

Hc*» To 1 
QFfTc* Te- 1 , .,;■ 

MoS Me Tel ' j : ' 

Press T-* to wove 
Press St.oi» to ex i 


As you will see, the dark cursor is positioned in the top left-hand 
corner of the page next to the section marked Name. Let us now 
enter an example name and address so follow these instructions. 

With the cursor in the top right-hand corner, type in: 

Amstrad pic 

and press the i-±\ key 
Now type in: 
169 Kings Road 

and press the Q key 
Now type in: 

and press the O key 

Now type in: 

Essex CM14 4EF 

and press the ED key again. 

You will notice that the cursor is now sitting under the e of Essex. 
In this case there is no Home telephone number so press the GrH 
key twice. You will now see the cursor is in line with the word office 



Now type ih: 

0891 808181 ■"■ ■- ■"■ ' * 

and press the £H key to move to the Fax line then type in 

0277 211350 

As you will see, the cursor is now at the end ot the fax tetephone 

number, There is no Mobile telephone number so press 13 twice 
to move to the Memo line and then type; 

Designer /manufacturer of NC200 

You have now entered your first name and address in the address 
book section. Press the B key twice which will return you to the 

main screen of the Diary/Clock/ Address Book section. 

Now press the Red key again. 

As you will see from the screen display below, on the right-hand 

side there is a list of questions. 

IWdVess :t69 K inss Road 

:Ess*» CN14 4EF 

Fail :§2T? 211350 

RjSo ' e T " ' ;°es igngrVmanufooti*-»r- oT HC2CB 

(B )dd N«-u Address 
(E Wit address 
(F 1 ir.d Bddre£.S 
(DJelete fiddres* 

press stap w ex i t 

Across the question Browse you will see a dark band. By using 
the fM FE keys you can move this dark band up and down, By 
using the White uD key, move the dark band to the top item 
(A) dd new address and press the EL key. 

As you will see, you will turn to the next blank page in your address 
book, In order to explain to you the full features of the Address Book 
we will need to type in four more names and addresses. When 
typing, remember ail the keys which you usedjn the word processor 
section such as E™) , SHIFT, Spacebar, L-=L , have the same 
function in the address book. So if you make mistakes or need 
upper or lower case, use the keys as you would in the word 
processor section. 


Now type in the following ( COPY THEM EXACW ). Remember, 

when you are at the end of a line, to press the El key. 

John Smith 
1000 High Street 
Essex CM7 8QN 

0222 215555 

0222 215556 
0850 555123 

The cursor is now at the end of the memo information. Press the 
.•d) key and you will see that once you have filled up a full page 
of the Address Book by pressing the E key you will move on to 

the next page. 

Now type in: 

Brian Layer 

The Essex Brick Co Ltd 

Old Kiln Works 


Essex CM0 7DY 

0245 442277 

0245 123456 

0245 789000 

0863 485961 

in this case there is nothing to enter for memo so Just press the E 
key to bring you to the top of a new page. 

Now type in: 

Doctor Jones 

The Medical Centre 

High Street 

Southend on Sea 

Essex SS3 90Y 

0702 133444 (Only call in Emergency) 

0702 987654 


0702 123456 gfc. 

If not available ask for D6ctor Browti 

As the cursor is now at the end of the page press the El key 
which will once again take you to the top of the next page. Now 
type in: 

Star Garage 
Chi Item works 
Green Street 

Essex SS15 6DU 

0268 515151 
0268 121212 
0836 474747 

The cursor is now at the end of the memo field. Press E to exit. 

We have now entered a total of five names and addresses. As you 
will see from the screen below, the last entry is showing on the 


Name Stat- Garage . 


Ch i 1 tern work* 

Gr#en Street 

Bos i I don 

Essex SS15 60U 

Home T# 1 

OFF ice Te 1 

0268 515151 


hobi le Te l 

0268 12 12 12 
§836 474747 


Ask For Peter Brown 

CH )dd Heu Address 
<E )d it Rddress 
cr 1 ind Address 
(O )e lete Address 

C P iri nt Hddr-H s ■»&_£ 

You will also notice that the dark band on the right- hand side is 

over the word Browse. By using the Red or Green keys you can 
browse through the list of names and addresses you have in the 

Address Book, 

Press the Red key now and you will see it will take you to one of the 
other names in the Address Book, Press it again and again and it 
will take you through all the addresses that we have put in the 
Address Book. 

Pressing the Green key will do exactly the same but in the reverse 
order. Notice that the names appear in alphabetic order. 


As you can see from the right of the screen, there are six different 
facilities in the Address Book section. One of the most interesting is 
the facility (F)ind Address. To get into the (F)ind Address 

section use the White CT] key by moving the dark band on to 
(F)ind Address and press the & key. 

As you will see from the screen below, you are invited to type in the 

address or the name that you wish to find, 

j«mm MiimHiffl«fci3i 

Enter text to f" ind and press *J 

This is an excellent facility. As you know, when you are thinking 
about somebody or some company there are certain things that 
you remember them by. You cannot for example, remember their 
address. You cannot remember in some cases their full name. You 
cannot remember in some cases their telephone number. The 
screen above allows you to type in whatever you can remember 
about the Address Book entry you are trying to find. 

Let us for example say that we are trying to find the address book 
entry of the local garage. All we can remember is that the garage 
s in Chiltem Works. Type in chiltern Works and then press the 
_f i< e y. As you will see the Notebook will immediately take you to 
me address book entry of the Star Garage. 

Now let us try another example. Let us say we wish to find the 

telephone number of Amstrad but we can only remember the 
name Amstrad. Once again move the dark band over (F)ind 
Address and press the (P) key. You will see the name chiltern 
works is still on the screen. Ignore this and simply type in Amstrad. 
you will see now that the old message chiltern works has gone 
and Amstrad is now on the screen. 

Once again press the LdJ key and you will see the Notebook will 
rake you immediately to the Address Book page for Amstrad. 

You will notice on the right-hand side of the screen where the six 

messages are that five of the messages start with a Bold Capital 

etter a e f d p, Instead of using the White ID key to move the 


dark band on to the message, there is a quicker method to use and 
that is simply to type in the Bold Capital Letter. 

As an example, let us try to find the Doctor's telephone number. 
Simply press the F key. As you will see, the Notebook moves to the 
screen with Amstrad still showing from our last exercise. 

lilt^mi ^^^^^^lBgai lUMBIlttW MlMHp 

Find i Ems trod >M 

Enter text to find and press *J 

Now type in Doctor and press the CHj key. You will see the 
Doctor's name' and address appear on the screen. 

If any of the details in your Address Book entries change, you may 
wish to edit them. For example, the Doctor may change his 
telephone number. 

As you have the Doctor's name and address on the screen, let us 

imagine that he has changed his home telephone number and you 
wish to replace it in your address book. 

As you will see, on the right-hand side of the screen, to edit the 
address book simply press the E key. After pressing the E key, you 
will notice that the cursor is at the end of the first line. By using the 
Blue key, bring the cursor down to the line which you wish to 

change ( Home tel). By using the Red key, bring the cursor along 
the line to the beginning of the line. The cursor is now at the 
beginning of the telephone number. By using the IF~! key delete 
the telephone number until the cursor is positioned left of the words 
(Only call in Emergency) . 

Now type in the new telephone number 0702 354867 and press 
S to exit. 

You will now see that you have deleted the old telephone number 
and entered a new one. 

if, for example, you wish to delete a whole page of your Address 
Book, first of all find the page you wish to delete. Let us say we wish 
to delete The Essex Brick Co. Ltd. Press the F key and type in 


Brick, As you will see, the name and address of The Essex Brick Co. 
Ltd. will appear, 

Now press the D key on the keyboard and as you will see from 
the screen shown below, you will be asked if you wish to delete this 

Name -Br ion l_Q, ~~ _ 

Address :The Es&s _ D* l#t» current oddr-ess ? 
:Old Kiln Pr«*» * For Yes or N for Mo 

:Che l m»Fo ' ,,- m ,,. 

: Essex CMB_7DV 
Home Tel :a245 44227? 

OFF ice Te I !024S> 123456 
Fox :0245 ?89B0e 

Mob i le Te I :ae*3 48596 1 

. Jr mt Pddresses 
(*• ) Brouse 14*)., 
press St»p to exit 

tf you do, you should press the Y key on the keyboard and if you 
have had second thoughts and do not wish to delete it, press the 
N key on the keyboard, 

in this case we have decided to delete The Essex Brick Co. Ltd., so 
press the Y key. Now by using the Browse function (Red and 
Green keys) you will see that The Essex Brick Co. Ltd. is now longer 
in your address book. 

If you have any problems, see page 460 for details of our 
telephone support 

.Ve now suggest that you type in a few of your most important 
names and address and explore the full use of the questions on the 
-ight-hand side of the screen (Menu of Questions). You can, of 
course, delete the examples that we have typed in when you are 
oractising in this area. One tip to remember is the most useful 
^unction of this section is that you can simply type in any name, 
A'ord, town, village, building name, phone number, memo entry or 
even a post code to find the Address Book page you are looking 

So, if all you can remember about John Smith is that he lives in 
Braintree, type in Braintree. Or if all you can remember about 
the Doctor is the fact that he is a Doctor, type in Doctor. If you 
-ave entered your aunty's details into your address book and you 
.vish to send her a birthday card and cannot remember her address 
out can remember her phone number, simply follow the procedure 
by typing in her phone number and her full details will appear. 


When you have finished using this section of the Notebook, press 

twice to exit to the main screen. 

To Print Out a Full List of Names and Addresses 

While using the address book, if you wish to print out your list of 

names and addresses, plug in your printer in the normal way and 
by using the white arrow key, move the dark cursor over the words 
(p)rint Addresses and press the enter key. (Alternatively just 
press P to quickly select this option). Please ensure that you have 

adequate paper in your printer. 

Note that you can also save a copy of your address book on a 
floppy disk. Instructions for how to do this are given in Section 2. 

tf you leave the Notebook switched on without using the 

keyboard for more than five minutes, it will automatically switch 
off. Simply press the power key and the screen will return. 

Using the Calendar/Diary Section 

Press the Yellow and Blue keys. As you will see the screen is in three 
sections. We have already explored the Address Book section and 
now we are ready to explore the Calendar/Diary section. Do as the 
screen says and press the Green key. 

The screen diagram below will display on the left side your location, 
date and actual time, in the middle there will be the actual month. 
On the right-hand side you wili see a cluster of four arrows. 

To make a d ior-y entry * e ,80 SI 
date using the «-**-» Ecus and! 
press J. Press P to pr- int. I 

Bpr ■'*,"* June 



The four arrows have a very simple purpose. The arrow pointing to 
tie left means the Red ^ key. By pressing it continually the 
cursor will reach the left-hand line and automatically change the 
month to last month. (\bu must watch the screen while you are 
cressing keys.) If you continue to press the Red t<r=!\ key the month 
.-.■II continually change downwards. By pressing the Green P-hlI 
*ey the cursor reaches the right-hand line and the months will start 
♦o increase. By pressing the Blue (HD key, when the cursor reaches 
me bottom of the screen the year will change upwards. And finally, 
cy pressing the White S!) key, when the cursor reaches the top 
*'-e year will change downwards, 

.Ye suggest that you experiment by moving the cursor around with 
•"e arrow keys and watch the changes on the screen carefully. Do 
•"is for a few minutes and then return back to the actual month 
Dnd year. This facility obviously enables you to look forwards or 
oackwards to any date in the past or in the future. 

Making a Diary Entry 

~z make a diary entry locate the correct month and year by using 
--e arrows as described above. Once you have the correct month 
nd year use the arrow key again to move the cursor to the correct 
:2y in the month that you require. Once the cursor is over the 
■ Drrect day in the month that you require, press the E key. As you 
. 'i see from the diagram below, you are invited to type in your 
■: ary entry. 

•-i h'Gf k Hugus t l??: ; . rr 

typing neu text here 

et us for example type in the following: 
Remember to take car in to garage 

. dw press the S key. 

• ou will notice that when the screen returns the cursor is in the same 
riace over the day that you chose, but there is now a star * by 
*->e date that you chose. Using the arrow keys again, move the 
: jrsor around within the same month to another date further on in 


the month and press the £3 key. Type in another example 
message and finish by using the B key, 

You will now see that the two dates in the month are both marked 
with a star. The reason for this is that when you are browsing through 
the various months, any date which has a star by the side of it 
means there is a message in the diary, if you wish to look up any 
date in the month which has a star by it, simply move the cursor 
over the date which has a star by using the arrow keys and once 
the cursor is in place press the LdJ key and you will see your diary 
entry appear. 

One very good feature of the diary section is that once you have 
put a diary entry in for a certain date, when you switch the 
Notebook on for the first time that day the bottom right box on the 
screen will flash a message on and off and the Notebook will make 
a bleeping_sound reminding you that there is a diary entry. Simply 
press the i- 1 '. key and your diary entry will appear. 

Once you have read the diary entry press the F*9 key. As you will 

see from the screen diagram Peiow, you are asked if you wish to 
remove the diary entry or not. Simply follow the instructions. If you 
wish to remove the diary entry (probably a good idea) press Y. 

Do you ucnt to remove today's diory entry ? 
Press V to renove diary entry or Step to exit 

STEP 29: 

Removing future diary dates 

If you have made diary dates for the future which for some reason 
have to be cancelled and therefore you wish to delete the diary 
message, simply locate the month and year, move the cursor on to 
the actual day which has the star and press the F*] key. Once 
again you will be asked to press the Y key if you wish to delete the 
diary entry. 

Press the B key twice to exit to the main screen. 


STEP 30: 

Printing out Diary Notes 

If you have stored many diary notes and you wish to print them out 
you can choose to do so on a Weekly, Monthly, or indeed All basis. 
Plug in your printer in the normal way, Whilst on the diary screen 

press the letter P on the keyboard and follow the instructions, which 
will allow you to either show your notes on the screen first of all or 
allow you to print them out. In either case you will be offered the 
choice of printing diary entries for the next week, for the next 
month, or every entry you have in your diary. 

Note that it is also possible to copy your diary entries to a floppy 
disk to keep a back up copy. Instructions how to do this are given 
in Section 2. 

To use the Time Manager/Alarm/Clock Section. 

Starting at the main screen press the Yellow and Blue keys, 

As you will see from the next screen we have already explored the 
Address Book section and the Calendar/Diary section. To enter the 
Time Manager section, press the Blue key. 

As you will see from the diagram below, the Time Manager screen 
is divided into 4 sections. You've already seen how to use the option 
To set the Time and date on page 3. 





To *dit viiiting 

[ No fllorm* S»t ) 

To %+t the 
TIM* «Rd dat» 

To set an Alarm 

You will see from the screen that the middle section states No 
Alarms Set. This means that there is no Alarm call set in the 
Notebook memory. 


The purpose of the Alarm section is two fold, You can use the Alarm 
just as you do with any Alarm Clock to wake you up in the morning 
or to remind you of an event during the day. 

STEP 32: 

To set an Alarm call follow the instructions shown on the left hand 
section and press the Red key. 

As you will see from the screen below, the current time is displayed 
on the left side. 

Frrn** ~ti to OrdJiAai th» nour- 

Pf**» St.*p to *x i t 

f>nc* on ly 



I •_•-« "G:i 


To demonstrate how an Alarm call works, we will set the Alarm for 
two minutes ahead. You can Imagine it is being set for any time 


The cursor is now over the hour digits. As we don't wish to set the 
hour for this experiment simply press the key. The cursor is now 
over the minutes digits - press the White CT! key until the minutes 
are 2 minutes ahead of the current time shown on the top line, right 
corner of the screen. Now press the S key and by using the 
power switch, switch off the Notebook and wait. 

After a while you will see and hear the Notebook jump back into 
life. The screen will come on and the Alarm will sound. 


Pi^*** Sfcop 1 to mx i t 

As the screen says, press B to Exit. 

The exercise we just performed was to set an Alarm call only two 

minutes ahead of the current time, 


Now try again and set an Alarm for 07.00 am tomorrow morning. 
Assuming the time today is after 07.00 am, press the Yellow and Blue 
keys, then press the Blue key followed by the Red key, 

As you will see the cursor is again over the hour digits. By using the 
CT) QD keys, set the hour to 07 and press the ED key, 

The cursor is now over the minute digits, by using the [Tj CE keys 

adjust the minutes to 00 and press the G=L key. 

The alarm has now been set for 07.00 am which means if you switch 

the Notebook off now, it will sound the Alarm and switch on at 07,00 
am tomorrow. Now press the B key, 

Using the Alarm Function as a reminder 

One of the other useful functions of the Alarm section is the facility 

to put a message into the Notebook at the same time as an Alarm 
call. For instance, let us say you wish to be reminded today to 
telephone someone at a specific time. 

Follow this example: Press the Red key to bring you the set alarm 
screen. For the purpose of this example leave the hour as current 
and press the (3 key. 

Now set the minutes three minutes ahead of the current time (as 
shown on the top line right corner of the screen) and press the EH 

As you will see on the right side of the screen, there are a list of 
functions. Now press the letter M on the keyboard, 

You will now see a shaded area appear in the bottom left hand 
corner of the screen with the cursor on the far left. 

Type in: 

Remember to call John at the office. 

Now press the ^ key and turn off the Notebook with the power 
key and wait. 


After a while the Notebook will switch on and the message will show 
on the screen as well as the Alarm sounding. 

16:29 Re-mer*t>er- to call Jofr>n at th» oFF io* , 

Prtss Sxor- to «xit 


! &=eSo 5 

Press E3 to exit to the main screen. 

Finally, if we don't show you now how to delete or cancel an Alarm 
call you will be woken up at 7.00 am tomorrow! 

STEP 34: 

To cancel an Alarm Call 

Press the Yellow and Blue keys, then press the Blue key only. You will 
see the middle message on the screen Edit existing alarm 

calls. Press the Green key, As you see from the screen below 

Presi -• to *d_it , 
Pres*. Del to a* l^t« . 
Pr#»» Stop to wx i t 

The Alarm call you have set is stored in the Notebook. By following 
the instructions on the bottom line of the screen press the S key, 

re&ft T to -d*?I<ete> olorm coll 
pr-ess Stop- to «*x i t 


-J to edit 
Pl"»*S D*I tO Q> 
Press Stop to e 

****—— X*CF 

— ■ 


| 1 U-_»l_l 1 1 | 


The screen will now invite you to confirm the cancellation. Press 
the Y key on the keyboard, and you will see the Alarm and message 
disappear and you can sleep easy tomorrow as you have just 
cancelled your 7.00 am alarm call. 



There are many other functions in the Alarm section which are dealt 
with in more detail in the second section of this book. 

Changing Time Zones when you 
travel to other countries. 

.'.e hope you will take your Notebook with you on all trips. 

"o change the time to other time zones, press the Yellow and Blue 
<eys then press the Blue key and press the Blue key once again, The 
•ceen below will show you the present time zones, 

t i-f Zon* 

_©* Ongel** 
" skyo 

■ vav>«y 

01 :00 


Pr»*» E to •o' i t zorvt antl oF"F*»t 
Pf~#5« *-■ to *• Itct os curr«nt t Im» tott* 
Pr^ss T* arroi.) keys to move- 
Pr-***- stop to »x 1 1 




| London 

■et us say you are travelling from England to an European 

- most of the year Europe is one hour ahead of the UK, You will 

■e from the screen that dark band Is over the word London, Press 

•:• Blue LU key and you will see it move down over central 

•: ^rope, watch the bottom right corner of the screen and press the 

key, You will see the time jump ahead by one hour and the 

. ation name change from London to Central Europe. 

. :.w let's get more adventurous and imagine we are in Japan 
- ch is normally nine hours ahead of the UK. 

■e the Blue HI key again to bring the dark band over Tokyo, 
:k at the bottom right corner of the screen and press the LdD key 
.'d once again the time and location have changed, 

: go back to London time, press the White CT1 key to bring the 
■ irk band over the word London and press the LdJ key. As you 
ۥ the clock box shows London again as your location and the 
e back to normal. 


In the second section of the book we will explain how to put in other 
locations and their time differences. 

Hold down K"^ then press the S key to return to the main 


Do you want to know a secret? 
Using the secret function 

As you will notice, there is a key marked 'Secret' on the keyboard 
( Next to the Red key ). The purpose of the secret function of the 
Notebook is to allow you to store information in the Notebook's 

memory which is your confidential and private data. 

To operate the secret function, simply hold down the Yellow key 
and then press the S key at the same time. 

As you will see from the screen display below, you are invited to 

type in a password or a PIN number ( Personal identification 
Number ). J 

Type new password (4 letters or digits) and press *J : I? 

Now type in a number ( 4 DIGITS ) which you will remember and 
press the G=LJ key. 

As you will see, you are invited to double check the number, so type 
it in again and press the C=D key. 

Once you have double checked your Password/PIN and pressed 
the £=Lj key, you will see the screen now invites you to type in 
your data. Type in the following: 

This is my secret memory store 

Now press the & key. 


Just as an experiment, press the Yellow key and Secret key_again, 
type in a wrong Password/PIN deliberately and press the Ef) key. 
You will see that you are unable to get into your secret information. 
Press to exit. 

Now press the Yellow and Secret keys again and type in your 
correct Password/PIN followed by the and you will see the 

message appear again. Press (Er to exit, 

If you forget your password/PIN refer to page 84. 

The Notebook Spreadsheet 

From the Main screen, if you hold down the Yellow key and press 
the White E key you will see the following choices: 

Bmstrad NC2fl» 


p m s 

"nese options are similar to those you saw when using the word 
orocessor but, instead of selecting word processing documents, the 
screen refers to Worksheets. This is the name given to the grid of 
-lumbers and formulae that you work on in the Notebook's 
Spreadsheet program. 

1 you press the Red key you can start a new worksheet. You will 
■nen see the opening menu of the spreadsheet: 

hake *n*et , 

start. Copy, Insert, Uh i ch pi les, 

ii$L s 

/// NC200 

© i. i£ ... ^eo>. 
* •<**$ * »•»»- 

©t*y into tr* %pt- •«*»!-*? ■?: 
?d wo**k*H«*% t.*iX9 or*3. forwat ■ 
cMurons- ooa* r-p*.)*. . 
es ore ovoi I -yt> t ** to cop-y frtsu *** 

Op-.r*-rot ion Piles, 
-. > o cskul ■>*■ " '~>t'i ofF or on . 
Tf^Tidshee* - 


As indicated on screen, you can press thejp) key to get help. 
When you are using the spreadsheet the i=--'J key can always be 
pressed to get help on the command that you are currently using. 

Also at any time, the line above the command entry line will always 
show you what the currently valid options are for you to use. To 
select an option you only need to press the first (capital) letter of 
the option you wish to use. This should make learning to use the 
spreadsheet as simple as possible. However, it must be said that the 
spreadsheet is a very powerful tool but this means it is a somewhat 
complicated piece of software for the novice to understand. 

No more guidance on use of the spreadsheet will be given here. 
Those who wish to use it more should refer to Section 2 where its 
operation is covered in detail with a comprehensive tutorial guide. 

As with most other parts of the Notebook's software, the R key will 

always get you out of an option you did not really wish to use. If 
you press R at the opening menu of the spreadsheet you will 
return to the previous Notebook menu. Press fcr • again to return to 
the Notebook's main screen, 

Playing the Blockade and Trikade Games 

Included in the NC200 are three games. These can be accessed 
simply by holding the Yellow key and the G key on the keyboard. 


fin,*', nd KC200 




ro p p?S5 BE8ck« 


[press St#p to ; ** ul *l 

To Pl S e |5pEB E |PocKBPE 


To p FTS5 f k««. E 

Press Sp«c« 

to Boldfr 

To choose from the three games simply use the Red, Green or Blue 
keys, Once you are into the game you will see on the screen which 

keys are needed to play the game. 


If you wish to switch off the sound, press the S key and if you wish 
for the sound to return, press the S key again. Pressing the P key will 
pause the game. Press any other key to continue. 

Normally the next shape is shown on screen. Press the N key to stop 
this. More points are available when the Next Shape display is 
turned off because it makes the game a little trickier to play. 

To move the falling pieces use the Ctrl and t=±3 keys to move left 
and right. Use ^ to rotate a shape and use QD to drop it into 
place. The E^3 key will make the shape drop more quickly but it 
will fall at the slower speed again if you release the key. 

In ail three games the idea is to slot the falling shapes into place to 
try and completely fill horizontal lines. Notice that shapes can be 
slid sideways into place. 

Points are scored when you drop a piece using the SD key. Each 
time you complete a line you get a large score. If you can arrange 
to complete more than one line at a time there are even more 
points available. In Trikade you also get a small score each time 

two triangles merge. 

In Super Blockade there are some particularly awkward shapes. To 
help you deal with the problems these cause there are special 
shapes, coloured black, which will remove previously laid shapes. 

In Trikade there are both triangles and squares which you must try 

and fit together. Similarly coloured triangles always fit together. 

The bombs that appear in Trikade can be used to remove 
previously laid shapes. Note, however, that you lose some of your 
score when a piece is removed. 

In all three games the speed increases as the level goes up, You go 
up a level when a certain number of shapes have been placed. In 
Super Blockade and Trikade the complexity of the shapes increases 
on later levels. 


All three gomes end when there Is no more room tor a piece to 
drop or if you press the H key. The screen will show the message 
GAME OVER. If your score is one of the best six for that particular 
game you will be able to enter your initials into the high score table. 

The entry_will start off showing "AAA" and the first "A" will be flashing. 

Use the IT. and [X] keys to change the letter, then press the F3 
key to move on to the next position. Pressing the G 1 ! key will accept 
the entry. 

The high score tables for the three games will always be stored in 
your Notebook so each time you play you can try to beat your 
previous best score. 

Other features of the Notebook 

In addition to the features that are available from the Notebook's 
menus, that have been described in the preceding steps, there are 
two more features in the Notebook that should be mentioned here. 
They are described in detail in Section 2. 

If you hold down the Yellow key and press B you will switch to the 

BASIC programming language interpreter. 

BBC BASIC (NC20e) Version 3.12 
(C) Copyright R.T.Russell 1993 

This is a version based on BBC BASIC that is used in most schools 
and allows you to program the Notebook. A short tutorial and list 
of commands recognised can be found in the second section of 
this manual. To leave BASIC you cannot just press £3. You must type 
the command 'QUIT to leave BASIC or hold down the Yellow key 
and press one of the other coloured keys to switch to another part 
of the Notebook's software. 


If you hold down the Yellow key and press S you will switch to the 
Notebook's Serial terminal program which can be used for 
connecting to other computers and sending/receiving your 


Serial Term i no I Program 

Press P1EM0 for Tent i no I Options 
Press *-l to start the terminal nou 

When you are using the terminal you initially just see a blank screen 
- this is normal. If you wish to leave the terminal you caneither press 
Er) to return to the Notebook's main screen or press [-^ to access 
the terminal's main menu from where you can press Q to Quit. 


This is the end of Section 1 of the book. We hope that it is simple 

enough for you to have understood the basic functions of your 
Notebook. Section 2 covers the operation of the Notebook in far 

more detail. 

Once again, may we remind you to fill out your Warranty Card and 
return it to us immediately so that we can keep you fully informed 
about all matters relating to your Notebook. 



User Guide 


Powering the Notebook 
Getting Around 

Short Cuts 

Single Key Operation 


Word Processor - Introduction 


Address Book 

Storing the address book on a Memory Card 

Calendar and Diary 

Diary Reminder - ,v 
Time Manager 

Time Zones 
Alarm Calls 
Secret Information 

Resetting your Notebook 
Using the Floppy Disk Drive 
System Settings 

Set time and date 

Word Processing Guide 

Starting a New Document 
Saving a Document 
Deleting a Document 
Renaming a Document 
Copying a Document 
Typing a Document 


Moving around a Document .... ^if-,.- 

Formatting * >in' 

Accented and speciaf characters 

Drawing Boxes y ' : "- : 

Viewing Codes 

Viewing returns, tabs, rulers and spaces 

Inserting the date and time into a document 

Inserting from the address book 

Inserting one document into another 

Moving, copying, deleting, saving, undeleting blocks of text 

Changing the appearance of text (bold, italic, etc) 

Place markers 

Special formatting characters 

The Word Processor menus 

List of Documents 

Headers, Footers and Page Numbering 

The Goto function 

The Status line 

Page Breaks ^ t ° i ' 

Page layout ie - 

Using "Ruler Lines* 

Using tabs 

Find and Replace 

Using Macros 

Speli Checking 

Counting words 

Configuring the Word Processor no .-. 


Sending/Receiving Documents to/from other computers 

Serial or Parallel transfers? 

Serial Transfers 

The Cable to Use 

Making the software connect 

The Notebook's Serial Terminal program 

Choosing the correct transfer method 

Document transfer without using Xmodem 

Xmodem file transfers 


Word Processor Stored Commands 

Page layout commands 
Page formatting commands 
Printer commands 
Miscellaneous commands 
Mail merge commands 

Mail Merge 

Simple Mail Merging 

More about reading data 

Inputting data when printing 

Other ways to set variables 

Using the IF command 

Adding variables 

Using names and addresses from the Address Book 

Mail merge without a data file 


Immediate commands 

Writing programs - a short tutorial 

Example BASIC programs 

Making programs run automatically 

BASIC memory usage 

Z80 assembler 

Differences between BBC BASIC on the Notebook 

and other computers 

BBC BASIC Keywords 

Operating system commands 
Operating system error messages 

Spreadsheet Guide - Introduction 

Spreadsheet Part One(a) - Getting Started for Beginners 

Using the Notebook spreadsheet 

Details of the screen 

The Keyboard 

Keys used to move the cursor 

How to get help 



What to do when you make a mistake 
Saving your worksheets 
Leaving the Notebook spreadsheet 
Running the sample worksheets provided 

Spreadsheet Part one(b) Quick Start Guide for Experts 


Starting a new sheet - the quick way 

Starting a new sheet 

Loading an exisiting worksheet -.-:<v- r ■ 

Saving a sheet 


Spreadsheet Part Two - Tutorial 

Tutorial I - Basic techniques 

Creating a worksheet . . 

Tutorial II - inserting and Deleting Rows and Columns 

Moving around a sheet 

A note on destinations 

More on entering data ■■ >■ 

Entering text 

Tutorial III - More advanced techniques 

Understanding the difference between text and numbers 

Using ranges 

Formats: changing the way the data is displayed 

More on numeric formats 

Text formats 

Tutorial IV - More on changing column widths and formats 

Tutorial V - Removing data from the sheet - Blanking and 


Tutorial VI - Expressions 

Understanding expressions - the heart of the sheet 

The order of calculation 


Tutorial VII - Mathematical functions 
Utility functions 
Statistical functions 

Defined functions 

Tutorial VIII - More Techniques 

The Move command 
Copying parts of the sheet 

Tutorial IX - Cell references 

A note on adjusting references . , =,vq2 

Preparing a simple cash flow 

Tutorial X - Saving, loading and printing 
A further look at the Copy command 

Printing from the Notebook Spreadsheet 
Printing mail labels 

Tutorial XI - Partitioning the screen 

Tutorial XII - Database handling techniques 

Sorting the lines 

Tutorial XIII - More complex use of the spreadsheet 

The IF, THEN, ELSE functions . 

Table handling functions 

A Note on lists 

Date and Time functions ^ •-..-. 

Tutorial XIV - An introduction to 'command' functions 
Multiple function lines and dividing commas 
I/O Functions 

Tutorial XV - Producing Graphs and Charts 

Graph functions 

Business graphs 

Statistical, scientific and engineering 

Making a graph in practice 


Pie charts 

Scientifc graphs 
Further points about chart plotting 


Tutorial XVI - Automating data manipulation 
Using macro command groups 
Functions that allow looping 
Subroutines using the DO tunction 
Looping using functions DO and WHILE 
Table filling using the DO function 
Limitations of CRDO 

Iterative solutions - using circular references 
Solving simultaneous equations 

Spreadsheet Part Three - Overview and recap 

The spreadsheet's Dynamic data entry and error checking 

The spreadsheet and its uses 

Moving around 

Types of entry 

Circular references , 

More on formats 

The Copy command 

Saving and loading 


Database functions 

Advanced functions 

Conditionals, loops and macros 

Table creating and reading 

Date and Time functions 

Graphic options 

Spreadsheet Part Four - Command R*f«rence 

Expression entry 

Evaluation of expressions 

Building expressions 

The valid operators in an expression 

Built-in functions 

Trigonometric functions 

Logical functions 

Date and Time functions 

Graphics functions 

Alphabetic list of built in functions 

Complete command reference 

More detail on error messages 


Appendix 1 - Table of characters in the Notebook 

Appendix 2 - Summary of Word processor editing commands 

Appendix 3 - Display of Word processor macro definitions 

Appendix 4 - Serial terminal - VT52 emulation 

Licence agreement 


Memory usage in the Notebook 
Hotline support 
Credits/Copyright Information 
New product guarantee 


Powering the Notebook 

We would recommend that where possible you should use the 
mains adaptor to power your Notebook. However, when you are 
on the move, the Notebook is powered by 5 C cell batteries. These 
will enable you to work for approximately 35 to 40 hours (depending 
on how much the back light and floppy disk are used). When the 
batteries need to be replaced a warning message is flashed on 
screen telling you to replace the batteries. 

Main batter ies- are low, Please suitch oFF and replace tottery 

Use five alkaline type C, 1.5V cells. It is possible to fit rechargeable 
(NiCad) batteries but, at best, these will only provide about 10 hours 
of working time before needing to be re-charged. NiCad batteries 
will not be recharged inside the Notebook when the mains adaptor 
is being used. They must be recharged in an external charger. 

As explained in Section 1 , when you use the back light, power 
consumption is increased to three times normal level. When you use 
the floppy disk drive power is increased to about twelve times 
normal level. Therefore, it is best to try and limit your use of these 
things while operating from batteries. 

When there is no other source of power (when replacing the C cell 
potteries for example) the lithium battery will maintain your work in 
the Notebook memory (the estimated life of the lithium battery is 5 
years) If the lithium battery needs replacing you will see the 
message -Lithium battery is low..." . Ensure that good alkaline 
batteries are fitted or the mains adaptor connected while you 
replace the lithium battery. You must use a CR2032 type battery 
which can be purchased at many electrical or photographic shops. 

Warning: If all power sources are disconnected all the stored 

information; documents, addresses, diary entries etc will be 
permanently lost from the Notebook memory, If you regularly 
copy your work to floppy disks you can always recover it if this 

should happen. 



Your Notebook contains a Lithium battery. Danger of explosion if 
recharging is attempted, Replace the Lithium battery with the 
type CR2032 battery as recommended by Amstrad pic. Do not 
dispose of the old Lithium battery in the fire. 

Switching off 

You can switch off your Notebook at any time while you are using 

it and the work you are doing will be stored (except in BASIC). 

When you switch on again you will be returned to the Main Screen. 
You may see the following message on screen for a few moments: 

( Storing . . . . j 

This will sometimes occur when you switch off while there Is a word 
processor document on the screen. 

Automatic Power off 

If you leave your Notebook switched on but don't touch any of the 
keys for five minutes it will automatically switch itself off to conserve 

The five minute period can be changed using the Systems Setting 
menu (press S key at the Main screen) but be careful, if you set 
the power off delay to zero, automatic power off will not occur and 
your batteries will be drained if the Notebook is left switched on. 

Switching on 

When you switch on the Notebook you will be returned to the main 
screen unless the Notebook automatically powered off the last time 
you used it, then you will be returned to whatever you were doing 
at the time, this is called "Preserving the context". 

If you would prefer that your Notebook always preserved the 
context when you switch on change the Preserve context 
during power off setting in the System Settings menu (see 


When programming in BASIC it is a particularly good idea to have 
the Notebook preserve context at switch off. BASIC programs that 
you enter are only saved when you explicitly give the command to 
do so. If you inadvertently switch off you can lose many hours of 
work if you have not recently saved what you were doing. 

Backlighting the LCD 

When you first switch the Notebook on the screen will be back lit. 
If you don't touch a key for one minute the back light will be 
switched off to conserve power. As soon as you press a key the 
back light will come on again. This is known as "automatic 

operation of the backlight. 

Because of the extra power consumed by the back light you should 
always switch it off when it is not needed. 

If you are using the machine in well .lit conditions you cariswitch 
the back light off by holding down B and pressing the fc -id key, 
Press the same keys again to switch it back on. 

if you would prefer that each time you switch the Notebook on the 
backlight never comes on unless you press t-dfa^J or that it 

comes on and stays on all the time , you can change the normal 
operation in the System Settings menu. 

Make sure you are at the Main screen of the Notebook (press 

(F 7n^) fi.^ j g e t there from any part of the Notebook software), 

Now press the E^3 key. 

The setting Screen back light will currently be set to Auto so that 

the backlight comes on at switch on but goes off after one minute 
of keyboard inactivity. 

Use the HL key to move down to the option, Using the Et3 and EPj 
keys you will find that the option can also be set to off or on. 

When set to "Off" the backlight will never comeon when you first 
turn the Notebook on. You must press £zfcr"3 if you want to 
switch it on. 

When set to "On* the backlight will always come on when you 
switch the Notebook on and it will never go off unless you press the 
f ; Zl|j C .p» i™>] keys together, (Obviously it does go off when the 


machine switches off completely after the delay set in the "Power 
off delay" entry of the System Settings menu) 

Using the floppy disk drive from batteries 

Although the floppy disk drive consumes a large amount of power, 
in reality, it is never really used for very long. Copying several 
documents will never take more than a minute or two. It is quite 
possible to use it while operating from batteries. However, you may 
see a warning message that tells you that the disk drive cannot be 
used because the batteries do not have sufficient power. The 
Notebook itself will still operate for many hours after this but you 
must either fit new C cells or operate from the mains adaptor in 
order to use the disk system. 

When you format floppy disks the drive is used quite intensively, 
Therefore, it is a good idea to format several floppies at one time 
while operating from the mains adaptor at home or in the office, 
Alternatively, if you have access to one, you can use a PC 
compatible computer to format the disks for use in the Notebook 
(remember that they must be 720K though). 

Battery usage in the Serial Terminal program 

When you are using the serial terminal program (fZHHEEBUZ]) the 
RS232 port is switched on. This increases power consumption. It is 
therefore advisable to try and use the mains adaptor when 
operating the terminal program if possible. 

Also, do not leave the Notebook in the terminal when it is not 
actually being used as this will cause a needless waste of battery 



Getting Around 

From the main screen you can access all parts of the Notebook 
program by holding down the YELLOW key then press the RED 
GREEN, BLUE or WHITE key (the messages on screen tell you which 
key to press). 

The f~3 m LT] W Keys 

When using your Notebook you will find that sometimes the 
coloured keys are referred to on the screen by their colour and at 
other times by the arrow symbols printed on them, 

The ["'3 key 

Press Q at any time to finish what you are doing, and return to the 
previous screen, You may have to press @ several times to return 
you to the main menu. 

Advice for beginners 

When you first use your Notebook you may find you 'get lost' 
especially when using the more complicated word processor 
features and pressing will enable you to escape^ As you 
become familiar with your Notebook you will use the to key less 

as you learn the short cuts. 

If you ever get really lost you could switch off and on again to return 
the familiar Main screen. Alternatively, hold down the Yellow key 
and press ( s '^ - this is always a quick way back to the main screen. 

Short Cuts 

You can short-cut the menus on your Notebook and go directly to 

fhe part you want using special key combinations to avoid having 
to return to the main menu. For all the short cuts hold down the 
YELLOW h n " io n l key and press another key, 


- To the word processor or returns you to the 
document you are typing. 

F--"H ® - Switch to the Spreadsheet menu 

(^""'""1 O - Start a New Document 

F™"°"1 FT) - To the List of Stored Documents 

{ F ""°'H T 3 - To Print a Document 

- To use the Calculator 

[F^ no^ ff] - To the Diary Menu 

- To the Address Book" 

- To the Calendar/Diary 
f ~""H O - To the Time Manager 
p^'H P~ ] - - To the Set Alarm Call Menu 
f ^ net H P - ! - To Time Zones Manager 
fi^To") Q - To the Notebook opening screen 

- To the built in Games 

- Run Memory Card Program 
'-'- ■'"'H F"1 - Serial Terminal Program 

'■■ .nctior] fS~) . p un a p r0 g ram f r0m disj( 

r -^"H ED - To the BASIC interpreter 

'- --"'H ISrl - Enter password for Secret Information 

'-ou can use the key combinations above to quickly move from one 
cart of the program to another without returning to the main menu, 
'or example while typing a document in the word processor, hold 
-'ELLOW and press GREEN to use the calculator, to return to the 
document hold YELLOW and press RED. 

•Use this to insert an address from your address book into the 

document you are typing. 


Single Key Operation 

To assist the disabled the Notebook has been designed so that It 
can be operated using only one key at a time using the "Sticky shift" 
feature. Sticky shift has to be switched on at the System Settings 

The way sticky shift w orks is that instead of having to hold down the 
(F^"n) p^] 12." _) or FEB key while pressing another, the keys 
can be pressed one after the other. 

At the main screen menu sticky shift will always work, for it to work 
at other times you must switch it on at the System Settings Menu: 

1 Press (^1 at the main screen 

2 Press the (T] until you reach sticky shift keys. 

3 Press the G=°! or P§) key until Yes shows on the screen. 

4 Press H. 


There are about 110,000 bytes of memory avaiiabte on the 
Notebook for your 'data", that includes all the information you type 
in; documents, worksheets, addresses, diary entries and alarms. See 
the Troubleshooting section for a full description of how the memory 
is used, 

When you start to run out of memory your Notebook will give you 
a warning, to make space in the memory you will have to copy 
some of your older documents from memory to floppy disk and 
then delete them from memory to make space, refer to the Word 
Processing section below for instructions on how to do this. 

Expanding the Memory 

Although you can always use floppy disks to save your older data 
and make space In the internal memory of the Notebook, you can 
increase the Notebook's memory by the use of industry standard 
Static RAM (SRAM) cards (JEIDA/PCMCIA cards) that can be 
inserted into the MEMORY CARD slot of the Notebook. You may find 
it particularly useful to have a memory card if you make heavy use 
of the spreadsheet - especially its graphic functions. 


Memory Cards with up to 1 MB capacity can be used with your 
Notebook. Instructions for looking after the cards, fitting the 
battery, write protection etc are supplied with the card. 

Just like floppy disks, the card must be "formatted" before you can 
use it. Insert the card into the slot t hen select the List Stored 
Documents screen (hold down | f -" tte "J and press FT)) then press 

!V-!^L Select F » Formatting and export functions... and 

press 0. In the menu that then appears just press to select the 
M - Format Memory card Option. 

With - the memory card loaded documents, worksheets and 
addresses are automatically stored on the card. Documents and 
addresses that are already stored in the Notebook memory can be 
transferred to the card (see the instructions in the Address Book 
chapter and the Word Processing Guide). 

Note that you should always switch the Notebook OFF before 
inserting or removing a memory card, 

Word Processor - Introduction 

The Word Processor is designed to be simple to use but has many 
advanced and powerful features. With very little instruction a 
beginner can type a document without needing to understand any 
of the advanced features while the experienced user will find that 
many of the features available on their usual word processor are 
also available on the Notebook. 

'f you are a beginner at using a computer or word processor read 
♦he first section of this book that gives simple step by step 
nstructions to get you started. Remember that you cannot harm 
your Notebook by pressing the wrong keys, so don't be afraid of 
trying things out (if, while doing this, things happen that you don't 


understand press the &™l key until you return to the main screen 
or a screen you do understand), 

For detailed information and instructions on word processing read 
the front section on this book and the Word Processing Guide later 
in this book, 

Features of the word processor 

Features that are available include; Spell checking, mail merging, 
word count, cut and paste, find and replace, keyboard macros, 
accented characters, case changing and un-delete. 

The Notebook date and time, and addresses from the Notebook 
address book can be directly inserted into a document. 

Press the (S^D key during word processing or use the key 

combinations listed on the Notebook "Template" (just beneath the 
LCD) to access all these features. 

Transferring Documents to other computers 

Documents and worksheets can be transferred to other computers 
using a lead connected to the serial port and using the in-built serial 
terminal program supplied with your Notebook. You may, however, 
find it much simpler to just copy them to an MS-DOS format floppy 
disk that can easily be read in any IBM PC compatible computer. 

The word processor documents can be transferred in the "Protext" 
format for further editing within Protext on your PC or Amstrad PCW, 
or can be converted to either ASCII or WordStar format before 
transferring so they can be loaded into other programs. 

The Notebook word processor is a special version of Protext by 
Arnor, if you would like to buy a copy of Protext for your desktop 
computer (IBM compatible PC, Amstrad PCW or others) it is 
available from computer dealers or direct from Amor Ltd, 611 
Lincoln Road, Peterborough PE1 3HA (telephone 0733 68909). 

The spreadsheet in the Notebook is based on "The Cracker" which 
is available to run under CP/M on Amstrad PCW computers. There 
is also a version for IBM PC compatible computers. Both can read 
the .MEM files produced by the Notebook spreadsheet. The 
Notebook spreadsheet can also write out the numeric data (not 
formulae) of a worksheet as .DIF files (Data Interchange Format). 


This is a common format that is readable by many PC based 

spreadsheet programs. The worksheet data can also be written out 
as .TXT (text) files for inclusion in word processing programs. The .DAT 
format writes the data in a format that can easily be processed by 
other computer programs, 

The Template 

The Template 

Printed just below the screen of your Notebook is the quick 
reference template. Use it while word processing to remind you of 
some of the key combinations required. For the activities printed 
in yellow hold down the YELLOW F™' 1 ""! key then press the key 
indicated (one of thekeys along the top of the keyboard), for those 
in white hold down Ezr3 and press the key indicated, 

Some of the operations take place as soon as you press the keys, 

and have an obvious effect, others y ou wi ll need to learn how to 
use. For example, if you hold down tr""^ and press SJ all the 
words are counted and a message appears on the screen stating 
the total number of words in your document, but if you hold E^H 
and press OH a "menu" appears on screen with various options. 
All these options are explained in the main word processor guide 
that follows. 

s«-i»»^-jV« * i a , T i i ' I * r ■ 



and press GREEN 

For quick 


Hold down YELLOW . -~, . 

access to the calculator from another part of the program use the 

same key combination. 

The calculator works in a similar way to most simple pocket 
calculators. The following table shows examples of each type of 

operation available, 



Operation 1 Answer 


(-32)+8 -2= 

15 (x) 2 (+) 7 (=) 
32 (+) M 8 (-) 2 (=) 




25 (+1 (+) 30 (=) (25 constant) 



33 (-) (-) 22 (=) (33 constant) 
95 W 





4 (x) (x) 15 (=) (4 constant) 
45 W 



3 (+) (+) 45 (=) (3 constant) 
354 [=) 




15% of 150 

150 (x) 15 (%) 


13 as a % 

of 40 

13 M 40 (%) 



150 by 15% 

150 (+) 15 C%) or, 
150 (x) 15 (%) f+) (=) 



350 by 15% 

350 (-) 15 (%) or 
350 (x) 15(%) (-) M 




root of 

45 (-) 29 (=) (V] 








(MRC) (MRC) (CE/C) 



32 (x) 3 (M+) 



- (62*2) 

62 (+) 2 (M-) 


+ (53 + 22) 

53 (+) 22 (M+) 


= Total 




(MRC) (MRC) (CE/C) 


(16-C8 x 3)) 

16 (M+) 8 (x) 3 (M-) 


x (27-13) 

27 (-) 13 (x) (MRC) 

= Total 



Clear the calculator memory before performing a new calculation 

by pressing MRC twice then CE/C. 

The small box at the top left labelled "Memory" will show you any 
value that is stored in memory. Press MRC twice to clear the 

If you press an operator key twice (++, -, " or ++) this invokes the 

constant feature. A small letter K appears in the display together 
with the operator you selected. Press CE/C to clear the constant 

You will see a flashing e in the left of the display if an error occurs 
during a calculation or if calculation results in a number too large 
to be displayed. Press CE/C to clear this. 

Unlike a normal calculator you can use B to delete wrongly 
entered numbers. 

Press F3 to return to the main screen, or use one of the 'Short-cut" 
methods to return to the screen you were using before the 



Address Book 

For step by step instructions read Section 1 . 

From the Main Screen hold down YELLOW t no H and press BLUE 
ITl To access the Address book from another part of the Program 
hold down YELLOW (^°3 and press ? ) . 

If you have not used the address book before, and there are no 
addresses stored, you are taken directly to the screen where you 

can type in the first address: 

Odd/Ed i t address 

Press *■* to move- 
Press S*»p to ex i t 

When you press E at the bottom of the card the next blank card 
appears on the screen ready for you to enter the next address. 

When you have finished entering addresses, press B. The Address 
Book Menu is now displayed: 

Home Te I . 
Rf F ice Te I 

Rob i 1e Te I 


Ftastrod p Ic 

1$9 K ings Rood 
Brentwood , ,__ 
Essex CM 14 4EF 

Oes ioner/roonuFQC tur pr or NCgBfl 

888 18 1 
21 1350 

(■ )dd H»u Rddre 
(Eldit Address 
(Kind Address 
(D )e I*te Address 
IP )r i n t add 

To "Browse" through the addresses use the O E=3 keys. Ail the 
other options can be carried out either by pressing the initial letter 
of the option or selecting the option using 133 CXI then pressing 

Select this when you want to add a new 
address to the address book. 

Use to amend the address card showing on 
the screen - to amend one of the other 
cards, first use "browse" to find the card 

then press 

(A)dd New Address: 

(E)dit Address: 



(D)elete Address: 

(F)ind Address: 

<P)rint Addresses 

Delete the card on the screen - select the 
card you want to delete using "browse" 
then press [°~~l. Confirm that you do want 
to delete the card by pressing Q for Yes, 
or if you have changed your mind press 
Notebook for No. 

Find a particular address card - if you have 

lots of addresses this will be quicker than 
using "Browse" to find the address you 
want. When you press C F J you will be 
asked to enter the Name to Find, type in 
the name or any part of the address or 
telephone number and press El . If 
there is more than one occurrence of the 
text you have typed press [1 . then El 
until the address you want is displayed. 

Allows you to print the complete contents 
of your address book to a printer. The 
addresses are printed starting on every 
ninth line so this can be used to print labels 
which are normally v lines high. If the 
telephone and fax numbers have been 
entered they are also printed. 

Press (EE) at the menu to go back to the Diary screen (press Q 
again to go back to the main screen). 

Storing the address book on a Memory Card 

When a memory card is loaded the addresses you type will 
automatically be stored onto the card. If you already have 
addresses stored in the Notebook memory they will be transferred 
to the card when you access the address book. 

The addresses are only stored on the card, so if you remove it from 
the Notebook your address book will be "blank", if you insert new 
addresses into this blank address book they can be "merged" into 
the address book on your card later, To merge the addresses. 
switch off your Notebook, insert the memory card and switch on 
again. Access the address book in the normal way (you will only 
be able to find the addresses stored in the Notebook memory) then 
press E you will see a message similar to the following: 


DiPPerent address book Found on cord 
Press Del to delete it 
Press B to »erge it 
Press Step to exit 

Press RD to merge the addresses. If you press B the addresses 
will not be merged, 

Note that it is also possible to keep a copy of your address book 
on disk (in fact, you can keep several different address books). This 
is explained in the later section about Using the Floppy Disk Drive. 

Calendar and Diary 

For step by step instructions read Section 1 . 

Hold down YELLOW (^"'"""l and press BLUE CD , release the Yellow 

key then press GREEN f=s3. 

i ■_»-_'_••> 











w>d Thu 
3 6 

Ft" i 







To matt a d lo*-y »ritru »»l*ctl 
da t» us ina t>-*? ♦-**-» fc« y> and I 
prefts ** . Pt*»»* P to pf- int . I 

Apr* i I * . > Jww 


Use the S @ LT] B keys to move around the calendar as 

indicated on the right hand side of the screen. The months and 
years change only when you are against the edge of the calendar. 

Pressing GH G=±j UU LTJ with I': I will move a month or year 

at a time when the cursor is in the middle of the calendar. 

The time and date are shown on this screen for your reference only, 
if you need to adjust the time or date go to System Settings (you 
should only need to do this if you set it incorrectly in the first place 
or when, if you are in the UK, the clocks change to British Summer 

To make a diary entry, position the cursor on the relevant date on 

the calendar and press ED . Type the details of your appointments 
and relevant information into the diary editing screen: 


Using the diary is similar to typing a document in the word processor. 
When you have finished press F"") , the diary entry is indicated on 
the calendar with an asterisk (*). 

Entries in your diary can be printed. From the calendar screen: 

To mk* a d to«^v »nt:r-v -- 
c*ot* us ina ttw tr4r* ke^£ 
pt**»*» -J . Pr*m-*& r to pr "~ 



Press n to select the printing functions, You are now given the 
choice of whether you want to print them to the screen or to the 

printer. Press ED for the screen and \T~k for the printer. In either case 
you will then see the following: 

Press t to print diary, S to show on screen: 

Press W For the next ueek, h" for the next month or R for ol I : | 

Press Q to print or show the entries for the next seven days. GD will 
show/print those for the next month and D will show/print all 
entries in the diary. 

Diary Reminder 

When you switch on the Notebook and there is a diary entry for the 
day, a message will show at the bottom right of the screen and a 
oeep will sound to remind you to read your diary. This will continue 
every time you return to the main screen until you have read your 
diary by pressing CT whilst at the main screen, You can disable this 
oeep by setting the Audible diary message warning option to 

no in the System Settings menu. 



diorv mn«9e. 
Pr-e*.s - 1 

When you have read the diary entry press 
of deleting the entry if you wish: 


Flashing message appears here 
, you have the option 


Do you want to remove today's diary entry "? 
Press 1 to remove diary entry or St»p to exit 

Press Y to delete the message or FEB if you want to keep it, If you 
choose not to delete it, you will then be told about the message 
again each time you switch on that day, 

Note that it Is possible to keep a copy of your diary entries on disk 
so that you have a backup copy in case anything ever happens 
to your Notebook. How this is done is explained in the later section 

about Using the Floppy Disk Drive. 


Time Manager 

Setting the date and time, international time zones and the 
Notebook alarms are accessed from the Time Manager screen. 
Press YELLOW and BLUE followed by just BLUE to get there, 

Setting the time and date 

When you first started to use the Notebook you were asked to set 

the time and date. If you subsequently need to change it then press 
the WHITE key at the Time manager screen to access the date and 
time setting function: 

Set the t im* . . . 

Press -t* to adjust the hour 
Pre»* *J when f in iihta 

Press St.*p to ex i t 


IB' :&7 


■*"** "*r**tZZ^ ~— .— .^ 


14 Hoy 1993 


is MB 

Time Zones 

For step by step instructions on using Time Zones read Section 1 . 

From the Time Manager screen press BLUE to access the Time Zones 

Press E to edit ion* ojr>d o^Pset 
Press «-< to swteot a* current t im* xone 
Press ■to- orrou ke-y* to move 
Press St*p to ex i t 

IX* — 1>* 


! ! !=!_!.=' n 1 


| L«pdon | 

Your Notebook has been set up to show the time in London, Central 
Europe, Moscow, Bombay, New York, Los Angeles, Tokyo and 

Sydney, you can change these to any eight cities you require. 

Select the City to change using the cursor keys then press F1, type 
in your new city name and press PI then use the TO Ljl] cursor 
keys to change the time difference then press ED. 


Current Time Zone 

When you travel to a country that is in a different time zone select 
that zone as the "Current time zone", The other zones will adjust to 
give the time difference relative to where you are staying. 
Selecting the new current time zone will automatically adjust the 
time and place shown on the clock that appears on most 
Notebook screens, however, it will not change the times set for your 
alarm calls. 

Alarm Calls 

For step by step instructions on Alarm Calls read Section 1 . 

' ' and press BLUE m then press CD at 

Hold down YELLOW 1^1 

the Time Manager screen. Press RED @ to go to the "Set alarm 

call" screen: 


Set the t iit>e ■ ■ , 
Prmmm X* to adjust th» 
Fr**** - 1 un&rx Fmiihtd 

Prtis S*op to &x i t 


Follow the instruction on the left of the screen; you have to set the 
time first, then set the date and type in your message - note that 
messages are limited to 42 characters, 

When you press t 5- ) to edit the datejt changes from once only 
to Repeats every day. Press Q3 _ (jJ to set a specific date, to 
return to "Repeats every day" use (T] or QD until you reach the 
beginning or end of the month then press the key once more. 

Advanced Feature: To set an alarm for the same time on several 
days of the week press t 5- ! to adjust the date then hold down 
f I and press E^D and you will see the following: 

] do-jss : HTUTFSS Jt 


Set t*e date . . . 
f^GZA ?± to adjust trie day. 
Pi-ess *■■* to movo lert/r igfit 
Press ~J ufrien Finished 
Pt-ess Sto»» to ex 1 1 


Each day of the week is represented by one letter, use the ED or 
"i-! to move the cursor from one day to the next then use the HD 
or [X! key to cancel the days you do not want the alarm. So for 
example an alarm that you want on Monday, Wednesday and 
Friday might look like this: 


1 ar« f^ ^*!* * *. th 

( 07 -,30 


K-SSS 1 «S 533u.t *ie dot- , 

Pr*is Pi to ot*a mesf-oge to a tai-m 
FVwss St*r to exit 


ctays : tt-U-F-- 



i 1 1-I.J 1':. : 

i J 

f m*r&*.av : 



Press Q when you have finished. 

To set an alarm call for 24 hours hence Just press ED at the 
Set Alarm screen. 

To change the time, date or message of an alarm call 

At the main screen hold down YELLOW [ r --^ and press BLUE UL. 
oress BLUE again at the "Diary menu" t hen pr ess GREEN. The short- 
cut method is to hold down YELLOW l Fupc " on l and press □ then 
cress GREEN. 

"o get quickly to the "Set alarm call' screen from anyother part of 
me program hold down YELLOW F^EB and press ED. 

Note that if you are editing a document / worksheet when an alarm 
goes off" the message wiii not appear - you must press S to 
•ead the message. 

Secret Information 

^or step by step instructions read Section 1 . 

=or information that you might like to keep on your Notebook but 
do not wish others to access (for example; passport number, bank 
accounts and credit card details or private telephone numbers) we 
nave provided a "Secret Information" screen which can only be 
accessed by typing a password that you have set up. 


Set up your Password 

Hold down tr.iliJ and press £2^) you will see the following 


Type neu passuord (4 letters or digits) and press ♦* : III 

Type in any combination of four letters and/or numbers and press 
Ml. You can use capital or lower case letters. The password is 
totaiiy secure, so if you ever forget it you will not be able to access 
your information, you can only delete it so - DON'T FORGET YOUR 

You will be asked to confirm your password. Type exactly the same 
sequence again then press S. 

You can now type in your "secret information", you can edit the text 
in the same way as you edit a word processor document (although 
you cannot print), Press F"3 when you hove fin ished. Next time 
you want to refer to your secret information hold [ Fu " etion J and press 
G^J then type in your password. 

Complete Password Protection of your Notebook 

You can set a Password Lock to protect ail the information in your 
Notebook using your Secret Information Password. 

If you have not already done so set-up your password as described 
In "Set up your Password" above. 

Anyt ime y ou want to set the Password Lock hold down both ErD 
and tf J then press f^3 now you can switch off. When you next 

switch on you will be asked to enter the password: 


P lease enter possuord and press *J ! |j$! 

Before the Notebook can be used again the password must be 
correctly typed and the H key pressed. If you forget the password 
the Notebook must be completely reset losing ali data in it (below), 
There is no way round this, if there were it wouldn't be secure. 

Changing your Password 

To change the password enter the Secret Information by holding 
(hTTctk^j anc( passing E^l and typing your current password. Then 
press the f°-3 key: 

Please enter old password and press J I HI 

Type in your current password: 

Type neu password (4 letters or digits) and press J : fjHHH 

Type in your new password. When asked, type it again for 

Important: If you cannot remember your old password it is 
impossible to change the password or to access the Secret 
Information. It must be deleted as described below. 


If you forget your password 

The password protection on your Notebook Is totally secure, so if 
you forget your password you have no option but to erase your 
Secret Information or. if you have set the Password Lock, to erase 
ait your work held in the Notebook memory including documents, 
worksheets, diary entries, addresses etc as well as your Password by 
resetting the Notebook. This is just one more good reason why you 
should get into the habit of taking copies of your work on floppy 
disks. (The secret information itself, however, cannot be copied to 
disk or printed), 

Erasing your Secret Information and Password 

To erase the Secret Information: 

1 Hold down r" ncli °"l and press 

P lease enter passuord and press +J : B:H 

2 Hold down the l F " ro ""i key and press B. 

Press l 7 ^) to confirm that you do want to delete the information. 
All your Secret Information as well as your Password will be erased. 

Resetting Your Notebook 

Only do this if you have set a complete lock on the Notebook and 
then forgotten the password. This will erase all your work stored in 
the Notebook memory as well as your password. If you are using a 
memory card the addresses and documents stored on it will not be 
erased. You should also be abie to recover most data from a disk. 

Switch off your Notebook then hold down l Functio "l and E 
together with the F°J key on the right and switch on the computer. 

To prevent accidental reset you cannot use "sticky shift" (single key 

If the reset is effective you will hear an extended 'beep". If you 
have not held the keys down properly it will not reset. Try again. 


Using the floppy disk drive 

The simple use of the disk drive, to take copies of your documents, 
was described in Section 1 of the manual. The following summarises 
that information and is followed by some more advanced topics: 

To format floppy disks before use 

A brand new floppy disk must be formatted before it can be used, 
The Notebook formats its floppy disks in exactly the same way as 

used for 720K disks in MS-DOS running on on IBM PC compatible 

Note there is a second type of 3V2" disk used on PC computers. 
These are "High Density' disks and have 1 8 sectors per track instead 
of just 9. This means that their total storage capacity is 1,474,560 

characters (also known as 1.44MB). The Notebook cannot read or 
write this type of disk. High Density disks are usually identifiable by 
having an "HD" logo on the disk. They also have a hole punched 
through them in bottom right corner of the disk. 

You can also use the formatting process to completely erase 
everything that has previously been stored on a floppy disk. This can 
be quite useful to quickly remove all documents from a disk but you 
can also see that it could be quite dangerous - you might 
inadvertently erase hundreds of documents that you had stored on 
disk. Be careful when formatting disks - be sure that you are 
formatting the disk you intend to, 

To format a floppy disk: 

1) Switch to the list of stor ed doc uments. The quick way to do this 
is to hold down the Yellow t^'l^l key and press FT). 

2) Press 1^3 followed by CZj to select f » Formatting and 
export functions . . . 

3) Press EZ) to select F- Format disk. 

4) Press ED to confirm that you want to continue. Only do this when 
you are sure that the floppy disk in the drive does not contain any 
information you want to keep. There is no way to recover 
information from a disk that is formatted. The formatting process 
wipes it completely clean, 


To copy files from memory to the floppy disk 

1) Switch to the list of store d doc uments. The quick way to. do this 
is to hold down the Yellow fc^d key and press FT). 

2) Move the highlighting dark band over each file to be copied in 
turn and press the Space Bar on the keyboard. The file will be 
"marked". This is shown by the name being printed in bold text. 

3) Press the (HD key followed by F - ) to select the c - copy marked 
files to disk option. 

4) p ress (V) to confirm the operation. Note that files will overwrite 
any of the same name that already exist on the disk. 

To list the files contained on a disk 

1) Switch to the list of stored documents. The quick way to do this 
is to hold down the Yellow F- nc1i °"l key and press FT). 

2) Press IP3 followed by FH to select the l - List disk files 

3) The screen will list any files contained in the current directory on 
the disk (usually \ NOTEBOOK). The fop of the screen shows the free 
space on the disk, the current directory and the number of files 
actually listed in this directory - including the (PARENT) entry. 

To copy files from a floppy disk to memory 

With the list of disk files showing on screen proceed as follows: 

1) Move the highlighting dark band over each file to be copied in 
turn and press the Space Bar on the keyboard. The file will be 
"marked". This is shown by the name being printed in bold text, 

Remember that there may be a delay of a few seconds when you 
try to move the band if you haven't pressed a key for more than 
30 seconds. This is while the disk motor is being restarted. 

2) press F^ followed by F~) to select thee - copy marked files 
to memory Option, 

3) Press (U to confirm the operation. Note that files will overwrite 
any of the same name that already exist in memory. 


Copying Address Book and Diary entries to/from disk 

The information that you enter into your Address Book and into the 
Diary on the Notebook are stored together in two special files, 
When you look at the List of Stored Documents these flies are 
normally hidden from view. Once they are made visible the two 
files (with the names "ADDRESS BOOK" and "DIARY FILE") can be 
marked and copied to the disk just like any other word processor 
documents, To make the files visible proceed as follows: 

1} Return to the Main Screen of t he No tebook. The quick way to do 
this is to hold down the Yellow H 0110 ") key and press & 

2) At the Main Screen press the t'.'^i key to access the System 

Settings menu. . 

3) Use the Blue (33 key to move down to the entry called Document 
sizes and date display. 

4) Use either 6=3 or EPS to change this to Shown. 

5) Hold down the Yellow l F "" c,ion l key and press (S) to switch to the 
List of Stored Documents. 

All the documents you have created will have additional 
information next to their names. The size of the file and the date 
and time that it was last edited are shown. 

in addition, you may see two new entries in the list with the special 
BOOK entries may not exist if you have never used the Diary or 
Address Book functions within the Notebook. 

"hese two files can be marked with the Space Bar and copied to 
disk just like any other document file. However, unlike word 
orocessor document files, you cannot press M! while the file has 
-he dark band over it to try and edit it in the Word Processor. These 
•wo files hold their information in a special format that the Word 
Processor cannot allow you to edit. 

Notice, that while these special files are visible you can press G^S) 
and then use (/H to delete or F - 1 to rename them. If you delete 
•ne files you will wipe out your entire address book or all your diary 
entries in one operation. Obviously, you should be very careful with 
•nese files! 


Advanced idea: In fact, because you can rename the files, you 
could, in theory, keep several different address book or diary files. 
For each you would enter the information into the relevant section 
of the Notebook in the normal way. Switch to the List Stored 
Documents where the files could then be renamed so that you can 
create a different version alongside, Once complete, that second 
file could also be renamed. When you want to use a particular file 
for the address book or diary you would just have to rename it back 

When the two special files are copied to disk and you then list the 
files on disk, you will see that their names are changed to 
ADDRESSB.OOK and DIARYFILE. However, if the files on disk are 
marked and then copied back to memory you will find that they 
are renamed back to their original names of ADDRESS BOOK and 
DIARY FILE. This is the only instance in which names of files on disk 
are changed when they are copied back to memory. 

Quickly editing a Word Processor document from disk 

1) List the files on disk then move the dark highlighting band over 

the name of the file you wish to edit. 

2) Press 0. The file will be read from disk straight in to the editing 

section of the word processor. You can then work on the text. 

3) When you press EEi the amended file is stored in the memory of 
the Notebook, not on disk (the original remains there). If you want 
to update the disk version the document in memory must be 

copied back to the disk. 

Copying and editing Spreadsheet files / BASIC programs 

The way in which you copy worksheets produced in the 
spreadsheet and programs written in BASIC, to and from the disk is 
absolutely identical to the way that has already been described 
for word processor documents and the address and diary files. You 
can either do it from the List of Stored Worksheets or even from the 
List of Stored Documents. The only difference between the two is 
that if you list disk files, position the dark band over the name of a 
file on disk and press u=D, an attempt is made to load that file into 
the Word Processor if you started from the List of Stored Documents, 
while an attempt is made to load it into the spreadsheet if you 
started from the List of Stored Worksheets. 


Other disk functions 

in the List of Stored Documents press GH3 followed by PH. 

h - Export marked Fi Ie£ as ASCII 

H - Export marked Fi les as Words-tar 

The f - Format disk function has already been explained and 
the f - Format Memory card is explained elsewhere. The two 
entries of real interest are those to export as ASCII or export as 
Wordstar. These work in exactly the same way as the copy marked 
files to disk option that has already been described. However, 
during the copying process the word processor documents are 
converted from the internal "Protext" format used inside the 
Notebook to one of these more standard file formats. These are 
used when you are taking the text from the files for use in a different 
word processing program on another computer. 

ASCII files will contain only the plain text from the documents. All 
layout, codes, special text effects, etc are removed. This just 

produces the simplest text, that can probably be read into virtually 
any program on any computer. 

WordStar files retain some of the formatting information of the word 
processor documents such as layout, bold, italic, underline, etc. The 
WordStar format is very popular and most powerful word processing 
programs (such as Word for Windows and WordPerfect) can import 
this type of file. (Use the CONVERT program for WordPerfect), in 
each case, tell the WordProcessor that the file is WordStar 3,3 

These two options are described as "Export" functions, rather than 
iust copying functions because the process is only one-way. You 
can copy an internal "Protext" document to disk as either a 
WordStar or as an ASCII file but you cannot then copy it back and 
continue to edit it in the Notebook's Word Processor. In the case of 
WordStar files you will see all sorts of strange characters have 

You can, of course, copy ASCII files to the Notebook and then edit 

them in the Word Processor but any codes, layout, etc that they 
had before they were originally copied to disk will have been lost. 

Protecting disk information 

3V2" disks can be completely protected so that nothing can be 
written to them, nothing can be deleted from them and they can t 
be formatted. Just slide the small shutter in the bottom left corner 
of the disk (looking at the labelled side) so that the hole is open. To 
write enable the disk again just slide the shutter so it covers the hole 

The Notebook also lets you protect individual files on disk. Just list 
the files on disk. Place the dark bar oyer the file to be protected, 
hold down the E3 key then press 3. The asterisk that appears 
next to the name of the file shows that it has been set to 
"read-only". Repeat the process to set it back to normal. 

While a file is set to read-only any attempt to copy a new version 
to the disk on top of it or to delete the file will stop with the message 
"The file is read only". 

Extra functions for marking files 

While either the List of Documents in memory or thelist of files on 
disk is displayed you can hold down EB and press I ^ to mstantiy 

mark all files in one operation. Typically you would probably do this 
at the end of each day so that in just a few keypresses you can 
copy the entire contents of the Notebook memory to a floppy disk. 

Another useful key sequence when marking files is fcEJ f II This will 
invert the marked files so that all those that were marked before 
are no longer marked and all those that weren't marked will now 

be marked. 

Once files have been copied to floppy disk you will often want to 
delete the original copies from memory. Having marked several 
files you can press E3 S or B P3 to delete all the marked files 
in a single operation. 


Directories on disk 

Directories are only really of interest if you intend to use the floppy 
disks from the Notebook on an IBM PC compatible or some other 
type of computer that can read MS-DOS format disks. However, 
they do provide a means of keeping your files/documents in 
meaningful groups so you may find this of interest even if you don't 
intend using the disks on another computer, 

A directory is a sub-division of the storage space on a floppy disk. 
You can have lots of directories on a floppy and each can contain 
a virtually limitless number of individual files. You might have a 

directory called \ PERSONAL in which you store ail your persona! 
letters and another called \ BUSINESS in which you store your 
business letters, memos and faxes. All disks, when they are first 
formatted start with a single directory called the "root" directory 
(beause it is a bit like the root of a tree). 

On the Notebook a subdirectory called \ NOTEBOOK will also be 
created on the disk when it is formatted and any files you copy will 
be placed in this directory unless you arrange for them to go into 
a different directory as described below. 

The reason for having a \ NOTEBOOK directory instead of just 
copying all files to the root directory (referred to as just \) is that 
there is a limit to the number of files that could be copied to the 
root directory but a sub-directory such as \ NOTEBOOK can. in 
theory, contain a limitless number of files. In actual fact, the 720K 
size of the disk will be the only thing that limits how many files can 
be copied to it. 

When files are listed on disk you can "navigate" around the 
directories contained on the disk by pressing G=L) on the special 
(PARENT) entry to go back a level in the directory structure towards 
the root. You switch into a different directory by positioning the dark 
band on one of the entries that has <DIR> after its name and 
pressing 0. The files within that directory (and any sub-directories 
that it contains) are then listed. The top line of the screen will always 
show you the "current" directory. As you've seen this normally starts 
at \ NOTEBOOK. So to go up the directory tree towards the root you 
select (PARENT) and to go deeper down into the directory tree you 
use one of the <DIR> entries. 


When you have changed the current directory, if you press S to 

return to the List of documents/worksheets stored in memory and 
then mark and copy some of the files to disk they will be copied 
into the current directory, 

While disk files are listed, if you press E^3 you will see that there is 
an option n - Make New directory that can be used to make 

directories both from the "root" and to make subdirectories within 
an existing directory. 

if, for example, you currently have a disk that contains just four files 
called first, second, howspell and spell in the \ NOTEBOOK directory, 
when you press I^JFT) from the List of Stored Documents you will 
see that directory with those flies listed. The dark band will initially 
be positioned over the (PARENT) entry. Press the E key. The top 
line of the screen will show that the current directory is now "\" (the 
root) and this contains one entry - the \ NOTEBOOK directory. 

You could now press GS3 followed by B to make a new directory. 
When asked for the name type personal. You will then see it listed 
below the NOTEBOOK entry. If you now move the dark band over 
PERSONAL and press El it will become the current directory. You 
could go on to make a sub-directory within this directory caiied 
"letters" for example. Then switch to that. When you press B the 
last directory listed is the current directory and will be where any 
files you now copy are placed. 

Unlike MS-DOS you will find that the r - Rename entry on the Disk 
operations menu can be used to rename directories just as easily 
as it can be used to rename individual files on disk. 

Also, unlike MS-DOS, there isn't a special command to delete 
directories (RD). You just use the d - Delete entry to delete 
directories as well as files, however, if you try and delete a directory 
that contains any files or sub-directories you will see the message 
"The file is read only". You must delete ail entries from within a 
directory before the directory entry itself can be deleted. 


System Settings 

The system settings menu is accessed only from the m ain sc reen by 
pressing S. You can switch to the main screen with tr cli ^S. 

Changes you make to these settings don't just affect the current 
usage of the Notebook. These settings will be in force each time 
you come to use the Noptebook until you change them or the 
batteries ore disconnected for some reason. 

The factory settings are as follows: 

Use * * «• and ■*. S«e* to Finish 

Power oFF delay (tuns, 8=Never) 

Preserve context during power OFF 

Document sizes and dote display 

Dote Format 

Screen hock I ight .... 

Document Format < ser i a I /Lopcat ) 

Sticky shiPt keys? 

Time a ( sp I ay Pormot 

Rudible diary message warning 





(Not shown) 

Not shown 

(dd*'mp»/yy ) 
(Protext ) 





(24 hour) 

24 hour 



Automatic Power Off delay 

If you find the automatic power off time of 5 minutes is too long, 
reduce the time to between 1 and 4 minutes. You can also increase 
it if you wish. Use a value of if you want to prevent the Notebook 
from ever powering off automatically. Do not use (never) if you 
are running the Notebook from the batteries as this will prevent 
automatic power off occurring. 

Preserve Context 

If, when you switch on, you want your Notebook to return to the 
screen you were using when you switched off change this setting 
to Yes, Context is always preserved when automatic power off 

Document sizes and date display 

"-ese will show against the name of each document in the List 
;-ored Documents Worksheet screens. The size of each document 
: shown in bytes with the date and time you last edited the 


'-e U, C or L after a name is only of any Interest to you if you start 
■2 run out of memory and need to delete documents, delete those 


in the Lower memory (L) to make room when you are editing a 
large document. See the Troubleshooting section for more details. 

Date format 

Use this option to change the format of the date displayed when 
the date/time display is set to "Shown". The date format can either 
be day/month/year as used in the UK, month/date/year as used in 
the US or year/month/day as used in Japan. 


As described at the start of Section 2, this can be set to Auto, On 
or Off to determine how the back light behaves when the 
Notebook is switched on. Changing this option does not 
immediately switch the back light on or off, it only affects what 
happens subsequently when the Notebook is switched on. 

Document Transfer Format 

Use this to set whether the Lapcat (Parallel) transfer should send 
documents as Protext, WordStar or ASCII. A Lapcat cable and 
software is available from Arnor. Contact them for more details. This 
setting just mirrors the similar setting in the configuration menu of 
the Serial Terminal program. 

Sticky Shift keys 

To allow one-key operation of the Notebook switch 'sticky shift" on. 
where normally you would have to press two keys at the same time, 
this allows you to press one after the other. So, for example, to spell 
check a document when word processing you could first press the 
YELLOW ( ^"-"'H key then press U_J. 

Time display format 

To change the time display to the 12 hour clock use the G=3 & 
cursor keys. Note that this only affects the display of time. You mus - 
still use the 24 hour system when setting the time or alarms. 

Audible diary message warning 

When set to Yes a beep will be produced each time you return tc 
fhe Main Screen if there is an unread diary message today, 


Word Processing Guide 

For step by step Instructions for beginners read Section 1 . 

Detailed instructions on how to use your word processor are given 
in this section. 

Starting a New Document 

You have to type a name for every document before you start, the 
name can consist of up to any 12 characters, the document is 

stored under this name and you can not have two documents with 
the same name. 

At the main screen hold down YELLOW and press RED to reach the 

main Word Processing screen then press RED. 

Type in a name for your document; 

Choose a name that will remind you of the contents of the 
document so that you can easily identify it later. 

Any 12 characters can be used, if you make a typing error use H 
or E then retype. Press ED when you have finished. 

End of text line 

This text will disappear as soon as you start to type 

You can now start typing just as you would on a fresh sheet of paper 
in a typewriter. 

Saving a Document 

Documents are saved ("stored") automatically when you press EEL 
If you have a memory card loaded the document will 

automatically be stored on the card. 

A document already stored in the Notebook memory can be 
moved to the memory card as follows: 


1 Switch the Notebook off. 

2 Insert the Memory Card, carefully but firmly into the Memory 
Card Slot on the left side of the Notebook. 


3 Switch the Notebook on. 

4 "Edit" the document you want to store on the card (that is, bring 
the document to the screen): 

Hold YELLOW and press RED at the main screen. 
Press GREEN at the Word processor menu. 

Use the S PD LTD LT] keys to highlight the name of the 

document then press Gil 

With the document on the screen press fa. 

The document is now stored on your Memory Card and has been 
removed from the Notebook memory. 

To copy documents from a card into the Notebook memory set the 
'write protect" switch on the card to on, edit the document then 
press b~:. An attempt will be made to write the document to the 
card but this will fail, You are warned that the card is write 
protected. When you press Q again the document is stored in the 
Notebook's own memory. 

Details of how to copy word processor documents to disk are given 
in Section 1 of the manual. More details were also given earlier in 

"Using the floppy disk drive". 


targe Documents 

The size of any single document Is limited to about 38,000 
characters. This is a limitation of the Notebook's design and cannot 
be increased by using a memory card. Adding a memory card will, 
however, let you store many more documents in memory. 

When you start to run out of memory you will see a warning 
message on screen, copy any old documents that you wish to keep 
to a floppy disk then delete old documents and diary entries to 
increase the "free memory" space. 

To show how many bytes of memory you have available, and how 

many bytes each document uses you must show "Document sizes 
and date display" using the System Settings menu (see "System 

When document sizes are being shown a letter U, L or C appears 
next to each name to show if it is in the Upper memory, lower 
memory or on the card. It is the lower memory area that is used 
when a document is actually being edited so it is best if you can 
clear space by copying to disk and then deleting documents with 
an L shown next to their name. 

Deleting a Document 

Oeiete documents if your Notebook after copying them to disk 
when the memory becomes too full, or if you want to remove a 

confidential document from memory. Delete a document as 

Hold down YELLOW and press ['J. 


Select the name of the document you want to delete using the 

m m m id keys. 

3 Press E^3. 


4 Press 


Fin? you sure you ixint to delete docuwnt 'xnxxxxxiootxx ' ? 
Press 1 For Yes, N For Ho !. 

5 Press O to delete the document. 

To delete more than one document you could repeat the process 
but a quicker way is to use the Space bar to "mark" each file in the 
list that jsto be deleted (Its name is shown in bold type). Then hold 
down b~3 and press one of the pfcil keys. You will be asked to 
confirm that you want to delete all marked files. 

Once deleted, documents cannot be recovered, so make sure you 
do not delete the wrong documents! (It is always wise to copy 
precious documents to a floppy disk before deleting). 

Renaming a document 

You can give one of the document a different name at the LIST 
STORED DOCUMENTS screen, Select the name of the document 
you want to change then press EH). Select Rename by typing 

you will see the following message: 

Old name is First 

Enter neu name: 1^::^ 

: ; m 

Type In the new name and press 


Copying a document 

With the document on the screen press P^L then press Fl to 
copy the document, you will see the following message: 



Copy : ente 

no«* For docum«rit : 

Type in a new name for the copy then press O. You will be 
eturned to your original document and the copy is stored. The 
copy can be edited in the same way as any other document. 

There are several reasons you might have for wanting to copy a 

document, one example might be that you have typed a letter, 
-nen want to send a similar letter to someone else but you do not 
A/ant to re-type it and you want to keep the original stored in your 
Notebook. Alternatively, if you are about to make major changes 
•o a document you may like to take a copy that you can revert to 
' anything goes wrong.) 

Typing a Document 

f you have not used a word processor before you need to get used 
*o the feel of the keys, as weii as learn what all the keys do. When 
-yping a light touch is required, if you hold a key down for too long 
* will be repeated on the screen until you release it. 



The cursor is the "flashing oblong" that marks your position on the 
screen, as you type the cursor will move ahead. When revising a 
document you can move the cursor using the S=3 E=*) Ti] Ql] 

Hold down one of the SHIFT keys then press a character key to type 
the upper case letter or symbol, the upper case symbols are printed 
on the top half of the key. 

Press to switch to typing all capital letters, y ou stil l have to use SHIFT 
to type the upper case symbols. Press I "" L °"l again to switch 
capitals off. When the caps lock is on a "C" shows in the top right 
hand corner of the screen, in the spreadsheet it shows as "c". 

Press twice when you want to start a new paragraph. Use to start 
a new line when typing (for example) a list. 


Use to delete text, if you want to delete more than a few characters 
you should use one of the other delete methods described below. 

Use to align text into columns and to indent the first line of a 
paragraph. (To indent a whole paragraph requires a different 
procedure - see later section on Aligning text using Ruler Lines.) 


How Not to Type: 

If you have used a typewriter before but not used a word 
processor it is important that you remember: 

Not to press 13 at the end of each line, only when you start a 
new paragraph, The text automatically wraps to the next line as 
you type. 

Not to use the spacebar to move the cursor or to indent or align 
text. Only use the spacebar to insert a space between words. 
Instructions for indenting and aligning using tabs and rulers are 
given later in this manual. 

Page size 

As you type the line will move down the screen, when you have 
Typed a page of text a "page break" bar appears on the screen 
showing where the page will finish when printed, the word 
orocessor is set to print on paper with 66 lines but this can be 
changed using the "Layout" menu (if you want to do this refer to 
tie chapter on Page Layout). 

Correcting typing errors 

' you make mistakes while typing you can use the B Q keys to 
delete single characters, or hold down one of the keys to delete 
several characters. There are other ways of deleting a line of text 
or a large section (called a "block") of text, these are described 

Moving around a Document 

Moving around a document really means moving the cursor 
around. Using the S^j F^l HD ® keys on their own will always work, 
out you may find this a bit slow especially in larger documents. The 
•allowing methods will move the cursor around quickly. 


page at a time forwards 
or backwards 

word at a time 

to the start of a line 
to the end of a line 
a screen at a time 

Hold down EE3 and press El to 
go back or ED to go forwards 
(you don't have to remember this 
just refer to the Template on the 



and press 


to move to the beginning of the 
previous or next word. 

Hold E:3 and press 6=1 

Hold EE3 and press SI, 

Hold down EE3 press Cfi to go up 
or HE to go down the document 
14 lines, there is an overlap of 

one line that enables you to scan 
through a document using the 
minimum of keystrokes, 

to the start of the document - Hold down EE3 and press O. 

to the end of the document - Hold down E3 and press GT1. 

Inserting Text 

To insert new text into existing text just position the cursor and type, 
the existing text will move along to make room. You must have the 
"Insert" mode ON when you do this, otherwise the old text will be 
deleted as you type. Hold down the Elf) key and press (5 J to 
switch "Insert" on or off (you don't have to remember this just refer 
to the Template on your Notebook). 

Typing over existing text 

To type over existing text first hold EB and press GQ to switch 
Insert off then position the cursor over the text you want to replace 
and type, The old text erases as you type. Remember to switch 
Insert back on when you have finished, 

Deleting Text in a Document 

The delete keys (""") and uiz will always delete text, if you press the 
key one character will be deleted, if you hold down the key 


deleting will continue until you release it. However there are other 
ways to delete large sections of text as described below: 

Delete a word - Hold down t J and press B or 3. 

Delete a line - Hold down E3 and press B or S to 

delete ail text from the cursor position to 

the end or beginning of the line or hold 
down EE3 and press CL_ to delete the 
whole line. (Refer to the Template if you 
forget which keys to use.) 

Delete all text in Hold down l^' 1 " 1 ""! and press Q. 

rhe document - 

Undeleting words, lines and blocks 

deleted text can be restored if you used the E3 or f x " ) keys to 
delete the text, not If you just used the R FE3 keys on their own. 

"ie text is restored to the cursor position, so you can use the 
.ndelete function to move text around within the document. 

"o undelete hold down £™~) and press (E3. 

*'->ere is a limit of 1024 characters that can be recovered in this way. 

jndeiete is also available in the "Editing menu".) 


■ du can change the case of the text (that is, from capitals to small 
^ters or from small to capitals) without re-typing the words. 

-old down EEB and press O to change a small (lower case) letter 
-♦o a capital (UPPER CASE) letter. 

-old down E3 and press - ) to change a capital to a small letter. 

• sep the keys pressed down to change more than one letter. 


Swapping Characters 

A common typing error is to type two characters in the wrong order 
for example 'wrod" instead of "word". To correct this error quickly 
use the swap characters command. Position the cursor on the Y of 
wrod then hold Ez3 and press Q. 

Formatting text 

If you have justification and word wrap switched on you will notice 

that as you type words are moved to the following line and spaces 

are inserted so that the text is laid out correctly. 

If after changing layouts or inserting text you find paragraphs that 
are not correctly laid out, move the cursor anywhere within the 
paragraph and hold down the b~EB key then press Z. J. 

To make sure the whole document is correctly formatted press the 
S key followed by ['. . to select Text formatting and then O to 
select Format text. 

Centring text 

To centre text on a line use the 'Centre" command. Type the text 

to be centred then, with the cursor positioned anywhere on the line 
hold down E3 and press SU. 

Centred text 

If you make a change to the text later use the same command 

again to re-centre it. 

Accented and special characters 

The most commonly used European accents can be typed into 
your Notebook documents in the following way. 

Hold down EE3 then press the key indicated on the table below for 
the accent you want, release both keys and then type the letter 



hat you want to be accented. You will not see the accent on 

creen until you have typed the letter. 


Keys Valid letters* 


Q& 1 














Vote that only the accented letters that are included in the "Special 
Characters" menu can be typed. 

-e following common language symbols are available using the 
eys shown: 


e=t^ jh 






i- i n ii m -j 






F=sp- ~ir-; 













v 2 


>pecial Characters 

-i of the above, and many more symbols, are available in the 
oecial Characters menu, (Also refer to the chapter on Macros to 
ee how you can assign any of these to a key of your choice), 

- variety of characters other than those printed on the keyboard 
available to insert into your documents. 


Hold down the E3 key and press S to see all the characters 


■ M 

# fl B 

v □ b 

P U e 

a i 6 

>- J- t- 

o o r 

• ♦ • 4 

?* x 
D E 

2 4 £ 
a q a 

U R N 

'-•? + 

it E a 

f 1 1 m * s 1 1 ■ i ; * ♦ 

* + , - , / 123456789 i 
! k Imnopqrstuvwxuzj. 

----- 'J o U V z. 



= > ? 
] * _ 
> * 

<-rt+ to move 
J to insert 
Stop to ex 1 1 

Use the S^ E=sJ CT; 1— fl keys to highlight the character you want to 

use and then press (Hi 

(These characters can also be inserted into address book or diary 
if stored as macros first - refer to the chapter on Macros). 

Note: Whether these characters are actually printed on your printer 
Is dependent on which printer you use and how it is set up. 

Drawing Boxes 

Horizontal lines, vertical lines and "corners" can be drawn on screen 
and used to "box" text. 

Using single box line characters 

To draw single line boxes hold down the E3 key and use the 

t-^| Q'.'. CD keys to draw the box. To draw the corners just "drive 
around the corner of the box with the cursor. 

Double line Boxes 

To switch double lines on of off hold down the B and (' 

together and press FH then continue as you would for single 

ro insert text into a box you have drawn switch Insert Off. 

<\s well as the single and double box line characters you can have 
ooxes drawn using a character of your own choice. Hold down E3 
2nd P 7 _D and press FH. You will then be asked to type the 
character to be used. 

Fo switch back to using the previous line box characters press 
■T_D(SJ . 

fo print < — > i t characters on the screen hold down E3 CI 
^ress [' 3 then hold down FB and press RiSoiB, 

Mote that the boxes will only print correctly if the printer and 
Notebook are set up correctly before starting to print. 

Viewing Codes 

Codes" are used to control the special features of a printer, such 
as underlining, different sizes and styles of print, subscripts and 

iuperscripts. How to insert these codes is explained in the section 
Changing text appearance". You have a choice when working in 
a document whether you see the codes or not. 

"urn the displayof codes on or off by holding down the EIE3 key 
and pressing OH. 

,Vhen codes are off your Notebook shows underlined, italic and 
oold text on the screen but features like subscript or condensed 
arint cannot be shown. 

Remove codes by showing them on screen then deleting them as 
/ou would any other character. 

Codes Off 

F:ne 1 

and enlarged 

Codes On 


Viewing returns, tabs, ruler lines and spaces 

The non-printing characters can all be switched "on or off" on the 
screen. Hold down S and press EJ then type one of the 

following letters: 


status line on/off 

spaces on/off 

ruler lines on/off 
f T ~l tabs and returns on/off 
□ codes on/off 

Inserting the Current Date or Time into a 

With the cursor at the position you want the date to be inserted 
hold down the EE3 key and press P 1 to insert the current date or 
hold down S and press C J to insert the current time. 

Inserting an Address from your Address Book 
into a Document 

To insert an address from your address book into the document you 

are typing first position the cursor on the line whereyou want the 
address to appear. Then hold down YELLOW fc^l and press 
PH, this will take you directly to the address book: 

MoS i le Te I 

: Brian Layer . , _ . t . 
;Thff Essex Brick Co Ltd 
iO Id Ki In Works 
:Ch.l<".*egrd 7DY 

;8245 442277 
:054S 123456 

245 789 
863 48S 

__ ._- . ._ Jress 
<E )d it Address 
(F ) ind Oddr-ess 
(B >e I ete address 
CPJrmt Addresses 
(*■ I Browse C-e ) . 
press 5-twp- toexit 

Use SE P§! or "Find" to find the address you want to insert then press 
CLj to "Transfer". The name, address, telephone numbers and 
memo will then be inserted into the document at the leftmargin. 
Use B GT; to delete the lines you don't want. Use Lr^ — ) to 

position the address lines across to the right if required. 


Inserting one document into another 

JVIth the document on the screen, position the cursor where you 
•//ant the second document to be inserted hold down t^fi'^l and 
oress GZj. Highlight the name of the document you want to insert 
then press the E^3 key followed by r~3. This could be used for 
nserting standard paragraphs. 

Moving, copying and deleting blocks of text 

3efore you can move, copy or delete a block of text you must first 
-nark the block. (The block editing commands are given on the 

Marking a block 

- rst mark the start of the bl ock by positioning the cursor on the first 
:naracter then hold down l p-,nc, H and press HJ, mark the end of 
■ne block in the same way. 

*o quickly move to the start or end of a block hold down Ez3 and 
-'ess Ed then press B or O.) 

• there are codes in your document for bold or underlining etc, 
•-ese will show on screen as you mark the block. This is to help 
.: -event you leaving the codes behind when you move, copy or 
:elete a block. 

Move block 

■st mark the block as described above then position the cursor 
•.nere you want the block to be inserted and hold down l F .-_^J 
:nd press Q. The block will move from the old position to the new, 

Copy block 

-st mark the block as described above then position the cursor 
. -iere you want the block to be repeated and hold down l F " neii H 
:~-d press UD. The text will be copied. 

Store a block as a separate document 

-Dring a block as a separate document allows you to insert that 
: ock into other documents (as described above). 


First mark the block as described above then press H. Press I ■ , 
(to "Copy block or document") you will see the following message: 

Jr»St"ie ." 


Copy: enttr riOW 1 for document: 


C - Copy b lock or document 
P - Pr int to Screen 
B - Pr ir.t B lock 

Type in a name for your block then press LdJ, you are returned to 
the document and your block is now stored. 

Delete block 

First mark the block as described above then hold down r imclic "l 

then press B (refer to the Template). 
Undelete block 

To restore a deleted block position the cursor where you want the 
block and hold down EF3 and press E3. 

To unmark a block 

When you have finished working with a block hold down E3 and 
press CD. This clears the square bracket codes and the 
highlighting from the screen. You cannot mark another block 
before you have unmarked the first. 

Changing text appearance (bold, italic, etc.) 


To change text to italic use the "Italic" command. Position the 

cursor at the beajnning of the text to be italicised and hold down 
E3 and press Ls. then repeat this at the end of thetext. If yoo 
want the word to be italic as you type hold down rB and press 
G>1 before you start typing then do the same again when you have 

The text will show as italic on screen only if Codes are OFF, If Codes 
are ON you will see two highlighted letter "i"s in the textjjthese are 
the Italic "Codes'. To turn Codes on or off hold down Ejjjj?L 3 anc 
press 2ZL 


Cancel Italics 

To cancel the italics command you must delete the italic "codes". 
To do t his the codes must be showing on screen, if they are not hold 
down t^ c, H and press SD. Delete the highlighted "i"s by 
positioning the cursor on them and pressing 6. 

(Note that whether italics appear in the printed document will 
depend on the printer you are using and how you have set up the 
printer and Notebook before printing.) 


To embolden text position the cursor at the beginning of the text to 
oe bold then hold down Ei"H and press \ED, do the same at the end 
of the text. If you want text to be bold as you type hold down E3 
and press SZ then start typing, when you have finished hold down 
"3 and press (VJ again. 

"he text will show as bold on screen or you will see two highlighted 
etter "b"s in the text; these are th e bold "codes". To turn these 
;odes on or off hold down b ,rc . , . icn l and press SZ). 

Cancel Bold 

"d cancel the bold command you must delete the bold "codes", to 
^o this the c odes must be showing on screen, if they are not hold 
-own l Fjrc1i ""l and press (T~). Delete the highlighted "b"s by 
positioning the cursor on them and pressing P~l. 

Note that whether bold appears in the printed document will 
aepend on the printer you are using and how you have set up the 
z 'inter and Notebook before printing.) 


': underline text position the cursor where you want underlining to 
•art then hold down EE3 then press O, repeat this where 
.nderlining is to stop. If you want to underline the words as you 
-.qe hold down Eirj and press ED before you start typing then hold 
3 and press O again when you have finished. 

Note that whether underlining appears in the printed document 
.-.ill depend on the printer you are using and how you have set up 
-e printer and Notebook before printing.) 


Other effects availble in Notebook's style menu 

The Notebook will print your documents with 10 characters per inch 
(also known as 'Pica") but there are other options available in the 
Style menu. 

Whether the changes you have made appear on the printed 
document will depend on the printer you are using and how you 
have set up the printer and Notebook before printing. 

How to change the character size or style 

1 Position the cursor at the beginning of the text you want to 


2 Press the O key. 

^» sty le \^^^^^^^^^^^ 

T * Text Forma tt ing . . . 

H - Create Header 

F — Create Footer 

M - Macro record start/end 

D - Display macros , 

Copy block or document 

P = 

Pr ir*t to Screen 
B - Pr int B look 

Now select the Style menu by pressing (Tl or by using the 
£y+] (T] ED keys then pressing 0. 

I - Jtal ic 

L - EnLarged 
P - Proper t lona I 
Q - G>ua I i ty 
S - Subscr ipt 
T - Superscr ipT 
U - Under I ine 

4 Select the style you want using the (cursor) keys and press 
or by typing the letter to the left of the option. 

(Note that some combinations of styles will not print together.) 

5 A code will be inserted into the document. 

Pnrwol Report 


The code should also be inserted where you want the style to finish. 
Position the cursor then repeat the above procedure. You should 
end up with something similar to the following: 

Iflnnuol ReporH 

Place markers 

/ou can insert "place markers" into a document in order to get 
quickly to a particular place. You can have up to 10 individual 
markers or a limitless number of multiple markers. 

nsert markers into the document by holding down r° i and 
oressing Q and then typing either a number from to 9 for 
ndividual markers or a ? for a multiple marker. (A message appears 
on the status line showing which characters can be used,) 

.,se the same command when you want to go to a particular place 
marker, to a block marker or to the Left or Right margins of the text. 

"o go to the next marker of any type hold down EzB and t ) and 

Dress S3. To go to a previous marker press (JD . 

Special formatting characters 

"nere are several special characters that you can Insert into the 
•ext of your document to control the way in which it is formatted, 
"he special characters are as follows - soft hyphen, non break 

hard") hyphen and non-break ("hard") space. 

ou put a soft hyphen in the middle of a word where you would 
■ ot mind it being broken and hyphenated if it had to be split across 
— e end of a line. Without a soft hyphen the whole word would just 
:.e word wrapped onto the following, line. You type a soft hyphen 
: v holding down E3 and pressing rJ. It Is shown on screen as an 
-verse hyphen. 

- non break space is typed by pressing SEE3G3 followed by the 
oace bar. It has the special property that it will always be kept 
;gether with the characters before and after it as if the two 


separated words were just a single word. This is useful in the case 
of peoples names where you want to keep their initials with their 
surname. Mr. C J Lawson might be broken if it occurred at the end 
of a line, But by typing the spaces between "." and "C", "C" and "J" 
and "J" and "L" as hard spaces the whole thing will behave as a 
single word. 

Similarly, a non-break Chard') hyphen is used when you wish to type 

a hyphenated word but do not want it to breakacross the end of 
a line. You type a hard hyphen by pressing SO followed by I- ^ 

The word processor menus 

There are various menus of word processing functions that can be 
accessed by pressing the S key when a document is on the 


5 * Style TTi , 

T » Text Formattmg . . . 

H - Create Heater 

F - Create Foottr . 

11 - Macro record start/end 

D - Disp lay macros 

C - Copy blook or document 

P - Pr int to Screen 

B - Pr int B lock 

Some of the options have an immediate effect when selected, 
others require additional actions. 

There are quick-key alternatives to some of options that are 
available in the Editing and Text formatting menus and these are 

shown in the menus: 


[TJrf'n "Cxrl-G J 

? = ?f 

_ . poye/co I umr> 
Count words ,n ,EJ P k „ » 
C !ear markers. (Ctrl— H, J , 
Undelete block (Ctrl-H! 

View user dictionary 

Remove word From user dictionary 

" te ($**-») 
me tSym-i ; 

The quick-key alternatives all require two or three keys to be held 
down an once, so for example (Ctrl-K) means hold down the t'"' 
key while you press €*\. "Ctrl" and "Sym" are abbreviations fo- 
"Control" and "Symbol". 

To get out of a menu at any time press F*- until you return to you* 


or instructions on how to use particular options refer to the relevant 
hapters in this book, 

ist of Documents 

old down l rurc " °"i and press GZ; to quickly access the List Stored 
ocuments screen while you are editing a document. To rename, 
elete, insert, print or edit a nothe r file press t~Z3 then select the 
otion you want. Hold down F^j and press the Red O key to 
rturn to the document you were editing. 

; get to the List Stored Docum ents sc reen from other parts of the 
otebook program hold down l Funo1io "l and press FT). 

ote that the list of stored documents will only show a maximum of 
-3 files/documents, ff you have more, only the first 248 will be listed 
~d the number of documents at the top right will show "248+'. 

leaders and Footers and Page Numbering 

•?aders and Footers are lines of text which print at the top and 

:ftom of each page within the header and footer margins. A 
ige number can be inserted that will automatically increment. 

■e commands to insert headers and footers are "Stored 
:>mmands" and for more information on stored commands refer 

• *he section later in this manual. 

eaders and Footers 

-e header prints at the top of the page within the header margin, 
/ou want more than 3 lines of header you will have to change 
■a "header margin" (refer to the section on page layout), The 

rader will print on the top of the header margin, a footer will print 

• *he bottom of the footer margin. 

^serting header or footer text: 

With the cursor positioned on the first line of your document 
press the fJH£) key. Then press either ED for header or ( r J for 

The header command is inserted into the document and you 
can now type the text that you want to appear in the header 
or footer, eg: 



M€ flnnucil Report 

3 lf_ypu want to centre the text you can do so by holding down 
B and pressing CD. Note that the > must be in column 1 (on 
the extreme left of the screen) for a header or footer to work. 

)HE Annual Report 

Differing header and footer text on odd and even numbered 
pages can be included using some of the advanced Stored 
commands. Refer to the section on stored commands for more 

Page Numbering 

Page numbers will automatically be inserted where you type a 
percent (%) symbol in a header or footer. Page numbering will start 
at 1 but you can change this using the PN command, refer to the 
section on stored commands for details. 

The Go To Command 

This is a useful command if you have a long document. You can 
go directly to a specific line, column or page number. If you want 
to see line and col umn nu mbers you will need to switch the "Status' 
line on by pressing b""^ O . 

Hold down EE3 key and press (E.D. 

mis is the F irst t ime i have ever used a computer 

this is the second line of the Pirst document i have ever uritten on o 


Type in the letter p, 1 or c then the number, for example to go to 
page 2 type: p2. 



The line number you can give as a destination is the number 
counting right from the very start of the document. Normally, the 

ine numbers shown on the screen are only shown from the last 
oage break. To switch to displaying "absolute" line numbers hold 
down EE3 and f H then press N, 

T he Go To command is also available at the Editing Menu. . '. n 

Status Line 

"ne line across the top of the screen when you are typing a 
document is called the status line. Your Notebook has two types of 
status line, a simple one for beginners and a more detailed one for 
advanced users. 

Hold down [ Functlon l and press S3 to switch on the status line, 

Line Column Right Justified Wordwrap 

1 A 

i seen to be getting good at this nou 
hove noticed there ore no rap i to I letters in 
•w I am getting quite good on this Notebookl 




C (Caps Lock on) R (Recording Macro) 

.Vord wrpjD and right justification can be switched on or off at the 
,-cti.^j (* _ menu, insert mode can be switched using E3 SD. 

Page break 

3 age breaks will automatically occur at the position determined by 
-*e page layout. If you want to force a page break before this 
-old down EEB and press i 5- ^. The page break stored command 
.vill be inserted into the document: 

c or irare information see the Following page, 


Page Layout 

The way your Notebook "lays out" the text on the paper can be 

altered by changing the "Layout" menu and inserting Ruler Lines. 

The illustration below shows how the margins and ruler lines affect 
the page layout. 

Page Length 


66 Lines 


5 Spaces 

J Top Margin (TM) 3 Lines 

$ Header Margin <HM) 2 Lines 'Header text' 

^ Footer Margin (f M) 2 Lines 'Footer text - 


Bottom Margin (BM) 3 Lines 





The text is printed immediately to the right of the side margin. To 
centralise the text on the page the R on the ruler line must be 

correctly positioned. 

To indent a paragraph insert a ruler line (see below) with an L where 
the text is to start. 


■ " r .■:"■: ,'.:.;■■■: ,- K * ■■■«■■-.■::«.■■■ - i ?:?% \ ■- ■ -■'■■•■- 

Layout Menu 

jse the Layout menu to alt er the margins that will appear on the 
orinted page; hold down fr-™" 10 "! and press HJ: 

■aiw^BflmilllM Overt ype or *■ •» to change, t + to move.. Stop to Finish^ 

Page length (lines) J&&1 |6jl; 

Top marg i n ( I i nes J Jo J;;;:;!!!; 

Header mar-gin Mines) \£\ &*sj; 

footer margin Mines) i^J £;;!:;* 

Bottom margin (lines) Jgj SgiSi! 

3 i de marg i n. C chars ) \ 3 { «&*: 

_ i ne spac i n g C I ines) I i J )■ 

, se (T] or H to select the margin or other value you want to 
;nange, delete the current value using F2J then type in your new 
. alue and press , change line spacing u sing fc3 & ,when 
. ou have completed all the changes press B to return to the 

editing screen. 

Page Dimensions 

'ne settings in this menu govern the length of the page on your 
•.otebook screen and should be compatible with the paper you 
,.ant to print on, if the settings are wrong the document may not 
:'int onto paper in the correct position, 

=>age Length: This is expressed as the number of 

lines on the page, there are 6 
lines to an inch, so, for example, 
A4 paper has 70 lines. 

"op and Bottom Margins: The blank areas at the top and 

bottom of each page. You may 
want to adjust these if, for 
example, you are using headed 
notepaper and need to increase 
the top margin so printing starts 
further down the page. 

- is important to note that many printers are physically unable to 
Ddnt on the top and bottom few lines of a single sheet of paper 
-nd you must allow for this. For example, if your printer cannot print 
-n the top inch of paper, make the top margin at least 6 lines. 


Header and Footer Margins: The header and footer margins 

are ignored if there is no header 
or footer text to print, if you have 
inserted a header or footer make 
sure you allow enough margin for 

Aligning Text using "Ruler Lines" 

Ruler Lines enable you to align the text in different ways, foi 
example if you want to indent a paragraph (on the left or right) 01 

type a table of figures, create a Ruler Line setting left or right indents 
and tab positions where you want them. 

All the text after the ruler line will conform to it. 

Inserting a Ruler Line 

To insert a Ruler Line into a document simply type a 'greater than' 
symbol (>) at the start of a new line, type an T" where you wanl 
an indented left margin, exclamation marks (!) for tab positions anc 
an "R" where you want the line to finish. Use hyphens between th€ 
symbols, this is not essential but it does make the ruler line easy tc 
pick out on the screen, Ail the text after the ruler line will conforrr 
to the new format that it defines, until another ruler line is inserted 

The following is a typical example of using a ruler line: 

The line above shous the default ruler setting yjth a 78 character 
uide column end three tabs set at the start ot the line, 
) L "" R 

The line above is a ruler line and has defined 
uhere the right and left nargire of this text 

The ruler line display has been switched on fjEB+Tl D) and fc 
currently showing the default ruler line which is used when you star 
a new document. This applies to the first two lines of text but the 
third line of the document defines a new ruler and the remaining 
lines conform to that new layout. In this case it has definec 
indented left and right margins. Although you type ruler lines intc 
your document just like any other line, they are not printed - this i 
true of any line that has a ">" character in column one. See als< 
the description of "Stored commands" later in the manual. 


*>en you start a neu document there is already a standard ruler line 
set up like the one above, this uill not be visible unless you change 
'Shou Ruler" to YES in the Configure menu. Ruler lines are not 

) l ! ! IV 

!■* This paragraph is indented on both sides. Text can be 

* inserted to the left of the margin to enable you to number 

* the paragraph. »J 

* la J* Position the cursor on the outside margin using the 
•» cursor keys then press the tab key. type the number then 

* * press tafc and stort typing the paragraph.* 1 

* fb)-» Always use tabs to align text - they make re-olignment 

* ■* easier uhen you »ake any changes and ore essential For 

* -» typing tables, for example:* 4 

) — — L ! ! ! (W 

* ■» Baguette+Sanduich+Rol I*" 

* Cottage Chees** 1.3JH 1.1 J* B.»J 

* Provencal* 1.3C+ 1,10+ 8.90*J 
+ Bacon & Qvocado+ t,W+ 1,30+ l.UM 


Uhen you uont to revert to using the standard ruler line hold doun the 
:ControlJ key and type "d". The standard ruler line is inserted,-- 1 

As shown by the above, various parts of your document can be set 
:ut under different rulers so each part has its own format. At any 
•me, while editing, you can hold down l"'~] and press [°~ 1 which 
.•/ill insert the "default" ruler - that is, a ruler identical to the one that 
: normally in force before you enter any new ruler line. Also, you 
-an use F^Q to insert a new ruler which is a copy of the ruler 
-~at was used above the current ruler. You might use this when you 
•.ant a paragraph or two laid out in an unusual format and then 
.sish to instantly switch back to the ruler that was in use preceeding 

->ese functions are also available in the text formatting menu. 

Deleting or Editing a Ruler Line 

-e Ruler Lines that you insert can be deleted or edited in the same 
,ay as all the other text. Move or insert more tab positions at any 
~ie by inserting and deleting exclamation marks. 

JsJng Tabs 

-* tab positions on your ru ler line by typing exclamation marks (!) 
en use the tab key d*— I ) to move from one column to the next. 


When using tabs it makes work a lot easier If y ou 
characters on screen, to do this hold down l Fun ^3 
to get into the Configure menu; 

show the tab 

and press KZ 


Overtype or * ♦ to obanse. * *■ to ims», IW to Finish 

Insert on/ 

Word wrop 

R i ght Just 

Decimal ch 

Key repeat 

Key repeat 

Cursor F I a 

Show pr i nt 

Shou spooe. 

Shou tabs and returns? 

S iou statu 

Shou ru I er 


oar act er 

startup delay (IBCth 

Cer i od ( laoth secsj 
period HBllth sees) 

inFormat I on? 

Move the cursor down to show tabs and returns then use the 
left or right cursor to switch to Yes then press $r.. 

Cottage Cheese-* 
Provenco 1+ 
Bacon S Avocado* 




Decimal Tabs 

To automatically align figures at the decimal point, insert a decimal 
tab position on a ruler line using a full stop (.), for example: 

Cottage Cheese* 
Provenoo I* 
Bacon .5 Rvocaato* 


1.10* 0.90J 
1,50* 0.90J 
1 ,30* 1 . 18J 

Right Align Tab 

If you don't type in a decimal point at a decimal tab the text will 

be "right aligned". To align text against the right margin use the tab 
key to position the cursor at the end of the line then type and press 
return, for example: 

Cottage cheese* 
Provenca I* 
Bacon & Avocado* 

1 ,30* 

.10* I 

,10+ 1 





Find and Replace ^3 tf 

When you want to find a particular word, or piece of text within a 
document you can use Find. To find the word or text and replace 
it with different text use Replace. 

To use "Find" hold down l Fone " on l and press ED, type in the word or 
text to find and press EC. To find and "Replace" hold down l Fjr °' io "l 
and press M, type in the text to find press EC type the 
'eplacement text and press Ed. 

T he following characters and the printer control codes cannot Pe 
entered directly into the text to find or replace but you can enter 
mem using an exclamation mark as follows: 

Printer control code 


question mark 


exclamation mark 


. vO 

hard return 



soft hyphen 


non-break hyphen 


non-break space 


search for specified code 



Wildcards - a question mark (?) can be used to represent any single 
:naracter except for a J and you can use an unlimited number 
:f wildcards. So, for example, to find all the occurrences of 

•ecognize" and "recognise" you should type in "recogni?e" as the 
•ext to find. 

.'/hen you have entered the text you can press return for a simple 
search forwards from the current cursor position to the first 
occurrence, ignoring the case of letters and finding the text even 
' it occurs as part of a longer word and asking for confirmation 
oefore replacing a piece of text. 

•ou can select one or more of the search options, The options are: 

5 - global: Search the whole document from the start 

regardless of where the cursor was when 
selecting "Find". 

C - match case: Only find occurrences where upper and 

lower case matches with the text you have 



B Search backwards from the cursor position 

to the start of the document. 

W Only search for whole words. 

A Find/find and replace all occurrences to 

the end of the document, the total number 
of occurrences/replacements is given on 

screen when finished. 

n Find the nth occurrence of a piece of text. 

Type any number up to 255. 

Using Find 

Once you have typed the text and selected the options, if any, you 
are returned to the document and the cursor will be on the first 
occurrence. To find the next occurrence hold down El'"3 and press 
liJ, to search back for the previous occurrence hold down Eirp 
and press SD. If not found a message xxxx not found will 
appear on the status line and you will hear a beep, 

Using Replace 

The cursor will be positioned on the first character of the first 
occurrence of the text to find and a messages, Replace (y/n) ? 
will be displayed. Press (U to replace the text and move on to the 
next occurrence. Press Notebook to move onto the next 
occurrence, To finish finding and replacing press H. 


To find all occurrences of the word "text" in lower case only, starting 
at the cursor position; 

Find: text 

Options: CW 

To convert all occurrences of "pic" or "Pic" to PLC, confirming each 

Find: P |c 

Replace with: PLC 

Options: GW 


o find the 12th 8 letter word: 


si Ot WOft 


Jsing Macros 

Vhat is a Macro? 

\ macro is a sequence of keystrokes stored together so they can 
>e reproduced by using just two or three keys. So, as a simple 
sample, you can save a frequently used phrase to save yourself 
aving to re-type it every time. At a more advanced level you can 
,se Macros to execute commands or to quickly insert a "Special 
Character" into your document. 

• few macros are already on your Notebook; for example when 
3U insert the current date into a document by holding down Er~] 
:nd pressing F~1 you are using a macro. Other macros are set 
.o to give you European accented letters, 

;■ use a macro hold down H3 and press the letter key, hold down 
1 and 12. J for the capital letters. 

-e table below shows all the ready made macros. 

a a 







c g 







d date 






e as 







h 72 


] /A 





:j can easily re-use any of these Ir3 key combinations by 
f cording a new macro. 

-e complete space set aside to hold the macros you define is 256 
-aracters. All your macros combined cannot be larger than this. 
while recording a macro, you exceed this then the macro 
■ cording will terminate. 


How to record a Macro "Phrase* 

1 With a document on the screen press the G^3 key. 

E » Ed i t ing ... 

S > Style, ... . , . 
T * Text Fcrmatt mg 
H - CroGte Heade 

- Crecte Foots 

P - Print to "Screen 
B - Pr int 8 lock 


Select Macro Record start/end by using the . _ 

keys to highlight the option then pressing &J or by pressing C?) 

Press- Symbol 

E * Edit ina - . . 
s » ?ty le ... . . 
T > Text Forma tt mg 
H - Create Header 
F - Create Footer. 

then key sequence : 

and 1 e t ter 

C - Copy b lock "'or' docunn 
P - Pr int to Screen 

B - Pr int 


3 Hold down IEE3 (or EEB and ll I) then press a letter key. You 

are returned to the document, (While you are recording the 
macro an r shows on the top right hand corner of the screen.) 

4 Type in the phrase you want to store. (In this example we arej 

storing "Yours sincerely"). 

Yours sincere I J 

When you have finished typing the phrase press J||p o^^*® 1 ®^ 
Macro record start /end again by usingthe EP1 fc±J LX r£ 
keys to highlight the option then pressing BJ or by pressing C^ 
If you make a mistake while recording a macro then start agair 


How to record a Macro "Command" 

■; en-; 


in this example we are storing the command to change to large 
print size under the fcS FT) macro, A "Special Character" can be 
stored in the same way. 

1 With a document on the screen press the O key. 

E » Ed I t ing . . . 

S » Sty le . . . , , . 
T » Te*t Formatting 
H - Create Header 

2 Select Macro Record start/end by using the L£J L=£f CI 

keys to highlight the option then pressing f-T or by pressing ED 

E » Ed i t i ng . . . 

5 > Style . . . 

T * Te;<t Formatting 

H - Create Header 

F - ..Cr.pqtg FuLft^r 

Press Stp«bol and letter- then key s.»gL*er»ce I 

C-" copy block or document" 
P — Print to Screen 
6 - Pr int B lock 

3 Hold down curl press r *]. You are returned to the document. 
(While you are recording the macro an r shows on the top right 
hand corner ot the screen.) 

i Now carry out the command or procedure you want to store. 

For this example press the O key, select the s »styie menu 
by pressing EJ, then select l - enlarged by pressing [' J. You 
are returned to the document and the enlarged print code 
shows on the screen:. 

: Press (H3 then press F3 to stop recording. You are returned to 
the document and the macro is stored. If you make a mistake 
while recording a macro then start again. 

*o insert the enlarged code into any document you can now hold 
x>wn EE"") and press FTI. 


Displaying the Stored Macros > mo 

biooei ©? 

A list of all your stored macros is displayed on the screen If you 

select "Display macros" at the Editing Menu; 

E » Editing . . . 

S » Sty le ... 

T » Text Formatting ... 

H — Create Header 

F - Create Footer . 

H - flocrn record start/end 


C - Copy b lock or document: 
P — Pr int to Screen 
B - Pr int B lock 

You may not understand some of the macros listed, refer to 

Appendix 3 for further details. 

Spell Checking 

Your Notebook word processor comes with a 48.000 word dictionary 
and you can add words to It that you regularly use. The spell 
checker compares each word in your document against those in 
the dictionary, when it finds a word that is not in the dictionary it 
highlights the word and a menu shows on screen with various 
options allowing you to store the word in the dictionary, ignore it, 
change the word yourself (edit) or select a word from the 
dictionary, You can also spell check a single word, 

For instructions on how to use the spellchecker (Spell word and Speli 
text) refer to Section 1 of this manual. 

User Dictionary Upkeep 

Each word you "Store" when using the spell checker is stored in yo„- 
User Dictionary. You can View" the words stored and delete woras 
that you mis-spelt or no longer need. 

View the words in the User Dictionary 

1 While a document is on the screen press the H^) key: 

Text Formatting , , . 


Cr-eat* Header 
Create Footer , 

riocro reoora stort/»no 



Display macro* 

Copy b look or* document 

Print to Screen 
Pr int 8 lock 



2 Select the Editing menu by pressing \T~\. 


C - Choose chqrocter (S<sm~Mg«m) _^ 

G - Goto I in*/pQ-i»/co lumn (Ctrl— C i 

B - Count word*, in Block 

K - C I ear marker* CCtrl-fc) 

U - Und* l*te b lock (Ctrl-U ) 

J^^-feVo vi uorof From ' "e^i^onory 

?- Dote iSyr*~D J 
— T ime (S**m— T ) 

3 Press D to select V -View User Dictionary. 

'he words on the screen cannot be changed or removed and 
Dressing any key will return you to your document. 

Remove a word from the User Dictionary 

3nly words that you have stored can be removed. 
While a document is on the screen press 1^1 . 

2 Press PH or to select the e » Editing Menu" 

3 Press D to select R - Remove word from user dictionary, 

Type uord to delete Fro* the user dictionary and press J I 

i Type the word then press GdD; the word is removed and you are 
returned to the document. 

ne word must be typed exactly as it is stored, if you type it 

Differently you will see the message: 

Tupe uord to delete from the user dictionary ond press •* Blenkinsop 
Not in user dictionary. Press a key; | 

if this happens "View the User Dictionary" to see how you spelt the 
<«/ord originally, then try again to remove it.) 


Counting Words ■■■jnamt-., 

. % . ■ .-■■ m 'VWW - - ■ 

Your N otebo ok will count all the words in your document, just hoti 
down t' : " nc ' ion l and press GD 

„-. oro qoina to gnt^SSouitri de I IBSro te m I S to kes so that uig can 
use the spe 11 checker . He are also going to write in o word which not 
only is spelt wrong but is actually ..the, right word ue neon to use in 
this porticular sentence written on the HC208 ■ ^^^ 

Counting . 
Press Stop 

, . 50 words 
to ex it ■ ■ • 

Configuring the Word Processor 

Change the default word processing settings using this menu. I 
for example, you prefer always to see the codes on screen chang. 
the "Show Printer Codes" setting to (Yes). When you w ant to switc 
them off temporarily use the "Codes on/off" C r uncli °"J ED ) fror 

within the document, 

To use the Configure menu hold down the YELLOW E^f!±d key em- 
press SD: 

Overtype or + ■* to change., t * to move. Stop to finish 

Insert on/of F (On) 

Word wrap tOnJ 

Right Justify On J 

Decimal character ,.„.,,, , UL 
Key repeat startup delay U08th sees) 50) 

Key repeat period { 100th sees) (51 

Cursor flash period (100th sees) 50) 

Shou printer codes'? (No) 

Shou spaces? No) 

Shou tabs and returns? No 

Shou st at us i nforraat i on? No 

Shou ruler (No) 





To change one of the. settings use CD to select the option the 
use Psto change the setting. 

The first three entries define whether or not Insert, Word Wrap c 
Justification are normally on when you first start to edit a documen 
When you first start to use the Notebook they are all set to on. 

you switch them off here you can easily switch the effects back o 
while typing a document using E3Lj, rEDQ or 


Decimal character ~ 

This defines the character that will be used to align numbers when 
decimal tabs are used. In the UK this would normally be set to a full 
stop but it can be changed to a comma for use on the continent. 

Key Repeat Startup delay 

The time delay before a character starts to repeat when a key is 
held down can be changed. You may want to change this if, for 
example, you are not a trained typist and you often unintentionally 
repeat characters, however it will also cause a delay when you 
want to hold down a key, as when typing a line of hyphens or full 
stops. Increase the value to give a longer delay, decrease it to 
shorten the delay. 

Key Repeat 

The speed at which the character is repeated on screen as you 
nold down the key can be increased or decreased to suit your 
needs. To slow down increase the value, to speed up decrease 
•he value. 

Cursor Flash Period 

Change the flash speed of the cursor, to slow down increase the 


alue, to speed up decrease the value. 

View options 

"-ie last five entries define which of those items is shown when you 
-rst start to edit a document. During editing, any of them can be 
switched on or off using £r-)(ZD followed by □ for codes, t_J for 
soaces, D for tabs & returns, (T3 for status or ZZ) for ruler. (As shown 
;n the inlay, SE can also be used to show/hide status 
formation and l f ^°'H fr 1 can be used show/hide codes) 


Printing from the Word Processor -«orto fc.- * 

Most printers will be able to print your Notebook documer 

although they may not be able to print all the various styles (be 
or italic for example) that are available in the word processor. 

Connect to the Printer 

Connect your Notebook to the printer using a parallel centron 
printer lead (or a serial lead if the printer is serial). Most printers * 
already have this type of lead connected, so just connect it to t 
PARALLEL or SERIAL port on the back of your Notebook. 

Please note that it is not possible to use the printer mechani 
supplied with the Amstrad PCW wordprocessing computer, The o 
exception to this is the model supplied with a Canon BJ10 prints 
this can be directly connected to the Notebook. 

Switch on the Notebook and the printer, 

The printer must be switched on and be "on-line"; if you are r 

familiar with the printer you are using refer to the manual suppli 
with the printer. 

Select the Document you are going to print 

Hold down YELLOW h^?°$ and press f%). your list of documenl 
shown on the screen. Highlight the name of the document y 
want to print by using EP3 EMdD ®. 

Before you press S to start printing you should set up 1 
Notebook for your printer using the Printing options menu. 

Press the E£l key, the following menu will show on screen: 

j yamMfliMnHM Overtype or +■ 4 to change* t 4 to move, Sttp to Finish 

Start at page number <H 1p| 

End at page number 9?9> ft"* 

Near letter quality /Draft NLC NLQ 

Cont i nuous pr i nt i ng? Jes ; res 

Neu page after print? Yes Yes 

Form Feeds enabled? Yes Yes 

Line Feeds printed? ^ s ',»» c?Sm» 

Printer . . ?AK le > ^ p,e 


^ress El) or CD to move down the menu. Use S=3 or fj=±3 to 
change an option. 

Ihe start at / End at options allow you to select just a range of 
sages to be printed. On dot-matrix printers the nlq option 
determines if the printout is in a single, low resolution or a double, 
iigh resolution pass. Whether this option has any effect may 
depend on the printer you are using. Set Continuous to No if 
arinting single sheets in a printer that does not auto-feed. When 
Form feeds are enabled the Notebook will send the special new 
Dage character to a printer (ASCII 12) for each new page, 
Dtherwise it pads out with blank lines, Line feeds should be 
disabled if your printer puts a blank line between every line printed, 

Select one of the printer types; 

Simple - This option will allow you to print on any printer but styles 
such as italic will not be printed, just straightforward text; underlining 
und bold might print but this will depend on the type of printer. 

IBM 24 pin - Whatever the make and model of your printer, if it is 

;ompatible with the IBM 24 pin Printers (check the manual supplied 
,vith the printer - you may have to adjust the printer in some way) 
. ou can use this setting. 

Epson 9 pin - Whatever the make and model of your printer if it is 
.compatible with the Epson FX range (refer to the manual supplied 
.-.ith the printer) you can use this setting, 

Epson 24 pin - If your printer is compatible with the Epson LQ range 
3U can use this setting (refer to your printer's manual). 

"anon BJ - Use this if you are using a Canon Bubblejet printer, 

.aserjet - If your printer is an HP Laserjet, or compatible with one, 
,se this setting. For other laser printers use the Epson 24 pin setting 
• the printer can emulate it. 

Winter Character Set 

-ere are two different sets of characters that a printer may use. 
-e Epson set has a limited range of characters but offers italics, 
,nile the IBM set has the complete range of characters that your 
otebook understands but may prevent italics from being used, 
.'ost printers have DIP switches to change between the possible 


choices. You should make sure that this setting on the Notebc 

agrees with the way the printer is set up. 

Printer Port 

This may be set to either parallel or serial. You should set this 
according to which port you have connected the printer to. It you 
have a choice always choose parallel (Centronics) as it is much 
easier to use and is also quicker. If you select serial then you must 
also set the values associated with the serial port. d 

Serial Port 

These settings are for connection via the serial port, for printing to 

take place the printer and the Notebook must be set to the same 
values, These settings are similar to those used in the serial terminal. 
See the section on transferring documents for more detail. 

The settings in your Notebook are the best settings to use, if you car3 

adjust your printer to these settings do so (refer to the manudM 
supplied with the printer). 

(If using the parallel port you don't need to adjust these settings.) J 
Starting to Print 

When you have finished setting up the printer press B to leave 
menu. Return to the print document screen, and with the highligr 

on the document you want to print press G±L 


If you see the message Plug in or switch on the printer . . . 

even though you have done so, check that paper is loaded and 
that it is switched "on-line". 

The Finished printing message may appear alm< 

immediately even though the printer has just started, this is becau 
the whole document has been stored in the printer's bufft 
memory. You can press S to exit and continue working. 

If you have printing problems 

If the document does not print properly it is probably because you , 
have not set-up the Notebook and/or printer correctly. Try settingj 
the Notebook to a different type of printer using the Printer Optior 
menu, you may find the correct setting using the "trial and errc 
method but, if all else fails, you can use the simple setting. 


Sending/Receiving files 

"he floppy disk drive on the Notebook is probably the easiest way 
3f transferring documents and worksheets to and from another 
:omputer. Just copy a file to a disk, insert it into the other computer 
ind you can then read in the information. However, some 
:omputers do not use the same type or format of disks as used on 
-ie Notebook and IBM PCs. In this case you can still transfer data 
o and from the other computer by linking it to the Notebook with 
d suitable cable and using the Notebook's Serial Terminal program 
-o establish contact and send/receive documents. The terminal 
:: r ogram can also be used to control a modem connected to the 
\otebook, but note that it does not provide facilities for auto 
■; ailing, off line reading, etc. 

-ecause the word processor built into your Notebook is a 
development of the "Protext" word processor produced by Arnor, 
-du may like to use the Notebook for entering documents on the 
-ove and then transfer them across to a desktop computer which 
: so can run Protext to work on them in more detail when you return 
■ 3 the office. There are versions of the Protext software to run on all 
•.ell known types of computer (IBM PC compatibles, Amstrad PCW, 
"ommodore Amiga, Atari ST, Acorn Archimedes) They are 
available from: 

Arnor Ltd 

61 1 Lincoln Road 
PE1 3HA 

Tel: 0733 68909 
Fax: 0733 67299 

.en though you don't use Protext on your desktop computer you 
-ay still want to transfer documents from the Notebook to use in a 
rferent word processor. In this case you can still transfer the 
:ocuments, choosing to convert them to WordStar format which is 

: 'ormat readable by many different word processing programs. If 
-e word processor you intend to use cannot use WordStar format 
;u can use plain ASCII but all formatting and layout will be lost. 

du can transfer documents in the other direction (from desktop 

•o the Notebook) as well. You would do this when you want to 

rTieve a previously saved document or when you want to 


continue working on a document erf home that you had started in 
the office, If you use the Protext word processor on the desktop 

machine then you can transfer documents to the Notebook before 
you go home, work on them in the evening or over weekends and 
then transfer them back to the desktop in the office and all the 
layout and text effects will be retained. 

The spreadsheet software built into the Notebook is a development 
of "The Cracker" spreadsheet which is available in versions for IBM 
PC compatibles and CP/M based machines such as the Amstrad 
PCW range of computers. If you use The Cracker on one of those 
machines, worksheets (.MEM files) can be transferred directly from 
the Notebook to the other computer with all formatting and 
formulae intact. If you use some other spreadsheet software you 
can still export the data from your worksheets in .DIF, .DAT or .TXT 
files. However, the formulae will not be retained. 

Note: The following tends to refer just to PC computers but what is 

said will apply equally as well to any other type of computer. 

Serial or Parallel transfers ? 

The Notebook can transfer documents either through its serial port 
using Xmodem/CRC or no protocol file transfers. Alternatively it can 
use the parallel port. Using the serial port you will just need a cable 
and some communication software for the PC or other computer 
that you are trying to connect to. 

If you want to use the parallel port you must use the "Lapcat" 
software and cable that is available from Arnor at the above 
address. The advantage of using parallel transfers is two fold. Firstly 
you don't have any problems getting the right cable and making 
the right software settings and secondly, it is a faster method of 
transferring documents. Instructions on how to perform Lapcat 
transfer are given in the manual accompanying the Lapcat cable 
and software. 



Serial transfers 

Before you can transfer documents to and from the Notebook you 
-nust physically connect it to the other computer. There are two 
vays in which you might do this: 

Local" connection 

■* the other computer is located in the same room as the Notebook 
~ien it will only be necessary to use a simple ("Null modem") cable 
■o connect the two machines together. When you do this you 
:onnect the serial ports of the two computers together. The serial 
;;ort on your Notebook is the 9 pin D shaped connector on the back 
:f the machine, The actual connection for a serial port on another 
omputer may vary from machine to machine. IBM PC compatible 
machines normally have either a 9 pin connector the same as the 
'.otebook or they may have a 25 pin connector. 

Remote' connection 


• the other computer is some distance away then you will need to 
-x3ke use of a device called a Modem that allows computers to 
end information over the telephone. Both the distant computer 


and the Notebook must have a modem attached to their serial 
ports. This second option is effectively the same as a local 
connection except that the Notebook is connected to a modem 
using a "straight through" cable in which "Transmit" (Tx) connects to 
"Transmit" and "Receive" (Rx) connects to "Receive" and so on. 

When you use the serial terminal program in the Notebook you will 
be able to type commands to the modem, if it is a Hayes 
compatible modem you would normally use the command 
ATD<number> in order to telephone the other computer that you 
wish to connect to. Once connection is established you can 
proceed to send and receive documents in a similar fashion to that 
described below for a local connection. 

Technical note: One point you may find useful to know is that if you 

leave the serial terminal program, the Notebook's serial port is 
switched off to conserve battery life. If you are connected to 
another computer via a modem the connection will almost 
certainly be lost when you do this. To prevent this happening you 
must instruct the modem to ignore the state of its DTR line. On some 
modems the command AT&DO will instruct the modem to ignore 
this signal. Other modems have a switch setting that will achieve 
the same effect. If you cannot control the modems DTR signal then 
you must not leave the serial terminal program if you wish the 
connection to be maintained. 

The Cable to use 

The Notebook's serial port has a 9 pin, male, D-type connector 

wired as follows: 

Pin Signal Abbreviation Direction 

J — 2 — a — i — i 1 Mot connected 

\° ° ° ° ^sswra: i EEinVSi s s* *~ , 

\ O O O O / tScfofTJisS? 4 D«e tymlnel f~o> 0TH Out DTR juet ***— *Hj 

\ / 5 Ground tap*u 

J 7 I f 6 Not connected 

7 Request to a«nd RTS Out 
B Clear to send CTS In 

8 Hot connected 

The computer you are trying to connect to will probably have either 
a 9 pin or 25 pin, male, D-type connector. Assuming it is wired the 
same as an IBM compatible PC computer, the connections will be 

as follows: 




.1 » 3 ■» 



RS232 oonnector 

looking Mo the 

o o o o / b ** °* • *° * 9 I** 

12 3 4 5 

7 E 9 10 11 12 13 

ooooooccoccoo "wSMTSr 

OOOOOOOO OOOOl ba«* of a PC <26 p*i) 
M 16 ft 17 18 IS W 21 22 23 24 25 


Tranamrt data 
Rec*l«* data 
Request to Bend 
Clear to send 
Data wi ready 
Data terminal ready 
Ring Indicator 
Frame ground 

Abbreviation Direction Pin H" on 9 pin pin M> on 2S pin 





















As you can see, both the Notebook and the other computer (if it 
nas a nine pin connector) have their transmit data signal on pin 3 
and their receive data signal on pin 2. You cannot just connect the 
similar named signals because transmit would connect to transmit 
and receive to receive. The transmit from one end must be 
connected to the receive line at the other and vice versa. Some 
of the other signals must be crossed over in a similar way. 

A cable that crosses over the various signals in this way is often 
called a Null Modem Cable. The correct wiring for cables to 

connect the Notebook to an JBM PC compatible are: 

9 pin to 9 pin 










Null Modem Cable 
Other Computer 

2 nx 
-3 TX 

5 GND 
-6 DSR 
-7 RTS 
-8 CTS 

9 pin to 25 pin 

RX 2 

TX 3 

DTR 4 

GND 5 

RTS 7 

CTS 8 

Null Modem Cable 
Other Computer 
2 TX 












NC200 Other 


f you are not able to buy a cable that is specifically designed for 
connecting the Notebook to other computers, you should be able 
■o show these details to any cable manufacturer advertising in the 


computing press and you will find that they will easily be able to 
make up the right cable for you. 

Making the software connect 

Once you have plugged the correctly wired cable into both the 
Notebook and the other computer you are trying to connect to, 
you are ready to try and see if the two will communicate. The 

Notebook already has the necessary software to do this built-in. 

On the other machine you will need to use some communications 
software. The software you use will depend on the type of 
computer but, for example, if you are using a PC compatible that 
has a copy of Windows 3.x then you already have the necessary 
software. There is a program called Terminal included in Windows 
that will do. The communications software you use can be very 
simple indeed although it would be best if it supports Xmodem file 
transfers. The PC shareware program "Telix" is highly recommended. 

The Notebook's Serial Terminal program 

All communications with another computer will usually be 
performed from within the Notebook's Serial terminal program (the 
other transfer functions in the List Stored Document menu are for 
use by the Lapcat cable and software that is available from Amor). 
The terminal program emulates a DEC VT52 terminal. Details of the 
escape codes it generates/recognises are given in Appendix 4. 


You start the Serial terminal program by pressing 
doing this you will see the following screen: 

^""H F 1. On 


Serial Terminal Program 

Press (1EWI For Terminal Options 
Press «-ito start the terminal now 

if you already had everything set up correctly, from when you last 
used the terminal program, you could just press tL to immediately 
start communication with the other computer. But when you first 
use the Serial program you will almost certainly need to set certain 
values correctly before starting. 


.Vhen you are using the Terminal program you will find that the 0^1 
<ey brings up a screen that is used for both setting various features 
•elated to the serial port and also for sending and receiving files: 



Configure terminal 


Receive o f i U 

T**] Quit the terminal 


|s~[ Send q File 


•ou can quit the terminal from this screen by pressing I — i. While 
actually in terminal mode you can normally press B to leave the 
-erminal but if you have changed the Send esc char option 
detailed below) then it is not possible to use the E key to get out 
. f the serial terminal program because that key will just produce 
^n ESC character. You must press E^E to leave. 

:, om this menu you press 
erminal program. 

to configure the options within the 


Term i no I 
ConF i surat i on 

Poud rote 
or itu 
Page pause 

ana I ineFeed 
Doto/stop bits 
Prot oco I 
Us* CRC 
B 1 OC k net rieft 
Timeout limit 
fisk Overurite 
File convens i on 
Send ESC char 



J/ 1 


nT E 

.'/ithout getting into long discussions about serial connections 
.vhich can be a very complicated subject) it is only really 
ecessary for you to know that there are certain values associated 
vith the serial port that must be set correctly before you can get 
-.vo computers to communicate. Both ends should be set to the 
ame values. 

'ne Baud rate is just a measure of the speed at which the 
:omputers communicate. It can be set to a value chosen from 300, 
200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200. For a direct connection it is probably 
zest just to try it at 19200 and only reduce it if there appears to be 
: problem or the other end cannot operate at that speed. You may 
■ id that the software used on the other computer limits you to a 
Dp speed of 9600 baud. This is the default setting. 

"ne other things that can be set that affect the serial port are the 
- jmber of Data/stop bits and the Parity. It isn't important to know 


what these things are - just to ensure that both computers are set 
to the same values. Data bits should normally be set to 8, with 1 
stop bit. This is shown as 8/1. The Parity should normally be set to 
NONE. The Notebook allows you to change these things it the 
software at the other end does not present a suitable choice, but 
almost all terminal software does allow these things to be changed 
and almost all will choose 9600, 8 data, No parity, 1 Stop bit as the 
default setting anyway, If you try to use a particularly old/slow 
modem you may find it useful to set 2 stop bits rather than just 1. 

The XON/XOFF option selects whether or not the XON/XOFF 
software handshake protocol is used, This is a system by which one 
end can tell the other end to stop transmitting for a short while if it 
is sending data too fast. Try setting this option to "Yes" if characters 
are being lost. However, it does rely on the other end also 
understanding Xon/Xoff, 

The Page Pause would normally be set to Yes when you are 
receiving screenful of data from the other end while using the 
terminal and it is scrolling off the screen to quickly to read. With 
Page pause on it will stop after every 16 lines and wait for a key 

The Echo option determines whether the characters you type are 
shown on the Notebook's screen as well as being transmitted to the 
other computer, if the other end does not echo back the 
characters that you type you won't be able to see what you are 

typing, in this case you should switch echo on. 

The Add linefeed option determines whether an extra line feed is' 
performed for every carriage return received. Also, when this 
option is set to Yes the P^ key will generate both CR and LF codes 
instead of just the normal CR code. If lines are not broken where 
they should be then turn this option on. If, on the other hand, lines 
are double spaced, make sure this option is set to Off. 

The Protocol option lets you choose between Xmodem and noj 
protocol. When sending and receiving files you should always use 
Xmodem if you can. This is a system whereby the data to be sent 
is split into small packets and the other end confirms that each was 
received correctly. This means that you can be certain that no 
errors are introduced during the transfer process. This is explained 
in more detail later in this section. 



~->e only reason to set the protocol to "None" is if the software on 
•ne other computer does not support Xmodem file transfers. When 
'modem is not used the data is just sent as one single block and 
--e other end must capture the complete block of information and 
...•ite it to a file. However, this can be prone to errors. 

-ie Use CRC setting should always be set to Yes. This is the type of 
r'ror checking used during the Xmodem file transfer. The other 
.ossibility is "Checksum" but this is an older method. Only change 

-■s setting if you know that the other end only supports 

■ modem/Checksum. 

-e Block retries option sets the number of times an attempt is 
-ode to send an Xmodem packet before the transfer stops with 
:-> error. 

-e Timeout limit option sets the length of time in seconds that the 
-nodem transfer will wait for the other end to respond to a request 
efore assuming an error has occurred. 

Ksk Overwrite determines whether the serial terminal should stop 
:-d ask you if you really want to over write a file If the name you 

3 je for receiving already exists. 

-e File conversion option determines whether the data that is sent 
■yn the Notebook should be left in Protext format including all of 
-= special codes for use in a copy of Protext on another computer 

• is available from Arnor for PC/PCW/Amiga/ST/Archimedes). If 
do are exporting the data for use in any other word processor you 
-ould set this option to either WS (for WordStar) or ASCII. The merits 

• each of these file conversions was discussed in the section "Using 
~e floppy disk drive". 

■ /ou change the options in the configuration menu and want to 

•?♦ them back to their initial starting values just press the £5 key for 
-e Normal settings. 

vtaking sure the connection works 

-ice you have the machines connected and they are both 
.-ining terminal software you should find that if you type 

-aracters on the Notebook keyboard they appear on the screen 

• the other computer and vice versa. Each time you intend to 
-nsfer files to/from the Notebook it would be advi sable t o start by 
■-•ering the Notebook's Serial Terminal program (h""'""^ 5 J) and 


just type a few characters on each keyboard to make sure that 
transmit and receive are working OK. There is no point in spending 
a long time trying to transfer files only to find that the fundamental 
connection that allows characters to be sent in both directions was 
not working. 

Once you have established a sound connection between the two 
machines you should then be able to transfer files between the two. 
If you find that typing on one machine does cause something to 
appear on the other but the characters are just meaningless 

rubbish then it is probably because one of the baud rate, data bits, 
stop bits or parity settings are not correctly matched. 

Note: The RS232 (Serial) port on the NC 200 uses signals at a higher 
levels than normally used inside the Notebook. This means that the 
batteries will drain at a faster rate than normal when making serial 
transfers. It may be an idea to run the Notebook from the mains 
adaptor when transferring files. 

Choosing the correct transfer method %\ 

The Notebook can use two different types of file transfer, There is a 
very simple form where no protocol is used and a more powerful, 
versatile and reliable method called Xmodem. We suggest you 
always use Xmodem file transfer whenever possible. Xmodem file 
transfer breaks up the information to be sent into small packets and 
sends each with some extra information that the receiving end can 
use to make sure that no faults were introduced. 

Document transfers without Xmodem 

The simplest form of file/document transfer is with "Protocol" set to 
None. This is provided so that people who cannot find software to 
support Xmodem transfer can still connect their Notebook to other 
computers. When you ask the Notebook to send a document 
without using Xmodem it just sends each character from the 
document you choose as if you were typing them directly in the 
serial terminal itself. On the computer that is receiving the file you 
just have to switch its ASCII capture on before starting to send the 
file. Once the Notebook has finished sending the file you can switch 
the capture off on the PC and the information that has been sent 
will be written to a file. 


.•/hen transferring files from a PC to the Notebook using no protocol 
. du start the receipt of the document on the Notebook. Initially it 
.. qits for the first character to be transmitted (you can always press 
; if you didn't want to transfer a file). As soon as it has received 
-e first character it then allows a maximum of 2 seconds for each 
.bsequent character to be received. If a longer delay is 
■-ncountered then the Notebook assumes that the other end has 

■ wished transmission, Stopping transfers in this way means that there 
; no need for End of File characters to be sent. 

~e length of time it waits for the initial character to be sent is the 

■ -neout period set in the Transfer settings. Normally this would be 9 
^conds so you need to be ready to start the transmission of 
- 'ormation from the PC before selecting the receive function. 

•3 send a file, from the Notebook to a PC, without using Xmodem: 

Make sure the serial terminal configure menu has the Protocol 

Option set to None, 

If the file is for use in Protext on the PC, make sure File 
conversion is set to None. If the file is not for Protext, set it to 
either ws or ascii. WS will convert Protext codes to their 
WordStar equivalent. ASCII will strip out all special codes. 

Establish the connection. Type a few characters on each 
keyboard and make sure they appear on the screen of the 
other computer. 

: Make sure the receiving end is ready to receive the file, This will 
usually involve giving some sort of command to initiate an ASCII 
capture or. "download". Because the Notebook can have 
longer filenames than on PCs (and use a bigger range of 
characters) you may have to change the name you give the 
file to be received at the PC end. 

-. In the Notebook's terminal program press the (S3 key followed 
by U to select the send a file option. 

: Position the cursor over the document to send, If there are more 
documents in your Notebook than can be shown on the screen 
use the t^l and I^S keys to move to the others from the first or 
last column. If Document sizes/date display is set to Shown 


In the System Settings menu then you may see ADDRESS BOOK 
and DIARY FILE in this list. 

7 With the cursor over the document that you wish to send press 
ED and the transmission process will begin. The counters on 
screen give an idea ot how much information has been and will 
be sent. The "blocks" mentioned here are blocks of 128 
characters each. 

8 If you have asked for conversion to ASCII or WordStar you will 
see a reminder on screen that the conversion process is active 
and the actual number of blocks sent will probably be less than 
the initial estimate as some characters are removed during the 
conversion process 

9 Once the Notebook has sent the document it will return to the 
normal terminal screen. Press E^3 to send more files or to quit. 

10 At the receiving end stop the file transfer. In some software this 
may be as easy as just pressing the Esc key, while in others you 
may have to give a command or select a menu entry to do 

To receive a file, into the Notebook from a PC, 

without using Xmodem transfer: 

1 Make sure the serial terminal configure menu has the Protocol 
option set to None. 

2 Establish the connection. Type a few characters on each 
keyboard and make sure they appear on the screen of the 
other computer. 

2 At the PC, select' the function that will send the file as just 
straight ASCII text. This might be called something like "ASCII 
Send" or "ASCII Upload". 

3 You will probably then be given the opportunity to select the 
file to send. Type its name but do not press (-H yet. 

4 On the Notebook press the E13 key to select the serial terminal 
menu and then press ZZI to receive a file. 

5 if you want to receive a backup copy of a file that already exists 
position the cursor over the file of that name and press (rr 1 .! If, 



however, it is a new file then postttotrth# cdteoroVerlti© fcpwetof 
(New file) entry and press 0. 

It you selected (New file) you will then be asked to give a name 
for the document that is about to be received. You could just 
type the same name as used on the PC (8 characters, a full 
stop, then 3 characters), 

If you select a file name that already exists and have the Ask 
overwrite option set to Yes, you will be asked to confirm that 
you wish to overwrite the existing file. Press ED if this is what you 

Once the Notebook has started the receive function you have 
9 seconds (or whatever the timeout value was set to) to start 
transmission of the file (document) from the PC. Just press L=JJ 
on the PC to start it transmitting the file whose name you nave 
already entered. 

Once the file has been received (there was a delay of longer 
than two seconds between characters) you are returned to the 

terminal screen. 

Xmodem file transfers 

j should always choose to use Xmodem file transfers in 
-eference to the no protocol option. Xmodem is a far more 
■■ able method to use and is supported by virtually every piece of 
rmmunication software you might find on other computers. 

-ere are actually two types of Xmodem protocol - Xmodem/CRC 
-"ere a "Cyclic Redundancy Check" is used to check for errors and 
- older method known as Xmodem/Checksum. The latter is used 

some older pieces of software. You can use the Configure 
■.•minal menu to specifically choose between CRC or Checksum, 
rwever, it is best to leave this setting on YES which selects CRC as 
-e of the features of the CRC protocol is that if it cannot start 
immunication within ten seconds using CRC it will automatically 
•.itch over to the Checksum method anyway. In the Configure 
■■■minal menu you can also set options to choose how many times 

olock is retried before the transfer is aborted and how many 
^oonds the program waits before assuming that an error has 


To send a file, from the Notebook to a PC, 

using the Xmodem protocol 

1 Make sure that the serial terminal Configure menu has the 
Protocol option set to. Xmodem and the use crc setting should 
be set appropriately. 

2 If the file is for use in Protext on the PC, make sure File 
conversion is set to None. If the file is not for Protext, set it to 
either ws or ascii. WS will convert Protext codes to their 
WordStar equivalent. ASCII will strip out all special codes. 

3 Establish the connection. Type a few characters on each 
keyboard and make sure they appear on the screen of the 
other computer. 

4 On the Notebook while in the serial terminal press 1-13 followed 
by (ED to select the send a file function. 

5 Position the cursor over the document to send. If there are more 

documents in your Notebook than can be shown on the screen 
use the ut3 and f3=+) keys to move to the others from the first or 

last column. If Document sizes /date display is set to Shown 

in the System Settings menu then you may see ADDRESS BOOK 
and DIARY FILE In this list. 

6 With the cursor over the document that you wish to send press 
ED and the transmission process will begin. Notice that, unlike 
the no protocol send, you actually start transmitting the file 
before giving the instructions to receive it at the other 

7 Once you have started the send operation you must instruct the 
other end to start receiving it, This will depend on the software 
you use but you may find it called "Xmodem download". You 
will be asked to give a filename that the information will be 
stored in on that computer, 

8 Once you start the Xmodem receive on the other computer the 
information wiii be transferred. You will see a counter on the 
Notebook showing you how many blocks of 128 characters it 
has sent. 

9 If you have asked for conversion to ASCII or WordStar you will 
see a reminder on screen that the conversion process is active 


and the actual number of blocks sent will probably be less than 
the initial estimate as some characters are removed during the 
conversion process 

3 Once the Notebook has finished sending the file it will revert to 

the serial terminal screen. At the PC end it will automatically 
finish the transfer and write the data into the file whose name 

you gave earlier. 

ore that when the Notebook sends information using the Xmodem 

■ -otocoi the number of characters sent is often a number larger 
-an the actual number of characters in the document. The reason 
:' this is that Xmodem always rounds up the number of characters 

■; send to a multiple of 128. 

• « possible to perform the transfer by starting the PC receiving 

efore the Notebook starts sending but there will be a few second 
:eiay while the two machines synchronise, 

o receive a file, into the Notebook from a PC, 
jsing the Xmodem protocol: 

Make sure that the serial terminal Configure menu has the 
protocol option set to Xmodem and the use crc setting should 
be set appropriately. 

Establish the connection. Type a few characters on each 
keyboard and make sure they appear on the screen of the 

other computer. 

On the Notebook while in the serial terminal press E^3 followed 
by ED to select the receive a file function. 

; If you want to receive a backup copy of a file that already exists 
position the cursor over the file of that name. If, however, it is a 
new file then position the cursor over the special (New file) 

entry, Do not press yet - you should start the transmission 
from the PC before the Notebook starts to receive. Note, it 
would be unwise to try and receive a file as an address book 
or diary file that wasn't originally sent as one from the Notebook. 

■ At the PC end give the command to the software to start 
sending the chosen file. This may be called something like 
"Xmodem upload" or "Xmodem Send*. 


6 Once the PC has started to send the file 0ress PI on the 
Notebook to start receiving the file. 

7 If you selected (New file) you will then be asked to give a name 
for the document that is about to be received. You could just 
type the same name as used on the PC (8 characters, a full 
stop, then 3 characters). 

8 If you select a file name that already exists and have the Ask 
overwrite option set to Yes, you will be asked to confirm that 
you wish to overwrite the exisitng file. Press (LJ if this is what you 


9 When the transfer is complete the Notebook will return to the 

normal serial terminal screen. 


Word Processor Stored Commands 

-.hen typing documents, any line that starts with the right angle 
: -acket character (>) in column one is not just stored as another 
-e of text in your document. Instead, it is interpreted as a special 
ommand to the word processor, These commands are called 
; T ored commands" because they are stored away in each 
:ocument that they are used in but are not printed. 

-oart from rulers, the angle bracket is always followed by a two 
-rter code that identifies the command. These command names 
;-e chosen to try and help you remember them so, for example, 
■£ is HEader and FO is FCoter. 

du may not realise this but you may already be familiar with "stored 
ommands". If you have changed the layout of your text using a 
: Cerent ruler, or if you have added headers or footers from the 
.'enu option (which just insert an >HE or >FO stored command) 
-en you have already used stored commands. 

-ere are two types of stored command, those that are acted upon 

-mediately and those that only have any effect when the 

:DCument is printed, 

■ 1 example of an immediate stored command is >PA. This is the 
Age break command and forces the next line that is typed to start 

- a new page. Normally, when you type, if you haven't changed 
-e default settings, you will find that you can type 60 lines before 
-e line that marks the end of a page appears. However, if you start 

new line with >PA and then press E you will find that the current 
3ge is finished and the cursor starts at the top of a new page after 
-e page break bar. 

■ -i example of a stored command that is. only acted upon when 
-e document is printed is the >PO (Print Odd pages) command, 
-is tells the word processor to only print the odd pages of your 
:;>curnent and is useful if you want to print on both sides of some 

3 per to produce a book or magazine, You print the odd pages 

- one side of the paper and then turn it over and run it through 
-e printer again printing the even pages on the other side (using 
-e >PE command). Because it is only acted on at print time, 
•itering >PO on a new line has no obvious effect while you are still 
■.rjting a document in the word. processor. 


Because stored commands are acted upon, rather than forming 
part of your document, the word processor does not count any line 
that starts with an angle bracket when it is calculating where one 
page ends and the next begins. Also, even if you have got bold, 
italic or underline showing on screen, lines starting with ">" are not 
affected by these things. 

If you start a line with the angle bracket character the word 

processor checks to see if it is an immediate command that it 
should act upon when you press Cdl If it recognises it as such then 
the correct action is taken and the line is also stored in the 
document. Otherwise it just enters the line into the document and 
no further action is taken at this time. When you subsequently come 
to print the document a second check is made for any stored 
commands. If, at this time a line is found that starts with an angle 
bracket but the two letters that follow are not a recognised 
command then it will stop printing and display the message: 


Unknown stored command 

Press Stop to exit ... ,. r 

A number of the stored commands just provide another way of 
setting the same options as found in some of the menus. When a 
stored command is used it over-rides the setting in a menu. For 
examp le, if you have set a page length of 66 in the Layout menu 
l^ ciiorfff,] ancl tnen i nc | UC je a >PL 35 command in your document, 
the word processor will assume a page length of 35 not 66. 

There are 60 stored commands that the word processor recognises/ 
They generally fall into one of five categories. 

There are those that are used for defining the page layout - setting 
the various margins, length of page, etc. 

A collection of the commands are used for page formatting - 

adding header and footer text to each page when a document is 
printed, controlling the printing of odd/even pages, etc. 

There are also commands that affect the operation of the printer. 

Allowing printer control codes to be senf directly to the printer and 
affecting whether micro spacing is used for example. 

There are some miscellaneous commands, For example, you can-' 

use a stored command to add comments to your documents to 



describe the contents for your own future reference but this will not 

-erhaps the most powerful, but also the most difficult to understand 
rored commands are those that are used for mail merge. Mail 
~>erge is the name given to the process where you have a stanCard 
efter that is printed several times inserting a different name in 
:ertain places each time it is printed. If you have ever received a 
etter saying "Dear Mr your name, you could win £100,000. All you 
-ave to do Mr. your name is ...." then you have received a mail 
-merged letter. 

'he following is an alphabetic list of all the stored commands with 
j short description of their function, This should be used when you 
jst want a guick reminder of the command to use. Following this 
: a more detailed description of each command in sections 
divided as described above. 

"he list may look a bit daunting at first but do bear in mind that a 
3t of the commands are used for the complex subject of mail 
-Terge. You don't need worry about these unless you actually 
-tend to use the feature. 

Type Immediate 




Ask for Variable 


Bottom Margin 




Close File 




Continuous Printing 


Clear Screen 


define Character Width 


Define data File 


Display Message 


End printing At page 


Even page Footer 


Even page Header 


End If 

El - 



Even side Margin 


Even Page throw 


Form Feed codes 


Footer Margin 

Mail merge 






Mail merge 










Mail merge 










Mail merge 


Mail merge 
















Format whilst Printing 








Header Margin 




If Defined 

Mail merge 



if Exhausted 

Mail merge 




Mail merge 







If Undefined 

Mail merge 



Line Spacing 




Microspace Code 








Number of Copies 




New Page after print 




Output Code to printer 




Odd page Footer 




Odd page Header 




Odd side Margin 




Odd Page throw 




. PAge throw 




Print Even pages 




Page Length 




Page Number 




Print Odd pages 




Proportional Printing 




Right Justification 





Mail merge 



Read variable Unconditional 

Mail merge 



Read Variable 

Mail merge 



Start At page 





Mail merge 



Side Margin 




STop printing 




Set Variable 

Mail merge 



Top Margin 





Mail merge 



Write file Close 

Mail merge 



Write File 

Mail merge 



Write Message 

Mail merge 



WaiT and display 




Zero Margins 




?he following pages contain a more detailed description of each 
command listed above. The commands are grouped together 
according to the type of the command. Beneath the name of 
each command is a line described as "Syntax:". This shows exactly 
now you use the command in a document, For example, the syntax 
jt the Page Length (PL) command is shown as: 

Eyntax: >PL number 

'ne word number in italics means that whenever you use the PL 
command it should be followed by a number (not just the word 
number"). In this case the number you give is the number of lines 
oer page that you would like to use. To help you understand the 
:vntax of the command, most descriptions include at least one 
example. An example of the PL command might be: 

>PL 70 

vhich tells the word processor that the paper you are going to print 
:n has 70 lines. 

Page Layout commands 

.'ost of these commands duplicate the function of items in the 
ayout menu that is accessed by pressing F"" c,1 °"l and O while 
rditing a document. Those layout menu entries apply to the current 
document and all subsequent documents that you write until you 
;nange the settings, The stored commands can be used to 
:ver-ride the settings for just one special document (for examp le, 
• you want to quickly print some labels but leave the l pjrc 'H BlJ 
:ettings at their normal values). 

3M Bottom Margin 

' ,'ntax: >BM number 

~.e BM command is used to specify a value for the bottom margin 
vhich is the number of blank lines left at the bottom of each page 
;ter all the text (and possibly footer) have been printed. If you 
_sed the command: 

>BM 3 

"ne word processor would know that it must not print on the last 
-ree lines of the page, The reason you specify a bottom margin is 
zecause most printers cannot print right to the bottom of a page. 


The printer usually loses grip on the piece of paper about 3 lines 
from the end of the page. Some laser printers are able to print fight 
down to the very last line of a piece of paper but even there it is 
usually better to leave a margin at the bottom of the page as it 
looks more professional. If no BM command is used a value of 3 is 

EM Even side Margin 

Syntax; >EM number 

The Even side margin command is followed by a number which tells 
the word processor how many characters from the left edge of the 
page it should start printing the even numbered pages in your 
document. You may notice that there is a SM command available 
which defines the Side Margin for every page. The EM and OM 
commands allow different side margins to be defined for left and 
right pages while the SM command applies to all pages. You would 
use the SM command when every page of your document is 
identical (for example a memo or a letter). However, if you were 
writing a book it is usual for the right hand, odd numbered, pages 
to have a larger side margin than the left pages. This is because 
the book is bound together at the left hand edge of the right 
pages. If you were writing a book you might include the following 
two lines at the top of the document: 

>EM 8 ,j 

>OM 12 

This would mean that printing on the even numbered, left hand 
pages would start 8 characters in from the edge of the paper while 
the printing of the odd numbered left hand pages would start at 
12 characters in from the edge. This would allow an extra 4 

character margin on the right hand pages to allow for the book 
binding. A value of 5 is assumed if no actual >EM command is used. 

FM Footer Margin 

Syntax; >FM number 

The FM command is followed by a number which defines how many 
lines at the bottom of a page should be reserved for printing the 
footer text in. This area is positioned after the main body of text on 
the page but before the bottom margin (the area which cannot 
be printed on -see the BM command). The Footer Margin area is 
only used if footers are defined using the FO, EF or OF commands. 



-e value used if no FM command is used is 2 if footers are enabled, 

-aerwise it is zero, 

-M Header Margin 
n tax: >HM number 

-e HM command is similar to the FM command except that it is 
:ed to specify the number of lines below the top margin (see TM 
-mmand) but above the main page body that are reserved for 
nting the header text in. If no header is defined then a value of 
-'O is used for HM otherwise it will assume the value 2. An example 
M command might be: 

■3M 3 

s would reserve three lines at the top of the page (below the top 
Drgin) where header text would be printed. 

: M Odd side Margin 

. itax: >OM number 

-q OM command is very similar to the EM command but acts on 
3d pages rather than even pages. For a description and example 
-e the EM command. If no OM command is used then a default 
:ue of 5 is used. 

. Page Length 

-tax: >PL number 

■ e PL command is used to teli the word processor how long the 
^per you are going to print on is. Most printers print six lines to the 
:h so by measuring a piece of paper you can work out how many 
es long it will be, A4 paper is 70 lines long. Continuous, 1 1 " paper 
36 lines long, A 1.5" label is 9 lines long and a 2' label is 12 lines 

e word processor takes the value you give for page length and 
otracts from this the value of top and bottom margins (BM and 
.' commands). These are the areas that cannot be printed on 
-cause the printer cannot hold the stationery. If headers and 
Dters are being used then the word processor further subtracts 
e FM and HM values. The amount left is the number of lines in the 
3in body of the page that you can enter text on. 

-en printing on continuous stationary such as fan fold 11" paper 
abels the top and bottom margins may be set to zero and if no 


headers and footers are used then the number of lines that the 
word processor will allow you to enter on each page is the same 
as the page length. Another way of putting this is to say that the 
actual number of lines that can be used on a page are: 

PL - TM - BM (- HM if headers on) (- FM if footers on) 

An example of the PL command might be: 

This would tell the word processor that there were only 9 lines to 5 " 
each page (1 .5" labels). 

SM Side Margin 

Syntax: >SM number 

The SM command is followed by a number that tells the word 
processor how many characters from the left hand edge of the 
page it should start printing at. The SM command applies to all 
pages in a document. If you want to have different values for odd 
and even pages then you should use the EM and OM commands 
instead, If you do not give an SM command then a value of 5 is 

TM Top Margin 

Syntax: >TM number 

The Top Margin is the number of lines at the top of a page where 

the word processor will not attempt to print. The reason for defining 
a top margin is that most printers cannot fully grip a piece of paper 
until it has been fed a few lines into the printer. Most printers will not 
be able to print on at least the top 3 lines of a page. However, ff 
you use continuous paper (with holes up the edge) then the printer 
can print on every line so you could set TM to zero. However, 
documents look more professional if a few lines are left blank at the 
top and bottom of a page, If no TM command is given a value of 
3 is assumed. If you were to use the command: 

>TM 6 

The word processor would leave 6 lines blank at the top of each 



IM Zero Margins 

.ntax: >ZM 

-is command sets all margins to be zero. This can be useful if you 

re using continuous paper and want to print a draft copy of a 
-.ocument without having it correctly spaced out on each page. 

p age Formatting commands 

.eral of these stored commands achieve the same effect as 
----*ings in some of the menus. For example, CP, EA, SA achieve 

-nilar effects to the settings in the menu you see when you press 
-e 1553 key at the print document screen. The stored commands 

-ny take effect for the document in which they appear while the 
-enu entries apply to all documents until the settings are changed. 

:i CEntre 

.itax: >CE text 

-e CE command is followed by text on the same line which will be 
•sntred when the document is printed. You may wonder why you 
. Duld wish to leave centring until the document is printed when 
: j can always achieve the effect using t"iJlLJ. Well, the main use 
'or when you are also using proportional printing and the 
Dsitioning to centre the text will be dependent on the actual width 
• the characters used. Another use for CE is when the text that is 

- be centred is of variable length. This will occur when using mail 
erge and the text to be centred contains a mail merge variable. 
: - example: 

•3 Memorandum to Snamefi 

ght print as: 

Memorandum to Mr. Sugar 

;p Continuous Printing 
itax: >CP ON 
or: >CP OFF 

-e CP command is always followed by the word ON or OFF and 
s+tches continuous printing on or off. When Continuous printing Is 

- the word processor assumes that your printer is loaded with 
-ntinuous (fan fold) paper that has tractor holes up the edges, It 
~en sends every page of the document to be printed at once 


without a break. When CP is switched to Off, the word processor 
assumes you are printing on separate, single sheets of paper so it 
pauses before each page is printed and allows you to load single 
sheets into the printer, Once the paper is in place and the printer 
is switched on-line you press the Space Bar to print the next page, 
if you print to a laser printer or other printer that has a sheet feeder 
you will probabiy want to tell the word processor that it is using 
continuous paper by using the CP ON command. The CP 
command has the same effect as the "Continuous printing?" switch 
in the print menu (accessed by pressing £H3 at the print document 

EA End printing At page 

Syntax: >EA number 

This command tells the word processor the number of the last page 
you want printed. Normally it will print every page up to the last 
page in the document, The EA command may be used together 
with the SA command which defines which page to start printing 
at. For example, say you have a 10 page document and include 
the commands: 

>SA 3 
>EA 7 

at the top of the document then, when it is printed, only pages 3 
to 7 will be printed, It is also possible to select a range of pages to 
print using the settings in the print menu but they apply to all 
documents while the stored commands only apply to the 
document in which they are used. 

EF Even page Footer 

Syntax: >EF text 

The EF command is used to define a line of text that will be printed, 

within the footer margin area of every even page of a document. 
The simplest form of commands for putting in footers is the FO 
command which applies to every page. However, the EF and OF 

commands allow different footers to be applied to even and odd 

pages, This would be useful, for example, if you were writing a book 
and wanted to put the page number at the right hand end on the 
foot of every right (odd) page and the page number at the left on 
the foot of every left (even) page. An example of the EF command 
might be: 


-EF Page % 

of pa ^ * 

vnich would result in every even page having the page number 

- the left and the odd pages having the page number on the 
3ht. The "%" symbol has a special meaning in headers and footers. 
'stead of just printing the symbol it is filled in with the current page 

_mber as it is printed. 

ice a footer has been defined the word processor will start to 
^ serve the footer margin area for printing the footer in. Before then 
.vould assume the footer margin were zero. 

H Even page Header 

.-^tax: >EH text 

-e EH command is very similar to the EF command except that it 
efines the header for every even page rather than the footer. Just 
• e the EF command, once the EH command has been given the 
ord processor will start to reserve the header margin area for 
-iting the header text in. An example of the EH command might 
e to put the title of a book on the top of every left hand page. At 
■ e same time you might want to put the chapter title at the top 

- every right hand (odd) page: 

■£H Fly Fishing by J R Hartley 

oh Tying flies 

:' Even Page throw 

-tax: >EP 

or: >EP number 

-e EP command is like the PA command that forces a new page 

be started. However, the EP command has a further function in 
3t it will always arrange for the next page to be an even 
j-nbered page. 

.; if the current page has an odd number it will just end it at the 
.^nt the EP command is included and the next page will be the 
~xt even numbered page. However, if the current page were 
.en numbered then, not only would it be ended, a whole, blank, 
3d numbered page would be inserted so that text would continue 

- the next even numbered page. This forces the next line to start 

- the top of a left hand (even numbered) page. 


If the EP command is followed by a number then the EP-command 

will only have any effect if the number of blank lines remaining on 
the current page is less than or equal to the given number. So, for 
example, the command: 

>EP 10 

will force the next line to start at the top of an even numbered 

page if there are 10 or less lines remaining on the current page. 

FF Form Feed codes 

Syntax: >FF ON 
or: >FF OFF 

The FF command is always followed by the word ON or OFF, !t tells 
the word processor whether or not you would like it to send a form 
feed character at the end of every page that is printed. The form 
feed character (number 12) is a special character used by some 
printers to tell them to finish printing the current page and move to 
the start of the next page. It may be necessary with some laser 
printers to switch the FF command ON so that each page is 
followed by a character 12. If no FF command is used it is switched 
Off and no form feed characters are sent. After the command: 


the word processor will send a form feed character at the end of 
each page. This has the same effect as the "Form feeds enabled?" 

setting in the print menu. 

FO FOoter 

Syntax: >FO text 
or: >FO OFF 
or: >FO ON 

The FO command is used to tell the word processor what text you 
would like to have printed on the foot of every page. Once an FO 
command is used the footer margin area will be reserved for 
printing the footer text in and the footer will be printed on the 
bottom line of the footer margin area. 

Once a footer has been defined it will appear at the foot of every 
page printed, However, you can disable footers on any pages you 
choose by using the >FO command followed by the word OFF. Any 
subsequent pages will not have a footer printed. If, later in the. 


-iocument, the command >FO ON Is used the printing of footers wHI 

e resumed. 

- you just use the command >FO ON without having previously 
:efined a footer then a centralised page number will be printed 
i the foot of every page. 

you want to include page numbers within a footer just put a "%" 
gn where you would like the number to be printed, it will be filled 
vvith the correct value when the document is printed. If you want 
■ include the "%" character in a footer use "%%" to print a single 
ercent symbol, 

s Format whilst Printing 
ntax: >FP ON 
or: >FP OFF 

e FP command is followed by the word ON or OFF and specifies 

-ether the document should be reformatted while it is being 

-i ted. If no FP command is used then it is assumed to be OFF. The 

command is used in conjunction with the RJ command. The RJ 
:mmand switches right justification on or off in the section of 
: cument following it. If you have sections of the document where 

s switched on and others where it is switched off then you should 
;o use the FP ON command to ensure that the justified sections 
e properly formatted prior to printing. 

-= Header 

-tax; >HE text 
or: >HE ON 
or: >HE OFF 

e HE command is used in exactly the same way as the FO 
--nmand except that it defines and controls the printing of a 

ader text in the header margin area at the top of each page, 

e the description of FO for more details. 

: Line Spacing 
-Tax: >LS number 

e LS command defines the line spacing to be used when a 

cument is printed, it has no effect on what you see on screen 

- le editing. Normally line spacing is set to one so that lines are 

-ted as you see then while editing, However, for manuscripts and 

entific reports it is often necessary to have the lines double 


spaced when printed and this can be achieved wtttr 
command: J 

>ls 2 

The LS command will also accept half line feed values that end in 
.5 (1 ,5, 2.5, etc.). But oniy some printers will be able to space text 
in half line spacing values. The LS command has the same function 
as the "Line spacing" setting in the Layout menu that is accessed 

by pressing iftl while holding down tri when typing a document, 

NC Number of Copies 

Syntax: >NC number 

This command specifies how many copies of the document should 
be printed, If no NC command is used the value of one Is assumed. 
A command such as: 

>NC 3 

would result In three copies of a document being printed. 

NP New Page after print 

Syntax: >NP ON 
or: >NP OFF 

The NP command is used to switch on or off the printing of a blank 1 

page after a whole document has been printed. If no NP 
command is used the feature is switched OFF, The NP command is 
particularly useful when printing on continuous, fan-fold, paper as 
it moves the printer to the top of the next blank page after a 
document has been printed. This allows the document that has just 
been printed to be ripped off at the next line of perforations, The! 
NP command has the same effect as the "New page after print?^ 
setting in the print document menu. 

OF Odd page Footer 

Syntax: >OF text 

For a full description see the EF command, The OF command wof 
in just the same way as the Even page Footer command except 
that it defines the footer text for Odd (right hand) pages, A typical 
OF command might be; 

>OF This is printed at the foot of all odd pages 


OH Odd page Header ■■■r ■■*■'■ -■•'' **■■' 

Syntax: >OH text 

T he OH command is similar to the EH command except that it 

defines the header to be used on odd numbered, right hand, 

OP Odd Page throw 

Syntax: >OP 

or: >OP number 

The Odd Page throw command will cause the next tine printed to 
start at the top of an odd page. If the current page is even 
numbered it will be at the start of the very next page, If the current 
oage is already odd numbered then a blank, even numbered, 
cage will be inserted so that the next line is at the start of an odd 
oage. This would often be used when writing a book when you 
.vant to ensure that each chapter starts on a right hand page. If 
•he OP command is followed by a number it will only take effect if 
•ne current page has that number (or fewer) blank lines remaining. 

PA PAge throw 

Syntax: >PA 

or: >PA number 

Tie PAge throw command will cause the current page to be ended 
and the next line of text will start printing at the top of the next 
oage, If the PA command is followed by a number then it will only 
-ake effect if that number of blank lines or fewer remain on the 
:urrent page. You can quickly insert a PA command into a 
document by pressing the (%) key while holding down E3. 

pe Print Even pages 

Syntax: >PE ON 
or: >PE OFF 

Tie Print Even pages command, PE, when followed by the word ON 
,vill cause only the even pages of the current document to be 
orinted. If the command >PE OFF is used then all pages will be 

"he reason for only printing even pages is so that a book or 

■magazine can be printed on both sides of some sheets of paper. 
-trst the odd pages are printed. Then the paper is turned over and 
•ne even pages are printed on the other side of the same paper. 


PN Page Number 

Syntax: >PN number 


The number following the PN command sets the number that the 
current page will have, subsequent pages will be renumbered 
accordingly, For example, if the command; 

>PN 10 

is used on a page then that page will be page 10 and the following 
page will be 1 1 and so on. The PN command is useful when writing 
separate chapters of a book and you want to ensure that the next 
chapter's page numbering continues on after the last page of the 
previous chapter. Page numbers can be made to appear on the 
printed pages by including the % symbol in either a header of 
footer definition. 

PO Print Odd pages 

Syntax: >PO ON « 


When the PO ON command is used only the odd pages of a 

document will be printed. Using the command PO OFF will return 
things to normal so that all pages are printed, 

As described under the PE command. The PE and PO commands 
are used together to first print the odd and then the even pages 
of a document on either side of the paper to be printed. 

RJ Right Justification 

Syntax: >RJ ON 
or: >RJ OFF 

The RJ command can be used to switch on or off the right 
justification of text in specific areas of a document. The lines 
following an RJ ON command will be justified while those following 
an RJ OFF command will have a ragged right margin. For this 
command to operate correctly the document should be 
reformatted during printing. This is accomplished by using the FP 
ON command. The setting of right justification for a whole 
document can be switched on or off using Er3E~D or setting the 
option in the configure menu that is accessed by pressing ^""'Hm 
while editing. 


SA Start At page .-* ■■- ■■*.■■■■■■ ■■:■ ->!-■■■ . ■■■- :; "- ;;■•*- ■■-■n-o*-:- i <~. 

Syntax: >SA number 

"he SA command Is used to define which page number printing 
should start at. Together with the EA command this allows only 
specified sections of a document to be printed. See the description 
Df EA for more details. 

Printer commands 

CW define Character Width 

Syntax: >CW number 

"lis command is used to set the character width for micro spacing. 

-ossibie examples are as follows though these are not necessarily 
:orrect for all printers.: 

>cw 10 (elite characters) 

>cw 7 (condensed) 

>cw 14 (condensed enlarged) 

MC Micro space Code 

vntax: >MC code code.., 

"-■is command defines the sequence of codes that will move the 
.:'int head by the smallest possible amount. The word processor 
.ses this to evenly space the words in a line of justified text. A typical 
-<ample use of the command might be: 

>MC 27 "L" 10 

vhich will mean that every time the word processor wants to move 
•>e print head by the smallest possible amount it will send the 

:oove sequence. The actual sequence of codes used is 
-,ependent on the printer being used, 

MS micro spacing 
.ntax: >MS ON 
or: >MS OFF 

"t© MS command turns micro spacing on or off. When micro 
pacing is on the word processor will evenly distribute the extra 
cace on each line that is justified, Normally it tries to distribute 

■:tra, whole, spaces along the line to perform the justification but 


micro spacing allows it to properly divide the extra space between 
every word and leads to a more professional looking result. 

However, the ability to use micro spacing is dependent on the 
orinter that you use and it may be necessary to give the correct 
CW and MC commands before it can be used successfully. For 
some printers you only need an MS ON command but this all 
depends on which printer you choose in the second screen of the 
D rint document menu. 

OC Output Code to printer 
Syntax: >OC code code... 

The OC command is used to output codes to a printer. Normally. 
when you want to send special codes to a printer you just put a 
.vord in boid or italic or whatever and the word processor arranges 
to send the correct sequence of codes to the selected printer to 
achieve the effect. However, there may be other effects that a 
orinter can produce by sending it codes. You can use the OC 
command to put such a sequence of codes in your document. For 
example, when using an Epson compatible printer; 

>OC 27, "S", 1 

will send the codes that switch it into subscript printing while 
>OC 27, "T" 

will cancel the effect, See your printer manual for a list of the 
control codes that it understands. 

PP Proportional Printing 

Syntax: >PP ON 
or: >PP OFF 

The PP command switches proportional printing on or off. Normally 
it is off if no PP command has been used. When PP is switched on 
the word processor no longer assumes that all characters are the 

same width when printed. Instead it will use its knowledge of the 
width of individual characters to produce a better justified 
appearance. For this to work the printer should be sent a code to 
switch it into a proportional font. This can be achieved by using the 
style menu "P - Proportional" entry to put the necessary code in your 
document. A quicker way of entering the code is to press E3F~3 


followed by f 7 *). Whether proportional printing works correctly may 
depend upon your printer. 

Miscellaneous commands 

CO comment 

Syntax: >CO text 
or: >» text 

This command can be followed by any text so that it appears in 
the document but will not appear when printed. This can be used 
to add a descriptive reminder at the start of a document to remind 
you later what a document contains. It can also be used to include 
annotations. For example: 

>C0 This is chapters 2 and 3 of my book on quantum mechanics 
>C0 Draft number 3 - 11th March 1992 


>» Must send memo to Mr. S about the carrying case 

CS Clear Screen 

Syntax: >CS message 

"he CS command will be interpreted when you come to print a 
document. It will cause the screen to be cleared and then any text 
Dn the CS command line will be displayed on the screen. The CS 
:ommand would normally be used when mail merging to clear the 
screen and display an explanatory message about the data that is 
oeing asked for by subsequent AV commands. The CS command 
;ould be used more generally to print on the screen a description 
Df the document that is being printed. For example: 

>CS Printing the second part of the stored command chapter 

OM Display Message 

!/ntax: >DM message 

"ne message on the line following DM is displayed on screen during 
orinting, Several DM commands might be used after a CS 
:ommand to display a multiple line message on screen during 



IN Insert " ; '"' : " '*"'■ '•"** 

Syntax: >IN document_name 

The Insert command is very powerful. For example, if you write a 

book (or even a single chapter) in several sections, each contained 
in a separate document you can produce a master document that 
just includes a number of >IN commands to print all the various bits 
together. For example: 


Printing the whole book 


"Stored crads" 


"title page" 




"Chapter 1" 


"Chapter 2" 





The advantage of printing a book In this way is that the page 
numbering, headers, footers and margins defined in the first 
document will apply through the book unless over-ruled by a 
subsequent stored command. 

The IN command could also be used to build a document from 
standard paragraphs. You could keep each standard paragraph 
in a separate document and then build a final document by just 
using a few IN commands. For example: 

Dear Mr Smith . .. v 

>IN "thank you" 
>IN "widget info" 
>IN "contact us" 
Yours sincerely, 

Mr Bloggs 


ST STop •*. 

Syntax: >ST message 

The ST command causes printing to stop as soon as it is 

encountered, If a message is included on the >ST command line 
then that will be displayed on the screen. The ST command would 
usually be used when using the conditional printing facility provided 
by mail merge commands. 


WT WaiT and display 

Syntax: >WT message 

"he WT command causes printing to be stopped temporarily and 
any message included on the WT command line will be displayed 
on the screen. Printing will resume when any key is pressed. An 
example of this might be: 

>WT Make sure printer is loaded with 1.5" labels... 

"his would be placed right at the start of a document. When the 
document was printed the message would be displayed allowing 
•ne user to put the right sort of paper into the printer before printing 

Mail merge commands 

Mail merge is an extremely powerful feature of the word processor 
out unfortunately this inevitably leads to a certain amount of 
complication. The following is just a short description of each of the 
-nail merge stored commands. Following this is a description of the 
oasics of mail merging but in a book this size it is difficult to include 
every aspect of such a large subject. 

AV Ask for Variable 

Syntax: AV string identifier number... 

'nis is used during mail merging and causes the word processor to 
;-op while the document is being printed and ask for a value to be 
-yped in which is then given to a variable. 

"he meaning of the various parts of the command syntax are: 
rring is the prompt displayed on the screen, identifier is the name 
cf a variable into which the entered value will be stored and 
^umber is the maximum length of the input that will be expected, 

An example might be: 

>*V "Enter today's date", date 

>AV "Type an invoice number", invnum, 6 


This command would stop and print the text In quotes and then 
wait for the user to type in a value. Only 6 characters would be 



CF Close File 

Syntax: >CF 

This closes a document file that was previously opened by the WF 
command. The ability to write to a document is used when you 
want to capture what has been output from a mail merging session 
into a document as well as just printing it. 

DF Define data File 

Syntax: >DF document_name 

File Is Just a boffin word for document. This command is used to tell 
the word processor which document it should use to read the data 
for a mall merge operation from. A typical file (document) might 
include a list of names and addresses which would be used to print 
multiple copies of the same letter to different people. 

El End If 

Syntax: >EI 

The El command is used after a list of commands that will only be 
executed if the condition in a preceding IF command has been 
met. There are various forms of IF command - ID, IE, IF and IU. A 
typical conditional sequence might be: 

>IF town = "York" t 

As a resident of York we think you may be particularly 
interested to hear of our weekly meeting held at York 
Minster . 

EL Else 

Syntax: >EL 

The ELse command is used to end the section of commands and 

text to be included if an IF condition is met and to start a section 
of commands and text that will be used if the IF condition was not 
met, It would finally be terminated with an El command. For 



>IF telno = ""■ 

As you haven't got a telephone please contact us by post. 


Please call us as soon as possible on 0708 123456 


10 If Defined 

Syntax: >ID identifier 

A check is made to see if the variable identifier has been defined. 
Dnly if it has will the following section up to the next >EL or >EI 
command be used. 

IE If Exhausted 

Syntax: >IE 

.Vhen mail merging data is read from a data file document and is 
j$ed to fill in the various mail merge variables. Several similar letters 
-nay be printed in this way but it may be useful at the end of the 
orint run to perform some other action. This can be achieved using 
-ne IE command. The block of text and commands following an IE 
rommand up to the next EL or El will only be performed if the data 
-•e is exhausted. Say, for example, that for each letter that was 
r'inted you had a variable called "count' recording the number 
^n'nted, At the end you could include the following: 


>CS Mail merge finished. Scount* copies printed. 

f If 

: ^ntax: >IF condition 

■ the condition given in the IF command is met then the subsequent 

- ock of text and commands up to the next EL or El is used. This is 

:n extremely powerful command and allows many different kinds 
• conditions to be tested for. See the more detailed description of 

■ n the chapter on Mail Merge below. 

j if Undefined 

.ntax: >IU identifier 

- s tests to see if the variable identifier is defined. Only if it is 
-defined will the following block of text and commands up to the 
•ext EL or El be used. 


RP Re Peat 
Syntax: >RP 

The RP command is used to start a block of text and commands 

that will be used repeatedly. The end of the block is marked by a 
UN command which also sets a condition that must be met for the 
repetition to cease. The following very simple example will print the 
numbers 1 to 10: 

>sv count =1 

& counts 

>SV count=count + 1 

>UN count > 10 

RU Read variable Unconditional 
Syntax: >RU identifier, identifier... 

The RU command will read data from the data file document 

has been identified by the DF command and assign the data It 
reads to each identifier listed. The RU command reads 
unconditionally so that it is normally used with data files where 
every entry has the same number of fields. An example might be: 

>RU name, addressl, address2, addreas3, dummy 

RV Read Variable 

Syntax: >RV identifier identifier... 

The RV command is used to read values from the data file ar 
assign them to the list of variables. RV reads from the data file ur 
It finds an empty field. It then stops reading and assigns a null value 
to any unfilled variables named on the RV command line. 

SK SKip 

Syntax: >SK condition 

If the given condition is true then the printing of the currer 

document is terminated. You could for example read a long data| 
file but only print out letters to people whose name was Smith usin< 

>RV name, addrl, addr2, addr3 
>SK name <> "Smith" 

The "<>" means "not equal'. 


SV Set Vtiriable "^^ "'■'■' rvi ' *'"' ' 

Syntax: >SV identifier = expression 

:<-ff-» -hie* *« '-- 

"he SV command is used to set a variable, identifier to be equal to 

•he result of an expression. The expression is formed using the 

arithmetic operators +,-,/, *. (/ means divide and * means 


"he expression is evaluated in the order that the items in the 
calculation are encountered. It is not possible to change the 
arecedence of expressions as parentheses cannot be used. If a 
.ariable name appears in an expression its contents will be used if 
* is numeric. Complex expressions can be formed by the use of 
-emporary variables to hold the intermediate result. 

>SV temp = value 1 + value2 + value3 
>SV average = terap / 3 

"he above achieves the same effect as the expression: 
average = (valuel + value2 + value3) / 3 

UN Until 

Syntax: >UN condition 

*ne UN command is used at the end of a block started with the RP 
?ePeat) command, All the text and commands between RP and 
M will be used repeatedly until the condition in the UN command 
aecomes true. 

wc Write file Close 

Syntax: >WC 

"he WC command closes a write file that has been opened by the 

,VF command. 

WF Write File 

ivntax: >WF document 
or: >WF ON 
or: >WF OFF 

"he WF command is used to open a file (document) that will have 
messages written to it. This allows the output of a mail merge run to 
;e written to a file as well as being printed. The WF command used 
,-/ith either ON or OFF to start or stop the writing of data to a file. A 
.ery simple example might be: 


>WF "Write test" 

This is a line of text that will be written to "Write Test" 


This line will be printed on the printer. 


This is the second line written to the file. -i 


If you print this document it will create a new document called 
"Write test" containing two lines of text, The middle line will only be 

printed on the printer. 

WM Write Message 

Syntax; >WM message 

This command is used to write messages to the document file that 
has been opened using the WF command. The WM command will 
still write to a file even if the WF OFF command has been used. 


Mail merge 

Mail merge is, without doubt, the most powerful feature of the word 
orocessor built into your Notebook. In its simplest form it will allow 
/ou to make a simple template letter and then print multiple copies 
.vith different people's name and addresses on each. This is useful 
"or printing things such as club newsletters, 

'ne actual range of mail merge commands available is guite large 
and, in effect, forms the basis of a very simple programming 
anguage. For example, type the following lines into a new 
jocument and then Stop editing and print it. (Don't worry if you 
jon't understand what the commands mean yet) 

>CS This "program" prints the 7 times table 

>WT Hit any key to start . . . 

>SV count =1 


>SV result = count * 7 

>SV result = result [wl] 

>SV count = count [wl] 

>OM &count& * 7 = &result& 

>SV count = count +1 

>0N count = 13 

"nat gives you just a taste of what can be achieved with mail 
-nerge but let's start at the very beginning and try to understand 
exactly what mail merge is. 

Simple mail merging 

- its simplest form mail merge is just the process of taking a 
document (or file) full of data such as names and addresses and 
..offing them into a main template letter. For example, suppose you 
-ave a document called "names" that contains the details of the 
-rembers of your club in the following form (it might be an idea to 
-/pe this in if you want to follow this chapter by trying the examples) 
.eave a blank line after each 5 line entry: 

"ohn Smith 

n Acacia Avenue 






Eric Viking ,1 

26 Pownell Road ; <; ._ _ ' 
Mucklethwaite ^ 
Lancashire ' 
P03 9BU \ 

Norman Nobody 
1 The Avenue 
GH6 3TU 

Supposing you want to send each of them a letter to tell them that., 
their subscription to your club is now due. You could write each a 
separate letter filling in the relevant name and address where 
appropriate but it would be far easier to get the word processor to 
do this for you. Consider what the letter would look like if you were 
writing to John Smith: 

15th August 1992 i 

Dear John, 

I write to remind you that your subscription is now due. 
Just to keep our records up to date please confirm your 
name and address details are as shown below: 

John Smith 

27 Acacia Avenue 

Surbiton ' 



Yours sincerely, 

Cliff Lawson 

It is clear that if we want to turn this letter into a template to be 
used for everyone we must replace all specific references to John 
Smith with some sort of "place holder" which will be filled in with 
different details for each different copy of the letter printed. The 
letter might then become: 

15th August 1992 

Dear &name&, 


I writs to remind you that your subscription is now due. 
Just to keep our records up to date please can confirm 
your name and address details are as shown below: 

i names 





Yours sincerely, 

Cliff Lawson 

"he "&" is a special indicator to the word processor that the word 
zontained within the "&" symbols is the name of a mail merge 
/citable" which it must fill in when it prints the letter. 

lo that is our template letter, which can be stored in a document 

zalled "template" - type it in now if you like. Now we have to have 
;ome means of telling the word processor which document 
;ontains the list of names and addresses. We do this by using a DF 
;*ored command in the template letter. Add the line: 

>DF names 

•d the top of the document. 

-<owever, all the DF command does is tell the word processor where 
-re data is being kept. It has no way of knowing that the names 
znd addresses are organised so that there is a single line with the 
-ame, 3 with the address, one with the postcode and one blank 
ne. We must also tell the word processor how to read the data 
- OT the data file and which mail merge variables the various items 
•nouid be stored in. This is achieved using the RV command to read 
-ie information from the data file into mail merge variables which 
:an then be inserted into the template letter. Add the following 
zommand after the DF command: 

>RV name, addrl, addr2, addr3, postcode, dummy 

.'.hen this line is executed the word processor will read the first line 
• D m the data file and assign it to "name". The second line will go 
-to "addrl" and so on, The reason for having an extra variable 
-ailed "dummy" is that each address is followed by a blank line to 


separate it from the next and so each time that blank tine will 
read into "dummy" but not used. 

You could now try printing the document to a printer from the "Print 
document" screen. You should get three copies of the letter printed. 
Each will have a different name and address. While experimenting 
with mail merge it can be a waste of paper to repeatedly print to 
a printer. While editing the template you can see what the results 
of a mail merge will be by printing the document to the screen. 
Press IS^D followed by [ p J. The document is shown 1 6 lines at a time. 
Press GT to see each subsequent 15 lines. Press bS to abanOon 
printing a long document to the screen. You will see that where you 
have included mailmerge variables (&name&) they are filled in with 
the values from the data file. 

More about reading data 

There are two commands which can be used to read data from a 

data file and assign it to mail merge variables, RV is the simpler form 
of command. It just reads data and assigns it to the named 
variables until a blank line is read when it stops reading data and 
sets all the other "unread" variables to be blank. The problem with 
this is that if we had a shorter address such as: 

Tom Brown 
Rugby School 

R03 8BY 

The blank line would cause problems if the RV command were 

When you print the letter you would get one in which Tom's address 
was used but his postcode would be missed out because the 
reading of the file would have finished at the blank line between 
Rugby and RU3 8BY. The next letter printed would have a name of 
"RU3 SBY'I This clearly is not what we wanted at all. 

If the RV command is changed to RU, which will happily read an 

entry even if it is blank, then things are restored to normal. You wil . 
notice that although the names and addresses file contains a blar 
line between "Rugby" and "RU3 8 BY", when printed this blank d< 
not appear. This is because when a variable appears enclosed in 


*&" characters It does not print anything if the variable is blank. If 
you really wanted the blank line you could replace the "&" 
characters with "I" symbols. A variable name enclosed in "!" will print 
*he contents of that variable even if it is blank. 

n the data file it is probably safest to put a single dollar sign on any 
ines which form part of the data but would otherwise be blank (the 
ine between Rugby and the postcode In this case). The word 
orocessor knows that a line with a single dollar character on should 
oe read in as a blank line. Just use completely blank lines between 
each record (collection of data). In this case you wouid only have 
rompletely blank lines between the postcode of one entry and the 
~ext name. 

Inputting data when printing 

\i the moment the template letter has the fixed date In it but we 
-nay want to use the same template several times and enter the 
jate just before printing. This can be achieved by removing "15th 
August 1992" and replacing it with &date&. 

'y that now and print the template letter. You will get a message 
;aying "Unknown variable 'date'". We need the word processor to 
:*op and ask for date to be typed in when the template is printed, 
"his is achieved with the AV command which will Ask for a Variable 
•d be typed in. Add a line at the top of the template document: 

>hV "Type in today's date: ", date 

• you now print the document you will find that there is just one 
■. ght problem with this - you are asked to type in the date for every 
ropy of the letter that is printed, You only want to be asked once 
7* the very start so add the following line before the AV command 

>I0 date 

:nd add the line; 

r**er the AV command line. This will mean that the AV command is 
nly used if the variable "date" is undefined. (This is what IU means 
' Undefined), Once you have typed the date in it will be defined 

•.n subsequent prints of the letter. 


Other ways to set variables 

So far we have seen that it is possible to set the contents of a mail 
merge variable using either the RV/RU commands to read the value 
from a data file or the AV command to get the user to type in a 
value when the template is printed. It is also possible to set the 
contents of a variable directly using the SV command. 

Suppose we want to keep a count of how many copies of the letter 
have been printed and show this at the end of printing. This could 
be achieved as follows. First, on the line after the AV command that 
asks for the date add: 

>sv count = l 

This sets a variable called 'count' to be 1 on the first time the 
document is printed. We know this will only happen on the first 
occasion because we have already seen that the line within the IU 
and El block is only used the once. This SV command shows another 
feature of the mail merge - variables can contain numbers as well 
as pieces of text and SV can be used to give a value to a variable 
(up to now we have only used name, addrl , and so on for storing 
pieces of text). - 

After each copy has been printed we must increase the value held 
in count by one. This is done by including the following command 
at the end of the document: 

>SV count = count + 1 

This means that count should be set to the current value of counf 
plus one. The final thing we need is to arrange for a message to be 
printed on the screen once the last letter has been printed. We 
know when the last letter has been printed because the data file 
will be exhausted. We can test for this condition using the IE 
command. So, on the line above SV count = count + 1 add the 
following lines; 


>CS Number of copies printed was ScountS 


The CS command will clear the screen and display the followir 
message. The &count& part of the message will be filled in with tt 
current value held in the count variable. When you print 


•emplate, at the very end, you should see the message "Number 
Df copies printed was 4.00". We don't realty want the two decimal 
Diaces to be included in the display ot count. This can be achieved 
oy including the following on the line above the CS command: 

>SV count = count [wl] 

splitting data out from a variable 

"he [wl] is a special command to the word processor which means 
-ake only the first "word" contained in count. You might think it odd 
--iat we think of count as containing a word when really it holds a 
-umber. But the value 4.00 is thought of by the word processor as 
-wo words "4" and "00" separated by a full stop. The [wl] at the end 
Df the line takes word 1 from count. 

♦ is possible to split out words from a line of text in a similar way. For 

example, if the variable "text" was set using: 

>SV text = "Now is the time for all good men" 

■ext[wi] would be "Now", 

•ext[w3] would be "the". 

-9xt[w~i] would be "men" (w-1 means the last word) 

-ext[w4 : 7] would be "time for ail good" (words 4 to 7) 

ext [w7 : ] would be "good men" (words 7 to the end) 

•ou can also pick out a range of letters, for example text [2: 8] 
.vould be "ow is t". 

•ou can use this ability to pick out parts of a piece of text within a 
conditional statement, For example, 

>IF name [w-1] = "Smith" 

*ould only be true if the last word in name (the surname) was Smith. 

-i our example template we will currently get "Dear John Smith," 

orinted. What we really want is just "Dear John,", You may already 

-ave guessed how we might achieve this. After the >RV command 

^dd the line: 

>SV firstname = name[wl] 

3nd then modify the line which says Dear &name&, to read: 

Dear & first name*. 


The complete template should read: ^ 

" j l 

>DF names 

>RV name, addrl, addr2, addr3, postcode, dummy 

>SV firstnarae = narae[wl] 

>IU date 

>AV "Type in today's date : " date 

>SV count = 1 



Dear fifirstnameS, 

I write to remind you that you subscription is now due. 
Just to keep our records up to date please can confirm 
your name and address details are as shown below: 

S names 





Yours sincerely. 

Cliff Lawson 


>SV count = count [wl] 

>CS Number of copies printed was 6 count & 


>SV count = count + 1 

Using the IF command 

As has already been shown, you can arrange for selected pieces 
of text and selected stored commands to be used by including 
them In a conditional block that starts with one of the IF commands. 
You can use ID to test if a variable has been defined, IU will test if 
a variable is undefined. The commands and text following IE will 
only be used if the data file is exhausted. However, most conditional 
tests are made using the general IF command followed by a 
condition. If the condition is met then the following lines are used. 
There are various comparisons that can be used in an IF command. 
they are as follows: 






equal to 

>IF name = "John" 


not equal to 

>IF (total + 3) <> 5 


less than 

>IF count < 10 


less than or equal 

>IFvat<= 17.5 


Greater than 

>IF age > 18 


greater than or equal 

>IF height > 5 


is contained in 

>IF "Smi" IN name 


is not contained in 

>IF"081" NOTIN num 

The condition can include expressions similar to those that might be 
used in an SV command. For example: 

>IF price + delivery + vat > 200 

Adding variables 

.Vhen the addition operator is used to add to variables together, 
tie word processor checks to see. if they are both numbers. If they 
are, then the addition is done numerically, otherwise one piece of 
•ext is just added onto the end of another. The following examples 
may illustrate this: 

>SV namel="Clifff " 

>SV name2="Lawson" 

>SV mnnl="37" 

>SV num2="53" 

namel + name2 = "Cliff Lawson" 

runnel + muni = "Cliff 37" 

numl + nw2 - "90" 

3um2 + name2 = "53 Lawaon" 

Using names and addresses from 
me Address Book 

As you may already have a list of names and addresses entered 
nto the address book. section of your Notebook you may be 
wondering if you can use them in the data file for a mail merge 
rperation. The answer is yes but because they are stored in a 
oecial way within the address book you must extract them into a 
ew document before they can be used. The way to do this is to 
.-art a new document (call it "Addresses* maybe). Hit S so that 
-e 'Start typing new text here" message disappears (this step is 


absolutely vftaf!), then press h^'H Fl to switch to the address book 
function. Use the fj=5=±3 keys to browse through your addresses until 
you find the first one that you want to use for mail merging. Now 
press (LD to transfer that into your document. Repeat this process 
for each entry you want to add, Now make sure that each has the 
same number of lines and that there is a blank line after each, You 
may want to delete some of the lines from each one, for example, 
remove the line that has the fax number on. A quick way to delete 
a whole line in the word processor is to press EEBlEI while the cursor '. 
is on the line. 

Mail merge without a data file 

The above description of mail merge has shown the way it is used 1 
with two files, one full of names and addresses and the other a 
template letter with sections to be filled in. There is a second 
general use for the mail merge feature and this is to construct just 
a template which, when printed, asks you to input various pieces 
of information and just fiils them in immediately before printing. The 
obvious example of this is printing invoices. The following shows an 
example of this: 

>AV "Enter today's date : ", date 
>AV "Enter current VAT rate % : ", vatrate 
>AV "Type invoice number : ", invnum 
>SV gnet=0 gvat=0 gtotinc=0 


Invoice number: &invnum& Data: fidate* 

Description Retail Quant Disc Total Net VAT TOTAC) 


>AV "Description of goods? " descrip 12 

>AV "Retail price? " ret "Quantity?" quant 

>AV "Discount % ?" disc 

>IS? disc="" 

>SV disc = 


>SV totret=ret * quant off«totret/100*disc 

>SV net=totret-off vat=net* vat rate vat=vat/100 

>SV totinc=net+vat gnet=gnet+net gvat=gvat+vat 

>SV gtotinc=gtotinc+totinc 


> — . . ■ -R 

&d»scrip& fireti tquants SdiscS itotretS inetfi Svati Stotinct 
>AV "Another entry? Y/N ", yeno 
MJN yeno[l]<>"Y" 

TOTALS Sgnetfi sgvatS SgtotincS 

The first few lines just input some necessary Information to be 
orinted at the top of the invoice. 

'he variables gnet, gvat and gtotinc will be used to hold the global 
•otais of nett price, amount of vat and total price Including VAT. 
r hey are set to zero at the start. 

The next few lines will actually be printed at the top of an invoice, 
"hen everything between the RP and subsequent UN line are 
■epeated for each line of the document until you enter something 
other than Yes to the "Another entry?" question. 

=or each line the mail merge program asks you to Input a 

description, price, quantity and discount. A special check is made 
*o see if R was pressed when discount was asked for and, if so, 
•he variable disc is set to zero. The next couple of lines do all the 
necessary calculations, adding VAT and reducing by any discount. 
"he totals for this line are then added into the global totals, 

"he next line defines a ruler with decimal tabs so that all the 

numbers line up and the following line actually prints the 
nformation into the invoice, 



Your Notebook contains a powerful BASIC interpreter that can be 
used to write your own programs. BASIC is the most popular 
programming language for beginners to learn. In fact, the name 
BASIC is short for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic instruction Code 
because it is designed with beginners in mind. Symbolic Instruction 
Code is just a technical way of saying "programming language". 
The version of BASIC built into the Notebook is compatible with BBC 
BASIC - the version that is taught in most schools and that is used 
on many other computers. 

When you are using the Noteboo k you c an switch to using BASIC 
at any time by holding down the l F " nc ' io "l key and pressing D. To 
leave BASIC when you have finished you type the command 
*quit. Programs are not saved automatically so you MUST use the 
SAVE command before leaving BASIC to preserve any program you 
have been working on. 

You may like to set the 'Preserve context during power off' swrtchl 

in the System Settings menu to 'Yes' so that if you switch off while 5 ■ 
using BASIC your program is still available when you next switch on. 

When you are using BASIC you must ensure that Caps Lock is 
switched on at all times because BASIC expects all its commands 
to be entered in upper case. If you type in a command and just 
see the message "Mistake" then it may well be that you have 
mistakenly used lower case, To help you, each time you switch to 
BASIC Caps Lock will be turned on (if it wasn't already). When you 
leave BASIC the setting of Caps Lock will be returned to its original 

When BASIC Is started the screen will clear and you will see the 

BBC BASIC (NC200) Version 3.12 
(C) Copyright R.T.Russell 1992 

The '>' symbol is the BASIC "prompt" and it shows that BASIC is ready 
for you to type in a command. There are two ways in which BASIC 
can be used. You can just type individual commands at the prompt 
and the result of them will be shown immediately. 


Immediate commands 

Try typing: 
PRINT 3 + 4 

.A/hen you press the result, 7, is displayed immediately. This is 
<nown as immediate mode. Now, try typing the following (you must 
end every command by typing B). 

PRINT "Hello World" 

Jo type "Hell o Wor ld' you must switch Caps Lock off temporarily by 
oressing the I "" 1 -""! key, but remember to switch it back on before 
•yping further BASIC commands) 

^RINT is a command which does just what the name suggests and 
-ells BASIC that when the line is executed it should print whatever 
•allows the command on the line. If you just want some text printed 
.ou must put it in quotation marks. Anything that isn't in quotation 
~iarks BASIC assumes are further instructions. (As it did with 3 + 4, 
.vhich it understood were instruction to tell it to add 3 and 4). 

Writing programs - a short tutorial 

3esides Immediate mode the other way in which BASIC is used is 
•or you to type in the lines of a program and these will be stored in 
•ne Notebook's memory. This is known as program mode. It is only 
.vhen you give the special command, RUN, that the commands you 
-ave entered are actually acted upon. BASIC knows to store a 
rommand rather than act on it immediately if it starts with a 
-umber. Each line you type in must have a different number and 
•ne lines will be stored in number order. So, for example, if you were 
•o type: 

:0 PRINT "Start" G3 
30 PRINT "End" 
20 PRINT 3 + 4 C-3 

'-ie lines would actually be stored in the order 10, 20, 30. You can 

:ee this by typing the immediate mode command LIST, This will 
now you the program that is being held in the Notebook's 


You might wonder why the lines have been numbered 10, 20, 30 
rather than just 1 , 2 and 3. The reason for this is that if you later 
choose to add a line between 10 and 20 you could pick a number 
such as 15 that would be stored between them. If the lines were 
numbered 1 , 2, 3 there would be no room to add a line between 
1 and 2. You cannot use 1.5 as a line number. You can only use 
whole numbers. Try typing in: 

15 PRINT "The result of 3 added to 4 is "; 

and then type LIST to see how that new line has been slotted in 

between 10 and 20. The semi-colon on the end of line 15 is a special 
command to BASIC that means that the next thing it prints should 
appear on the same line as the preceding text. 

So far, all that you have done is to enter the lines of a program. To 
actually see what happens when the program runs you must give 
the immediate command RUN. You will see the program print the 


The result of 3 added to 4 is 7 


When you have finished writing a program you can store it 
permanently by using the SAVE command. You should type the 
word SAVE followed by the name of a file in which you want to store 
your BASIC program. The file name must be given in quotation, 
marks. To save your first program you could type: 


To clear the memory so that you can start entering a completely 
new program you use the command NEW, Just type: 


You must be careful with this command, if you type NEW without 
first saving anything you want to keep you will lose everything that 
you have entered. If you type the command LIST you will see that 
your first program has disappeared. BBC BASIC has a special 
command, OLD, which you can use immediately after a NEW 
command to recover what has just been erased. You must use OLD 
straight away, as soon as you enter a new program line the old 
program is lost forever. 


To check that the little program that you Just saved can be 

recovered, type the command: 


This will load the program back into BASIC'S program memory. You 
can now type LIST and you will see that the program has been 
-ecovered. However, we no longer want to keep a copy of that 
orogram in BASIC'S memory so type the NEW command to clear 
3ASIC's memory then a new program can be entered. Now that 
3ASIC is ready for a new program to be entered type in the 
blowing small program. Remember that BASIC keywords (such as 
D RINT, IF, THEN, GOTO) must be in upper case. If you forget you will 
;ee the error "Mistake in line x" when you RUN the program. 

10 NUM = 1 


30 NUM = NUM + 1 

40 IF NUM < 8 THEN GOTO 20 

"ype RUN and you should see that the program prints out the 

^umbers 1 to 7. 

jne 10 sets a variable called NUM to a starting value of 1. A 
variable is the name you give to an item that will store either a 
-umber or a piece of text. In this case the item is storing the number 
for us and we have chosen to call it NUM. 

jne 20 uses the PRINT command to show the contents of the 
.ariable NUM on the screen. Because NUM is not enclosed in 
quotation marks, BASIC knows that it must look up the value stored 
i a variable called NUM instead of just printing the word NUM on 
■ne screen, 

ne 30 adds one onto the current value stored In NUM. In effect 
-ie line is saying "Set the variable called NUM to be equal to the 
.alue currently store In NUM with one added to It". 

. ne 40 checks to see if NUM is less than 8 (the left angle bracket Is 
: special symbol used by BASIC to mean "less than"), If NUM still has 
; value less than 8 then BASIC goes on to execute the command 
;OTO 20 which means, go back to line 20 and carry on running 
->e program from there. If NUM is 8 or more then the part of the 
ne after THEN is ignored and it goes on to execute the next line in 


sequence. Because there are no more lines after 40, the program 
stops running, 

This simple 4 line program does not do very much but it has shown 
many of the concepts involved in programming. There is the use of 
variables to store information (NUM), there is the printing of results, 
there is the manipulation of variables to change the value that is 
held and there is the redirection of program flow depending on 
whether a certain condition is met. It is this last feature that sets a 
computer apart from a simple calculator. Calculators (however 
complex) can only perform arithmetic. It is only once the flow of 
calculation can be changed as the result of a previous operation 
that a calculating device can be considered a computer. 

Anyone familiar with BASIC may have already realised that there is 
a much neater way of achieving exactly the same effect as that 
program we have just entered, Type NEW to start a new program 
and then enter the following 3 lines: 

10 FOR num = 1 TO 7 
20 PRINT num 
30 NEXT num 

To save you having to type in the numbers 10, 20, 30 you could type 
the immediate mode command AUTO and BASIC will generate the 
number in sequence for you starting at 10 and going up in steps of 
1 0. When it shows "40" just press the H key to get back to the BASIC 
prompt ">". 

Notice that this time we have put NUM in lower case "num". This just* 

makes the program easier to read. We could just as easily have 
used NUM but the important thing to know is that BASIC treats 

variable names as case sensitive which means that it treats NUM 
and num (and Num and nUm and nuM and so on) as different 
variables. You must always make sure that variable names match 
correctly. It may be easiest to always use lower case for variable 
names and upper case for BASIC keywords. This makes your 
programs easier to read. 

The words FOR and NEXT are 2 commands in BASIC that are alwc 
used together. The FOR command starts a variable at a certain' 
value and sets an upper limit for it. Then every command in 
between the FOR and the NEXT command is executed and ore is 
added to the variable, if it has not reached the limit a jump is made 
back to the instruction after the FOR command. The command 


NEXT is followed by the same name of the variable as used in the 
FOR command so that any particular NEXT command knows which 
FOR command it should jump back to. 

So far our little programs have had fixed numbers built into the 
program (the first program could only show the result of 3 + 4, the 
second and third would just print the numbers 1 to 7 on the screen). 
Normally you will want to make your programs more versatile so 
that each time they are run they ask for some information and then 
modify the operation of the program according to the information 
entered. You do this with the INPUT command. 

r ype LIST to see the current three line program and then type: 

5 INPUT "St art "/start 

7 INPUT "Finish"; finish 

10 FOR num = start TO finish 

Now type LIST and you will see that not only have two new lines 
oeen added to the start of the program but line 10 has been 
epiaced by a new version. If you type in a new line with the same 
number as an existing line then that existing line will be replaced 
oy the new version. 

"he sequence of numbers in our program is now 5, 7 ', 10, 20, 30. This 
s bit untidy. Type the command RENUMBER and then LIST. You will 
=ee that the program has been renumbered with the line numbers 
going up in steps of 10. 

.Vhen you RUN the modified program it will stop and ask for a Start 
.alue. Type the number 10 and press 0. When it asks for "Finish" 
-vpe 14. It will then print the numbers 10 to 14. If you run it again 
Dnd enter different start and finish values it will print a different set 
M numbers each time, 

'he following is another example of a program that asks for you to 
iput numbers when it is run and then processes the numbers to 
now a result. 

10 INPUT "VAT rate as a percentage (0..100) "; vatrate 

20 INPUT "Amount "; amount 

30 total = amount + (amount * vatrate / 100) 

40 PRINT amount " With VAT added is " total 

•Vhen you RUN this program it will ask you to input the VAT Rate and 
•nen an amount. It will print out what that amount is when it has 


had VAT added to it at the given rate. Like before, lines 10 and 20 
use the INPUT command to get the user of the program to input 
some values. The wording of the question is enclosed in quotation 
marks and this is followed by a semicolon (;) and then the name of 
the variable in which the value should be stored. If you don't use 
a semicolon then no question mark is printed. 

Line 30 creates a new variable called total which is the result of 
adding the amount multiplied by the VAT rate to the original 
amount. The part of the calculation in parentheses is calculated 
first before the final addition is performed. The asterisk (*) is the 
symbol BASIC understands to mean "multiply" and the slash (/) is the 
symbol that means "divide by". 

Line 40 prints the original amount stored in the variable amount, 
followed by the message (in quotation marks) followed by the 
value of the variable total. 

This program has one or two shortcomings. Firstly, it was not really 

necessary to create the intermediate variable called total to hold 
the result of the calculation, instead, line 30 could be deleted and 
line 40 changed to read 

40 PRINT amount "With VAT addad is " amount + (amount * vatrata / 100) 

To delete line 30 just type the number 30 on its own and press Q. 

This is the standard way to remove a single line from a program, if 
you run the program again it will work exactly as before even 
though it has been simplified. 

The next problem that we could overcome is the fact that each 
time the program is RUN it just allows one set of numbers to be 
entered and then stops. What we could do with is having the 
program loop back to the start each time it gets to the end. This is 
easy to do. Just add line 50; 

50 GOTO 10 

When you type RUN it will ask you for the VAT rate and then the 
amount and then display the result. It will then go back round and 
ask for the VAT rate again. This isn't really what we wanted. It should 
only be necessary to enter the VAT rate once each time the 
program is run. What's more, there doesn't appear to be any way 
to stop the program running. 



To stop the program press the Q key. If you press the Q key when 
a program is running it will stop running and the BASIC prompt will 
appear after a message which says "Escape at line x". This tells you 
.vhich line BASIC was executing when you stopped it, 

'he easy answer to not being asked to input the VAT rate every time 
s to make the destination of the final jump to be line 20. So type 
■he command; 

SDIT 50 

"he current contents of line 50 wilt be displayed, Use the G=T-h>1 
arrow keys to move the cursor to the end of the line and then 
aelete 10 and replace it with 20. When you have finished editing 
-ie line press El. 

' you ever EDIT a line and then realise that you would like to keep 
-ne old version just press F^ and your changes will be ignored, You 
.-.■ill find when editing lines that many of the quick methods you may 
ave learnt about in the word processor can be used to move 
about the lin e. Fo r example, the left and right arrow keys ('iif-Uij 
: ressed with I"' 1 will move a word at a time and when pressed 
.vith EB will jump to the start or end of the line. 

a our program there is still a problem that the only way to stop the 
. 'ogram is by pressing the E^ key. As the program keeps waiting 
a ask for an amount to be input we could arrange for the program 
■a stop running completely if the value were input. Add the 
allowing line: 

;5 IF amount = THEN STOP 

-eluding this line means that if the value is input when the 
-ogram is asking for "amount" the program will STOP. STOP is a 

ammand to BASIC that does exactly what the name suggests and 
"ops a program running returning the BASIC prompt. 

ae above has given you an idea of the first steps in learning BASIC 
at unfortunately there isn't room in this manual for a complete 
.torial. What we suggest is that you get one of the many hundreds 
' books available on programming in BASIC and you will find that 
-ost of what they say applies equally well to the BBC BASIC in your 
otebook. if possible, get a book that is specifically written with BBC 
■ ASIC in mind. 


Example BASIC programs 

The following are a few simple programs that give a small taste of' 
what is possible in BASIC on the Notebook. Don't worry too much 
if you don't understand all the commands used. You will probably 
find them fun to use even if you do not understand exactly how 
they work. One thing to watch is that you must type them exactly 
as shown including all spaces and punctuation symbols. Don't 
forget to press ED at the end of each line that you type. .a 

PROGRAM 1 : Reaction time tester 

This program uses the 1 / 1 00th second clock that BASIC gives access!] 
to in order to time your reactions: 

10 PRINT "Get ready..." 

20 D - RMD(300)+200 

30 TIME =0 



60 PRINT "Press a key..." 

70 T = TIME ' 

80 X = GET 

90 T = TIME - T 

100 PRINT "¥ou took" T/100 " seconds." 

Line 20 picks a number at random between and 300, adds 200 tc 
it to make it between 200 and 500 and then sets the clock to zero 
in line 30, 

Lines 40 and 50 then delay for that number of l/100ths of a seconc 
(between 2 and 5 seconds) 

Line 60 prints the message you must react to, The current time 
remembered In variable T and then after the GET statement in llr 
80 has got a key press a calculation is made to see how much time 
has elapsed. 

This value is printed in line 100 (divided by 100 because it is a 
measurement in l/100ths not whole seconds so must be 

Type NEW to clear any existing program. Type in the lines above, ■ 
then type RUN to use the program. You may like to use SAVE to sav 
a copy for later use. 


PROGRAM 2 : A musical organ program 

10 3c$ = "AWSEDFTCTH0JK0LP;']#"+CHR$U3) : Cnot«=96 

20 a$ = GET$ 

30 IF a$ = " " THEN STOP 

10 IF a$>="l" AND a$<="4" THEN Cnote=48* (ASC (a?) -*SC("0") ) : GOTO 20 

15 IF a$>="a" AND a$<="z" THEN a$=CHR$ (ASC (a$) -32) 

50 note = INSTR(k$, a$) 

SO IF note = THEN GOTO 20 

70 SOOND 1, 0, note*4 + Cnote, 4 

30 GOTO 20 

Jne 10 defines a string called k$ which holds all the keys that the 

orogram recognises. The EH key is a special case as it returns the 
/due 13 that cannot be typed into a string - hence the "+ CHR$(13)" 
at the end of the string. The variable Cnote stores the pitch value 
•or the musical note C. By varying this between 48, 96, 144 and 192 
t is possible to play 4 octaves. 

Jne 20 is the one which reads the keys pressed on the keyboard 

and puts them into aS. 

Jne 30 gives us a neat way to stop the program (without having to 
nit Stop). It tests to see if the character typed was the space bar 
and if so the program stops. 

Jne 40 checks to see if the character type was between "1" and 
4". If it was it sets Cnote equal to 48 * the number 1 , 2 3 or 4. 

jne 45 converts any lower case letters that have been typed into 
jpper case. This relies on the fact that the character numbers of all 
-ne upper case letters are exactly 32 less than the lower case 
etters, ASC converts a string to its character number and CHR$ 
converts a character number back to a string. 

Assuming the key pressed wasn't 1 , 2, 3, 4 or space. Line 50 then 
aoks up the character that has been typed in kS and sets the 
.ariable called note to be equal to the position number (so A=l, 
,V=2, S=3, E=4 and so on up to 0=21). 

.me 60 then checks to see if note is zero (which means the key 
.vasn't found in k$). If this is the case a jump is made back to line 
20 to read another key. 

"he program wil! get to line 70 if the variable note contains a valid 
->ote number. This is multiplied by 4 because sounds go up in 


semitones not ] M semitones. Finally it is added onto Cnote to make 
the tJ key, (note=1) note C. The duration of note is set to 4 /20ths 
of a second r/sth) so each key press will just make a short beep, 

The last line of the program just directs control back round to line 
20 so it will always wait for keys to be pressed (until the space bar 
is used to stop the program). 

Well that's the program but what do you do with it? Well, RUN it 

and press some keys on the middle line of the keyboard. You should 
hear musical notes, The keys have been picked to try and imitate 
the black and white notes on a piano keyboard; 


C# Eb F# Ab Bb C# Eb F# Ab > 


So try tapping in the following tunes (spacing gives an idea of 








Scottish and lyrical: 





While you are using the program press the GZGZXO or (O keys 
next to the FEi key and see what happens. When you have finished 
press the space bar to stop the program running. 


PROGRAM 3 : Scientific graph plotting 

"his program asks for a mathematical function to be typed In then 
olots a curve of it on the screen. 

;0 pi4 = PI * 4 : St = pi4 / 480 ; xscala « 480 / pi4 

20 INPUT "Function of x to plot (*g SIN(x)) : " funcS 

30 INPUT "Y scaling value (try 63 to start) : " yacala 

40 CLG 

50 PRINT TAB<0, 0) ;funcS 

~0 FOR x=0 TO pi4 STEP St 

-0 y = !NT(EVAL(funcS)*yscalo + 63) 
90 PLOT 69, x * xscale, y 

90 NEXT X 

.•ne 10 defines some constants to be used in the program (you can 
-ave several statements on one line separated by colons ":"), The 
eason for making the variable pi4 is that we use the value of PI 
3.14159) multiplied by 4 on several occasions so it is quicker to just 
;alculate it the once, The variable st is used as the STEP value in a 
: OR.. NEXT loop and xscale is used to make sure that the plotted 
graph will exactly fill the full width of the screen. 

n line 20 The user is asked to input a function to plot. BBC BASIC is 
.ery powerful in that one can type in a function of x and later have 
• evaluated even though it is effectively just a string of characters. 

_,ne 30 lets the user set a y scaling value. The reason for this is that 
iome graphs have a much larger amplitude (top to bottom height) 
•nan others, Lower values input for y scaling will reduce the height 
:f the graph until it will fit on the screen. 40 clears the graphics screen ready to plot the graph and line 
60 just prints the function that has been input as a title. The TAB(0,0) 
lakes sure that the text appears in the first column of the first line 

:n screen 

. ne 60 sets up a FOR,. NEXT loop that will step x from to Pl*4 (this 
= a measure of angle in radians and is the equivalent of 720 
degrees or twice round a circle). So that 480 dots are printed across 
-e screen the previously calculated STEP value is used to increase 
. m a very small increment each time. 

. ne 70 is the business end of the program that takes the function 
:' x that has been input and evaluates it with EVAL The resultant y 
.aiue Is multiplied up by the y scaling factor so that numbers 
retween and 1 (such as you get from SiN(x)) will make a 


noticeable displacement on the display (+/- 64 pixels from the 

centre line). The resulting value is added to 63 to position it about 
the middle of the screen and only the integer part is taken (using 
-ie INT function) because co-ordinates with decimal fractions 
.•.ould not make much sense to the PLOT command. 

Fach dot ot the curve to be plotted is individually set by line 80. This the ubiquitous PLOT command which has myriad uses. It just 
:0 happens that '69" is the one that means plot a point at an 
;osolute <x,y) position. A list of all the possible PLOT commands is 
z ven later in the manual. 

ne 90 just completes the FOR.. NEXT loop so that all 480 dots across 

•ne screen are used. 

.•/hen you RUN this program start off with an easy function. Enter 
SiN(x)" for the function (the wora SIN must be in upper case but x 

must be in lower case). When asked for the scaling value enter 63, 

Having tried that, run the program again but this time enter the 
'unction as: 


again use a scale value of 63. The reason for the ABS function in 

-ie above is to prevent the SQR (square root) function being given 
3 negative value which will just cause the program to stop with an 

; or a final run of the program try the very interesting (and complex) 

= IN(x)*COS(x) - SIH(X)*SQR(X) 

or the scaling value enter 16. This curve starts off with a small 
amplitude but gets greater and greater as the plot continues. 

'•/ making up your own functions using combinations of the various 
mathematical functions in BASIC which are listed in the brief 

: ^mmary of ail BASIC commands that follows later. 


PROGRAM 4 : An analogue clack 

10 DIM an%(60), cs%(60), snoff%<60), csoff%(60) 

20 CLG 

30 FOR tnet*=0 TO 59 

40 sn% (theta) = INT (60 * SIN (RAD (theta * 6) ) ) 

50 snoff% (theta) = sn% (theta) + 240 

60 cs% (theta) = INT (60 * COS {RAD (theta * 6) ) ) 

70 csof f % (theta) = cs% (theta) + 63 

B0 PLOT 69, snoff% (theta) , csoff% (theta) 

90 IF (theta MOD 5)=0 THEN PROC_Draw_Hou*_Blob <tbeta) 
100 NEXT theta 
110 houi:$=MID$(TIME$, 17, 2) 
120 *in$»HID$(TLME$, 20, 2) 
130 sec$=#«ID$(TLWE$, 23, 2) 
140 PRXWT TAB (60, 4) ;MID$ (TIMES, 17, S) 
ISO hour=VAL(hour$) : min=VAL(min$) : sec=VAL(aec$) 
153 IF hourl2 THEN hour=hour-12 
155 hour=hour*5 + (min/12) 
160 PROC_Draw_Hand(hour, 0.4) 
170 PROC_Dra»«_Hand(niin, 0.8) 
180 PROC_Dra»_Hand(sec, 0.9) 
190 IF INKEY(1)=-1 THEN GOTO 110 
200 STOP 
300 : 

400 DBF PROCDrawBand (tine, length) 
410 nextiJae » ti»e 

420 IF tiaeO THEN oldtirae=(time~l) ELSE oldtime=ftii»e+59) 
430 HOVE 240,63 

440 PLOT 7,»o%(oldtime) * length + 240, cs% (oldtifae) * length ♦ 63 
450 HOVE 240,63 

<60 DRAW an%(newti4oe) * length + 240, ca% {newtime) * length + 63 
480 : 

500 DET PROC_Draw_Ho«I_Blob (angle) 
510 MOVE anoff% (angle) , csoff% (angle) 
520 draw sn%(»ngle) * 1.1 + 240, cs%(angle) * 1.1 ♦ 63 


•'$ a pretty mammoth program but we hope you think It is worth 

•ne effort of typing it in! 

"he program draws a circular clock face and shows the current 
-me that the Notebook's clock is set to as a set of pointers on the 
riock face. The time is shown as text digits alongside, 

""nere are several ways to draw a circle on a computer. One 
■method is to use the formula for a circle r=x 2 + y and rearrange 
~iis to give y=SQR(r 2 - x 2 ). r - the radius is a fixed quantity (60 in our 
:ase) so you just vary x between and r and calculate the 
rorresponding y values and plot the points. However, this only 


produces one quadrant to a circle. It is far easier to use th* 
formulae that: 

x = r sin(theta) 


y = r cos(theta) 

Then write a program that varies theta between and 360 degrees 
and calculate the (x,y) points on a circle. This is roughly what the 
program does. However, it is recognised that a clock face only has 
60 distinct points so there is no point in calculating 360 points. So 
the program just counts theta up from to 59 and then uses the 
values of COS and SIN of theta multiplied by 6. As there is a tot of 
sine and cosine calculations to be done, the program does all the 
calculations at the very start and stores the fixed results in two 
arrays of variables. In addition to these a second set of arrays hold 
the same results but shifted across the screen by 240 points and up 
by 63. (To the centre of the screen). 

The arrays are chosen to be integer arrays (that's what the "%" after 
each name means) this makes them quicker to access and more _ 

While the initial calculations are being made and the 60 points on 
the clock face are being drawn, a check is made to see if theta is 
divisible by 5 (using the MOD function). When it is a named 
procedure (Draw_Hour_Blob) is called to make a bigger mark to 
distinguish the twelve hour points on the clock face. 

Once the face has been drawn the main loop of the program is 
entered. Every second this reads the setting of the system date and 
time (in TIMES) and breaks out the hour, minutes and seconds 
settings into separate strings. The strings are then converted to 
numbers using the VAL function. For each of the three quantities a 
call is made to the Draw_Hand named procedure. When this is 
called two parameters are supplied. One is the setting of hours. 
minutes or seconds. And the other value passed is the length of the 
pointer ("1.0 would be as long as the radius of the clock face, *0.4 
is 2 /5th the length of the radius and is used for the hour hand). Once 
the strings have been converted to numbers the hour value is 
multiplied by 5 to make it in the range 0..55. One twelfth of the 
minutes setting is added so that the hour hand will take one of five 
distinct positions between one hour and the next. 


After the calls to draw the hands a check Is made to see if a key 
s pressed. If one is then the program stops, otherwise it jumps back 
to read the new time and re-draw the pointers. That forms the main 
oop of the program. Line 300 with a single colon is just a neat way 
of spacing the lines of the main program from the procedure 
definitions that follow, 

-inally there are the two procedures. The one to draw hands uses 
*wo time settings, the current hour, minute or second and the 
orevious hour minute or second. It draws a blank line (PLOT 7) at 
*he old location and then draws in the new pointer. When 
calculating the previous minute a special case of the hour/mih/sec 
oeing is made. In this case the previous hour/min/sec would be 
negative so 59 is added on, 

"he final procedure is the one that draws the extended legends on 
-he "hours". It does this by drawing lines out from the circle edge to 
ooints that are 1.1 "the radius further out. 

,Ve hope you enjoy these simple programs and may be inspired to 
delve deeper into the world of BASIC programming. The range of 
-nings you could attempt is endless, How about writing a drawing 
oackage? Or a cardfile program? Or a spreadsheet? Or a game? 
Or a terminal program to use the serial port (hint: treat it like a file 
called 'COM:") ? 


Making programs run automatically 

If you write a program in BASIC, each time you want to run it tf 
would seem that you have to switch to BASIC by pressing F^-H 
and OH, give a LOAD "filename' command and finalfy type RUN to 
start the program running, if you want to make it easy for others to 
use your program then give it the special name "AUTO". If there is 
a file o f this name in the Notebook's memory then when you press 
[Fu necion| f" ) tne p r0 g rarn W iii be immediately loaded and start 
running. It is possible to have a second file called NOTEPAD. RUN 
which is also auto-run. This will be loaded and run after the program 
called AUTO. 

If such a program contains an OSCLIC'ESC OFF") command then 
you might get into the situation that you could never get back to 
BASIC'S immediate mode. This is not a problem. Switch to the 
wordprocessor's List Stored Documents screen and use P^3 □ to 
rename the file to something other than AUTO or NOTEPAD.RUN, 

BASIC memory usage 

BBC BASIC allocates as much RAM as possible for its use on entry, 
up to a maximum of about 40 Kbytes for user programs, variables 
and stack. This figure cannot be increased by the addition of a 
PCMCIA memory card but such a card would allow several 
priograms to be stored and the CHAIN command could be used 
to switch from one to the next. 

If less than 40K of memory is available the value of PAGE will b©{ 
raised accordingly. At least 2 Kbytes of memory will be left free for 
new files. Note that you must not raise HIMEM above its initial value 
or lower PAGE below its initial value; any attempt to do so will most 
probably crash the machine. 

It may also be possible to crash the machine by injudicious use 

BBC BASIC'S equivalent of the POKE command (?n = x). Also, almost 
any attempt to use the assembler built into BBC BASIC will crash the 
machine. If you do any of these things then the only way to correct 
matters may be to perform a hard reset by holding down r F " n """")fc^: 
and rH when switching the machine on. This will lose all data and 
documents stored in the machines memory. It would, therefore, be 
advisable to avoid using any of these features unless you are 
absolutely sure you know the effect they may have. 


Z80 assembler ebf OWye)l OI3A8 

.ilike the Acorn computers that are based on the 6502 processor, 

->e Notebook is based on the Z80 processor, Consequently, the 
assembler built into the BASIC recognises Z80 mnemonics rather 
•nan the 6502 variety, Assembly language programming is such an 
advanced subject that there is no way it can be covered in this 
-lanual. We would warn people not familiar with machine code 
-'ogramming to avoid attempting to use the assembler feature as 
* will almost certainly lead to a machine crash and subsequent loss 
:f data. 

Differences between BBC BASIC 

on the Notebook and other computers 

-.of every feature of BBC BASIC is supported by the version in the 
'.otebook. Obviously the sound facilities are very limited and the 
:creen is only 480 pixels wide by 128 pixels deep, also, it can only 
•now two "colours". This does mean that some of the standard BBC 
iASIC commands are limited on the Notebook. 

"ie following pages comprise a list of all the keywords recognised 
- BBC BASIC, this is not a complete reference but may be useful to 
-rose who already know a version of BASIC. 

; ollowing this is a description of operating system specific features 
;f BBC BASIC on the Notebook. 

"iose language elements which are machine specific, particularly 

-ardware-de pendent features, are indicated accordingly, in most 
:ases their operation has been made as compatible as possible 
.i.ith the original Acorn versions, within the constraints of the NC200 
resign and its operating system: 

ie : 

dot ni «t tiuaefl .inecnu' ^ enJ2 atA wit ot toupe tov «f@2 


BASIC Keywords 

The following is a list of all the BBC BASIC keywords. Those not 
supported on the Notebook are noted, Differences in operation of 
some of the commands is also noted. This list is not intended to be 
a complete reference of the language. There are many good 
books available on the subject of programming in BASIC and many 
of these talk specifically about the BBC version of the language. 
This list may be useful for those who already know how to program 
or for those inquisitve beginners who would like to experiment. 


var = ABS (number) 


Sets var equal to the absolute value of number. Negative numbed 
are converted to positive. Positive numbers are untouched. 


var = ACS(number) 

Sets var equal to the arc-cosine of the number, The result is in 
radians (which may be converted to degrees using the DEQj 



The Notebook has no analogue input port or equivalent. Use of the 
ADVAL function will result in the error message "Sorry" (error code 4 


var « number AND number 

Sets var equal to the logical bitwise AND of the two num< 



var = ASC(string) 

Sets var equal to the ASCII value of the first character of the gi\ 


var = ASN (number) 

Sets var equal to the Arc Sine of the argument. Result is in radlar 


jr = ATN(number) ■ ■ 

ets var equal to the Arc Tangent of the given number, The result 
; in radians and may be converted to degrees using the DEG 

*UTO _,.,„ 

■• JTO start, step 

-arts generating automatic line numbers at line start and goes up 
/ step. If start and step aren't given it starts at 10 and goes up in 
•epsof 10. 

3GET ■ 

.ir = BGET#number 

ets var equal to the next character from the file that has been 
oened as number. The file can also be "COM:" for the serial port. 


-UT#number, value 

,'ites the value to a file that has been opened as number. The file 
:>ufd also be the serial port "COM:" or the parallel port "LPT:". 

ALL address, parameters 

: alls a machine code subroutine, Not for the faint hearted. 


-AIN string >.\k^. ■■ 

;ads and then continues on to ftin ^rhe program storedln the file 
nose name is given in string. 


y = CHR$(nu/Dber) 

•ers a string variable equal to the character whose ASCII code 

^mber is number. 




This resets all dynamic variables to the unused condition, The only 
variables left intact are the static variables A% to Z% and @%. 


This statement clears the current graphics window (by default the 
entire display) to the unlit ('white') state. The graphics cursor is not 


CLOSE* number 

Closes the file identified by number. 

This statement clears the current text window (by default the entire 
display) to 'space' characters and moves the text cursor to the top^i 


The Notebook's (LCD) screen cannot display colours. Use of the 

COLOUR statement will result in the error message "Sorry" (error 
code 255). Limited control over text attributes can be obtained 
with VDU which is explained in the description of VDU, 


var = COSXnumber) 

Sets var equal to the Cosine of the angle number which is specif l« 
in radians. The RAD function may be used to convert an angle in 
degrees to radians, 

count :- 

var= COUNT 

Sets var equal to the number of characters sent to the display slnc« 

the last new line. 


DATA "■•■- 

ATA constant, constant, constant... 

.sed to include constant data within a program which may be 

,$ed by means of the READ command which will read it into 


. Ef PROCname 
~£F FNname 

. sed to begin the definition of a named procedure or function. The 

-towing example may give a taste of how this works: 

.: PROCtest("H«llo World") 
:■} PRIST FN_Av«rage (3,9,14) 


.:0 DEF PROCtest (string$) 

.10 PRINT string$ 


.30 : 

;30 DEF FHAv«raga (nl , «2, n3) 

;-.0 =(nl+n2+n3>/3 


ar = DEG(number) 

ets var eaual to the number converted from radians to degrees, 

- radians a complete circle is equal to 2"PI while in degrees a 
:omplete circle is 360 degrees so DEG just divides by 2*PI and 

- jltiplies by 360 (which is the same as divide by PI and multiply by 


ELETE start, finish 

eletes a range of lines from a program, DELETE 10,100 would 
?move all lines between 10 and 100 (inclusive), To delete a single 
-e it is easier just to type the line number on its own. 

■VI var, size 

^serves space for an array of items. For example DIM A(5) would 
f serve space for 6 Items A(0), A(l), A(2)...A(5) 



var = number DIV number 


.■Jncfanoo .tool- 

Sets var equal to the integer result after dividing the first numberby 
the second. The remainder is discarded. The function MOD can be 
used to get the remainder, 

DRAW x.y 

Draws a straight line (in 'lit' pixels) between the current position of 
the graphics cursor and the specified co-ordinates, then moves the 
graphics cursor to the specified position. The range of co-ordinates 
corresponding to positrons on the screen is to 479 in the x- 
direction and to 127 in the y-direction. This statement is identical 
to PLOT 5, x, y. - 


EDIT number 

A single-line editor is provided, which is entered using tl* 
command EDIT number. The contents of two or more lines may ber' 
concatenated using the syntax EDIT 1 ,2 but the intermediate line 
numbers must be edited out, and the original lines deleted, 
manually, A line may be duplicated by editing only the line 


IF condition THEN 


Used to provide an alternative sequence of commands if the 

condition in an IF statement fails. 



Marks the point where you would like the program to stop running 
and return to the BASIC prompt (>). END is not necessary as a 
program will stop once it has executed the highest line number but 
END makes things tidy and can be used to END the program early. 
It also is used to separate the main program from the procedure 
and function definitions and other subroutines. 



Marks the end of a procedure definition. 



"nis feature is not supported on the Notebook, Use of the 

: WE LOPE statement will result in the error message 'Sorry* (error 
;ode 255). 


. or = EO F# number 

"lis function returns TRUE if the file pointer is at the end-of-file 

identified by number and FALSE otherwise, In the special case of 
ne serial port ("COM:") TRUE indicates that there are no input 

rnaracters waiting while FALSE indicates that one or more 
;naracters are waiting at the input. 

jr = number EOR number 

ets var equal to the logical bitwise exclusive OR of the two 



ets var equal to the number of the last line that caused an error. 


ets var equal to the number of the last error code, The possible 
Ddes are: 

I Out of range 

4 Mistake 

5 Missing , 

6 Type mismatch 

7 No FN 

9 Missing " 

10 Bad DIM 

I I DIM space 

12 Not LOCAL 

13 No PROC 

14 Array 

15 Subscript 

1 6 Syntax error 

17 Escape 

1 8 Division by zero 

19 String too long 

20 Too big 

21 -ve root 

22 Log range 

23 Accuracy lost 

24 Exp range 

26 No such variable 

27 Missing ) 

28 Bad HEX 

29 No such FN/PROC 

30 Bad call 

31 Arguments 

32 No FOR 

33 Can't match FOR 

34 FOR variable 
36 No TO 

38 No GOSUB 

39 ON syntax 

40 ON range 

41 No such line 

42 Out of DATA 

45 Missing # 

2i r 



-:,■-;» nc- 

Used to trap errors. When an ON ERROR GOTO command is used 

subsequent errors cause program control to go to the line Identified 
in the GOTO part of the command. ERR and ERL can be inspected 
to see what caused the error and if it can be corrected. 


var = EVAKBASiC expression in a string) 

This very powerful command passes the string to the BASIC 
expression handler and then sets var equal to the result, A simple 4 
line program will turn BASIC into a scientific calculator: 


20 inpOT "Entar C' 


nd : 


When RUN this might give the following: 

Kntar command : SIM (RAD 145) ) 

0. 707106781 

Entar command : tif.g (atn(sqr(2) ) ) 


Enter command : TIMES 

Thu.19 Mar 1992,00:27:42 

EXP ..- ■.- ■ . .' , « • 

var = EXP( number) 

Sets var equal to the natural logarithm base (e=2.71828183) raised 
to the power of number. The inverse of this function is provided by 


var = EXT#number 

This function returns the size. In bytes, of an opened file. In the ; 
special case of the serial and parallel ports ("COM:" and "LPT:") a 
non-zero returned value indicates that the output port is busy and 
if written to may result in a "Device fault". A returned value of zero 
indicates that the output port is ready to receive more characters. 




var = FALSE ■.©«;■ 

=ALSE is a fixed variable defined as 0. As BASIC uses the value to 
mean FALSE in conditional tests such as IF and UNTIL you can use 

=ALSE in these situations. For example, 


PRINT "Hallo" 


A/ill repeat forever (until Stop is pressed). 


jar = FNname 
DEF FNname 

Jsed in both defining and using a named function, See D6F for 

-nore details, 


: OR var^start number TO finish number STEP step value 

Jsed to start a repetitive loop for a fixed number of iterations, var 
vill start at the value start number and then, each time a 
;orresponding NEXT instruction is executed var will be increased by 
;*ep value (or just 1) until it reaches (or exceeds) finish number. 


"ie Notebook's (LCD) screen cannot display colours. Use of the 
JCOL statement will result in the error message "Sorry" (error code 


jar = GET 

:ets var equal to the ASCII value of the next key passed, Waits for 

z key to be pressed before returning. 


.ar$ = GETS 

ets the string variable var$ equal equal to the next character key 

■essed, It waits for a key press before returning. 




A jump is made to the section of program starting at line. When the 
next RETURN command is executed control returns to the statement 
after the GOSUB command. 

GOTO -I 1 

GOTO line 

Control is transferred to the line identified in the GOTO command. 
To make programs easy to read the use of excessive GOTO 
commands should be avoided. It is far better to change the flow ' 
of a program using the FOR.. .NEXT, REPEAT... UNTIL, DEF PROC and 

GOSUB structures. 


HI MEM = number 
var = HIMEM 

Can be used either to set a new high address for the top of BASIC'S 
program memory or to find out what it is currently set to. It is unwise 
to change this unless you are sure you know what you are doing 
as you may crash the machine leading to the need to completely 
reset it and lose all your documents. It is OK to reduce HIMEM but 
do not increase it above its initial value. 


IF condition THEN 

Used to conditionally execute statements. The condition Is testec 

and if it results in a TRUE (-1) value the statements after THEN are 


var = INKEY(fime) •- -■■ 

Sets var equal to the ASCII value of the next key pressed. Unlike GET 
it only waits for the length of time given by time in centiseconds. If 
no key is pressed it returns -1 . Use of INKEY with a negative argument 
to test the state of each key independently is not supported. 



/ar% = INKEY$(f7me) -\nta>K 

A/aits for time l/100ths of a second for a key to be pressed and 
©turns the character in var$. If no key Is pushed in time it sets vat$ 

'o the null (empty) string. 

INPUT . . , ^ I]> . f . 

NPUT 'prompt text", var 

; tops and displays the prompt text and then sets var equal to the 
.sers response, var can also be a string variable to allow the user 
d enter text as well as numbers. 


•.PUT LINE var$ 

ijiows the user to type a string of text including commas, quotes 
nd leading spaces and assigns this to var$. 

•.PUT#number, var 

-outs variable var from the file identified by number, 


t = lNSTR(sfr/ng, string to find, number) 

e first named string is searched to see if it contains the string to 
- j and if so var is set to the position in the string where it occurs. 
■e search can be started part way into the string by giving a 


r = INT(number) 

• -iverts a real number to a lower integer. 

■-$ = LE FT $(string$, number) 

. 5$ the number of leftmost characters from string^ and assigns 
-~i to var$. 



var = LEN(sfr/no$) 

Sets var equal to the number of characters in the given string. 


LET var = value 

LET assigns a value to a variable (either number or string). In fc 
LET is optional and need not be used. So 

LET X = X + 3 


X + 3 

are exactly equivalent. 




LIST number, number 

Lists a program. If a single number is given then only that line is 
shown. If both number are given then all lines between the two 
are shown. While a program is listed you can press E3 to pause the 
listing. Press it again to stop. 


LISTO number 

LISTO is used before the LIST command to control how the^ 

subsequent listing is formatted. The number affects how the listing 
is formatted, Valid numbers are to 7. LISTO 7 gives the easiest to 
follow listing. 


var = LN( number) 

Sets var equal to the natural logarithm of the number. Natural 
are to the base e (=2.71828183). The inverse of LN is EXP. 



LOAD prog_name 

The prog_name (in quotes or contained in string variable) is the 
name of a document that contains a program to load, 


LOCAL var 

Specifies a variable that is only local within a procedure or function 
declaration. The value is lost (undefined) outside of the proc/fn. 


jar = LOGinumber) 

Sets var equal to the base 10 logarithm of number. There is no 
nverse function of LOG as such because the equivalent is to use 
iOAnumber(ie 10 raised to the power of a number). 


.OMEM = var 
sar = LOMEM 

May be used to read and set the point in memory where dynamic 
data structures will be placed. It would be unwise to change this 
jnless you are absolutely certain that you know what you are 


.ar$ = MID$(sWng$, start, length) 

Sets var$ equal to a string of characters taken from strings starting 
Dt position start for length characters. 


,-ar = number MOD number 

divides the first number by the second and sets var equal to the 
•emainder. See also DIV which sets var equal to the integer result 
3f dividing one number by another. 


"his feature is not supported on the Notebook. Use of the MODE 
statement will result in the error message "Sorry" (error code 255). 



MOVE x,y 


Moves the graphics cursor to the specified co-ordinates, but does 

not affect what is displayed. The range of co-ordinates 
corresponding to positions on the screen is (left) to 479 (right) in 
the x-direction and (bottom) to 127 (top) in the y-direction. This 
statement is identical to PLOT 4, x, y. 



Clears the current program from memory. If you use this 
accidentally you can immediately use OLD to recover it but OLD 
will no longer function once you start to enter new program lines 
or set new variables. 

NEXT var 

Used to mark the end of a FOR loop and cause a jump back to the 
statement after FOR until the loop variable has reached its upper 
limit. The var name can be used to make sure a jump is made back 
to the correct FOR command. 


var = NOT number 

Sets var equal to the bit by bit binary inversion of number, 


Used to recover a program immediately after the accidental use 
of NEW. 


ON var GOTO tine, line... 

ON var GOSU B tine, line. . . 

ON var PROCone, PROCfwo, ... 

Can be used to goto or gosub a number of different lines 
depending on the value of var. Can also be used to call different 
named procedures dependent on the value of var. 



or- OPENIN(sfnng) 

~e document/file whose name is given by string is opened for input 

•eading) and a file number is returned in var. This may be used in 

~e various file reading commands such as BGET# and INPUT*. If the 

- ename given is "COM:" then input will be read from the serial port. 


. or = OPENOUKsfr/ng) 

-e document/file whose name is given by string is opened for 

;utput (writing) and a file number is returned in var. This may be 
.sed in the various file writing commands such as BPUT#. If the 
• ename given is "COM:" then output will go to the serial port, If the 
■ome is "LPT:" then the output will be to the parallel printer port. 


. or = OPENUP(sWng) 

-as the combined effect of OPENIN and OPENOUT. The device or 
•e is opened for reading and writing. Can be used with files and 
-e serial port "COM;" 


. or = number OR number 

ets var equal to the result of the logical bitwise OR of the two 

■ jmbets. 


" 5CU(sfr/'ng) 

-e string is passed to the operating system to be executed. This 
on be one of the star commands such as *CAT. That is, 
" 3CUCCAT"). Notice that * is not included, 


^GE = var 
or = PAGE 

-GE can be used to read or set the starting address of the current 

. -ogram area. It would be extremely unwise to change this value 
"less you are totally certain you know what you are doing, 



var = PI 


Sets var equal to the value of ft 3.14159265. the ratio of a circle's 

circumference to its diameter. 


PLOT ax.y 

A multi-purpose plotting statement, whose effect is controiled Py 
the number n. x must be in the range to 479 and yO to 127. In 
the following "relative" means that (x, y) are added onto the current 
graphics cursor position to determine the destination. When 
"absolute" co-ordinates are used they are always specified with 
relation to the origin of the graphics screen at (0, 0). 

n Action 

Moves the graphics cursor relative to the last point. 

1 Draws a line, in 'black', relative to the last point. 

2 Draws a line, in Inverse', relative to the last point. 

3 Draws a line, in 'white', relative to the last point. 

4 ' Moves the graphics cursor to the absolute position x,y. 

5 Draws a line, in 'black', to the absolute position x,y. 

6 Draws a line, in 'inverse', to the absolute position x,y 

7 Draws a line, in 'white', to the absolute position x,y. 

8-15 As 0-7, but plots the last point on the line twice (i.e. in 

'inverting' modes omits the last point). 

16-31 As 0- 1 5, but draws the line dotted . 

32-63 As 0-31 , but plots the first point on the line twice 
(i.e. in the 'inverting' modes omits the first point). 

64-71 As 0-7, but plots a single point at x,y. 

72-79 Draws a horizontal line left and right from the point x,y 
until the first 'lit' pixel is encountered, or the edge of 
the window. This can be used to fill shapes. 

80-87 Plots and fills a triangle defined by the two previously 

visited points and the point x,y. 


n Action 

38-95 Draws a horizontal line to the right of the point x,y until 
the first 'unlit' pixel is encountered, or the edge of the 
window. This can be used to "undraw* things, 

36-103 Plots and fills a rectangle whose opposite corners are 
defined by the last visited point and the point x,y. 


/or = POINT (x.y) 

"his function sets var to the state of the pixel at the specified 
Dcation, as (unlit) or 1 (lit). If the specified point is outside the 

graphics window (taking into account the position of the graphics 
: rigin) the value -1 is returned, x is in the range 0..479 and y is in the 


. or =POS 

"nis function sets var equal to the horizontal position (column) of 
•ne text cursor with respect to the left-hand edge of the current 
-ext window, in the range to 79. 

"?INT var 

->nts the contents of a variable or variables and fixed text on the 

;reen. The line of items following PRINT is passed to BASIC'S 
-<pression evaluator before output is produced. A tiide character 
-■ can be used before numeric items that should print in 
exadecimal. Commas in the print list cause output to start at the 
ext tab stop. Semicolons mean the items follow on immediately 
. jjacent, A single apostrophe forces printing to start on a new line, 

-nt format can be controlled by setting the variable @% before 

anting but there are too many options to describe here, The 

jTCtions TAB(x,y) and SPC(number) can be used in a print 

•atement to either position the cursor at location (x.y) or at a fixed 

^mber of spaces from the current position. 



=ed to invoke a named procedure that is defined using DEF PROC, 



PTR#number = var 
var = PTR#n umber 

Allows the random access pointer of file number to be read or set. 

PUT v 

PUT port, var 

Outputs a value to an I/O port address. It would be very unwise 
indeed to experiment with this command as you will almost 
certainly crash the Notebook necessitating a reset which will lose 
ail stored data. 


var = RAtXnumoer) 

Sets var equal to the value of number converted from degrees to 


READ var 

Reads data from a DATA statement and assigns it to var. 


REM comment 

Allows comments to be added to programs. Anything following 
REM is considered a remark and will be ignored. It is good practice 
to include comments in programs so that at a later date you will 

understand what a particularly complicated line really does! It can 
also be used to temporarily disable a command while testing a 


RENUMBER start, step 

Renumbers a program starting at line 10 and going up in steps oil 
10. If start and step are given then numbering will begin at start and} 
go up in units of step. 



Used to begin a loop that ends with the command UNTIL, 


REPORT -■- ■■-■■-■■■■■ ■'■■• 


'his prints the error message associated with the last error that 
Dccurred and is usually used In an ON ERROR GOTO trap to print 
an error message when your program determines that the error 
.vhich has occurred is not one that it can cope with. 

"ESTORE line 

.Vhen using READ to read data from DATA statements, RESTORE can 
:;e used to set the reading pointer back to a specified line so that 
■;ata can be re-read. 


sed at the end of a section of program that has been jumped to 
/ the GOSUB command. Control returns to the statement after 

zr$ = RIGHT$(strfng$, numbef) 

-rts var$ equal to the string of characters taken from the rightmost 
->d of string$ and of length number. 

z' = RND(number) 

-r*s var equal to a random number between 1 and number. If 

„nber is not given then the var is between 1 an &FFFFFFFF. If the 

. .en number is negative then the random number generator is set 

a value based on that number and that number is returned in 


arts running the program currently held in memory. 

• . E prog_name 

- current program in memory is saved to a document called 
■g_name (this may be either a name In auotes or a string variable 


that contains a name to use). It is very important to SAVE a program 
you are working on before switching away from BASIC (or typing 
*QUI"0 as the program is not automatically saved. 


var = SGN (number) 

Sets var equal to -1 if the number is negative, +1 if it is positive or 
if number is zero, 


var = SlN(number) 

Sets var equal to the Sine of the given angle which must be 
specified in radians, The RAD function can be used to change an 
angle in degrees into radians before using the SIN function. 


SOUND channel, volume, pitch, duration 

SOUND will makes a sound on the Notebook's speaker, The" 

Notebook has two sound channels so channel must be either 1 or 
2. The volume is not variable so the volume parameter is ignored. 
The pitch specifies the note to be played. A value of 100 is middle 
C. Although each step of the pitch parameter should change the 
pitch by a quarter semitone, the Notebook can only play notes in 
steps of a semitone so there is no point using values that are not a 
multiple of four. A pitch value of will switch a sound channel off. 

The duration is given in twentieths of a second in the range to 254 
The value -1 or 255 causes an indefinite sound, which can be 
stopped only by issuing another SOUND statement or by pressing 
the B key. So, for example; 

SODWJ 1, 0, 136, 20 

Will play the A above middle C on channel 1 for 1 secor 


To play a two note chord, use a SOUND command with a duration 
of -1 to start the first note on channel 1 and then use a second 
SOUND command to play the other note "on top" on channel 2. 
Sounds can be made to stop playing by using another SOUNr 
command with a duration of 0. 


^INT SPC(number) • -'*T*w 

'4PUT SPC(number) 

,Vhen used in either a PRINT or INPUT command it prints number 
oaces before any following text. 


. or = SQR(number) 

:ets var equal to the square root of number. 

DR var=start TO f/n/sh STEP step 

i.iows a FOR.. NEXT variable to be increased (or decreased) in steps 

■tier than one. 


jst like END it stops a program running but prints a message to say 

*nere the program stopped. Liberal use of STOP commands can 
-eip when developing a program to trace the flow of execution. 

or$ = STR$ (number) 

ets a string to be equal to a number in the same format that it 
sDuld be printed in. If a tilde is included between the $ and open 
.orenthesis the number will be converted to hexadecimal, 

or$ = STRING$(number, string) 

«ts var$ equal to number repetitions of string. 


•<INT TAB(x,y) 

sed to arrange for the printed output of a PRINT or INPUT 
■ ommand to appear on the screen at location (x,y) with respect 
: the current text window. 



var = TAN(numbe/} 

Sets var equal to the Tangent of the angle number. This must be 
specified in radians. To use degrees use the RAD function to convert 
the value from degrees to radians before using TAN. 


IF condition THEN 

Introduces the statements in an IF command that should b« 
executed if the condition Is met. The use of THEN is optional but 
makes programs easier to read. 


TIME = var 
var = TIME 

A variable that can be set and read to measure elapsed time, tf] 
Increases once every 1 /100th of a second. Typically this is used t<£] 
measure a fixed amount of elapsed time. For example: 

TIME = o 


OKTIL TIME > 1000 


would pause for approximately 10 seconds. 


var$ = TIME$ 

TIMES = var$ 

Sets var$ equal to a string which contains the current date and time 
in a fixed format, MiD$ can be used to pick selected fields from this. 
It is also possible to set the date and time stored in the Notebook 
by setting the TIMES variable. The format of the returned string is 
"Day.dd Mon yyyy,hh:mm:$s" where Day is the day of week, dd the 
day of month, Mon the month, yyyy the year, hh the hour (00-23), 
mm the minute and 5S the second, The time, date or both time and 
date may be set by including the appropriate fields. When setting 
the clock the day of week is ignored and may be omitted. 


FOR var = start TO finish 

Used in a FOR statement to divide the starting value from the eno 
value of the loop variable. 


TSACE '-'** 

"RACE number 

*he command TRACE ON will cause BASIC to print the number of 
each line it executes in square brackets to allow the flow of 
execution to be followed. Tracing can be turned off using the 
command TRACE OFF. If the command TRACE number is used then 
only line numbers below number will be printed. By placing all 
;jbroutines at high numbered lines and the main program in the 
dw numbered lines you can arrange to only show tracing of the 
-nain part of the program. 



iets var to be equal to the value -1 that BASIC understands as TRUE 
- IF and UNTIL expressions 


. NTIL condition 

;nds a loop started by the REPEAT command, As long as the 
:ondition is not met a jump will be made back to the statement 


;jr = USR(number) 

" alls a machine code routine at address number and returns the 
slue of the HL and HL' registers to the named variable. Not a 
Dmmand for the uninitiated in the black art of machine code 



jr = VAL(sfrfng) 

inverts as much of a string that can be interpreted as a number 
-•o a numeric value and assigns it to var. 

' gfti ,WOUi: : v- Gi\ .-.: •s&iJii iX":~<. : \-iy-- ~n YO 



VDU numbec numbec .... 

Posses the elements of the list to the VDU emulator (see full 
description below). Items terminated by a semicolon are sent as 
16-bit values, LSB first. 

All console output is passed to a software emulator of the BBC 

Micro's VDU drivers. VDU codes perform a function similar to those 
of the BBC Micro, consistent with the hardware and Operating 
System differences: 

VDU Ignored 

VDU 1 ,n The following byte is sent to the printer, If enabled 

(with VDU 2). If the printer is not enabled, the byte is 
ditched. Any 8-bit value (0- 255) can be sent. This 
works even when the VDU is disabled with VDU 21. 

VDU 2 Enables the printer. Subsequent characters are sent 

both to the screen and to the printer. The only 
control characters sent to the printer are BEL (7), BS 
(8), HT (9), LF (10), VT (11), FF (12) and CR (13). Bytes 
which are parameters for VDU commands are not 
sent to the printer, e.g. VDU 27,13 does not send a 
carriage return to the printer. 

VDU 3 Disables the printer. Cancels the effect of VDU 2. 

VDU 4 Causes the text cursor to be displayed. 

VDU 5 Causes the text cursor to be hidden, 

VDU 6 Enables the screen display. Cancels the effect of 

VDU 21. 

VDU 7 Causes a 'beep", 

VDU 8 Moves the text cursor left one character. If it was aH 

the left edge of the window, it is wrapped to then 
end of the previous row (right-hand edge ofl 
window). If it was also on the top row of the text 
window, it is moved to the bottom row. 

VDU 9 Moves the text cursor right one character. If it 

at the right hand edge of the window, it is wrapp 


to the beginning of the next row (left-hand edge of 
window), if it was also on the bottom row of the text 
window, it is moved to the top row. 

/DU 10 Moves the text cursor down one row. If it was on the 

bottom row of the text window, the window scrolls 


/DU 1 1 Moves the text cursor up one row. If it was on the 

top row of the text window, it is moved to the bottom 

.DU 12 This is identical to CLS in BASIC. It clears the text 

window to space characters and moves the text 
cursor to the 'home' position (top-left corner of the 
text window). 

,DU 13 Moves the text cursor to the left-hand edge of the 

window, but does not move it vertically. 

Enables inverse text. 

Disables inverse text. Cancels the effect of VDU 14. 

This is identical to CLG in BASIC. It clears the graphics 
window to unlit ('white') pixels. The graphics cursor 
is not moved. 

Enables bold text. 

Disables bold text. Cancels the effect of VDU 17. 

Enables underlined text. 

Disables underlined text. Cancels the effect of VDU 

-XI 21 Disables VDU output. All subsequent VDU commands 

except 1 to 6 are ignored, if the printer is enabled, 
VDUs 7,8,9,10,11,12 and 13 will still be sent to the 

XJ 22 Ignored 

:>J 23 Ignored 


DU 14 

DU 15 

DU 16 

DU 17 

DU 18 

XJ 19 


VDU 24,teftx;bottomy;r1ghtx;topy; 

Sets the graphics window. Horizontal (x): 

co-ordinates are in the range (left) to 479 and 
vertical (y) co-ordinates in the range (bottom) to 

VDU 25, n, x; y; 

This is identical to PLOT n, x, y In BASIC. See PLOT fof 
more details. 

VDU 26 Resets the text and graphics windows to their detautt 

positions (tilling the whole screen), homes the text 
cursor, moves the graphics cursor to 0,0 and resets 
the graphics origin to 0,0, 

VDU 27,n Sends the next byte to the screen without 
interpreting it as a control code. Allows graphics 
characters corresponding to VDU 0-31 and VDU 127 
to be displayed. Acts in a similar way to VDU 1 for 
the printer. 

VDU 28, leftx, bottomy, rightx, topy 

Sets the text window. Horizontal (x) co-ordinates ari 
in the range (left) to 79 and vertical (y) 

co-ordinates in the range (top) to 7. 

VDU 29, x; y; Moves the graphics origin to the specified 
co-ordinates, Subsequent graphics co-ordinates are 
with respect to this position. 

VDU 30 Homes the text cursor, to the top-left corner of 

text window. 

VDU 31. x, y identical to PRINT TAB(x, y); in BASIC. Positions the textj 
cursor according to the next two bytes. The 
co-ordinates are with respect to the edges of the 
current text window. 

VDU 127 Backspaces the cursor by one position and delete 

the character there. 


.or = VPOS 

■ets var equal to the vertical position (row) of the text cursor with 
espect to the top of the current text window, in the range to 7. 


.VIDTH number 

ets the width of print zones. A value of zero will stop it taking any 

Operating System Commands 

■e following Operating System commands are implemented. They 
-ay be accessed directly (e.g. *BYE) or via the OSCLI statement 
3SCL1 "BYE"). 


.its from BASIC and returns control to the Operating System, 



rs a catalogue of all the stored files. 

DELETE filename 
tRASE filename 

eietes the specified file, 


- ables or disables the abort action of the Q key which is known 
BASIC as the ESCape key; after *ESC OFF the key simply 
-•urns the ASCII code ESC (27). *ESC ON, or 'ESC, restores the 
:rmal action of the @ key. 

EXEC filename 

- ;cepts console input from the specified file Instead of from the 
. aboard (note that GET and INKEY always read from the 


•KEY n (string) 

Redefines a key to return the specified string. The key number n is 
from to 127, where 41 to 66 correspond to SO to r™Q 
respectively. The string may contain the "escape" symbol I in order 
to insert non-printing characters. For example, I M indicates L-^J, !? 
indicates DEL, I I indicates the character I itself and I ! causes bit 
7 of the following character to be set. If the string is enclosed in 
quotes (which is optional) I " allows the character " to be included. 

•LOAD filename aaaa 

Loads the specified file into memory at hexadecimal address aaaa. 
The load address must be specified, and point to a valid memory 


Selects the printer as parallel (n=0) or serial (n=l). 

•RENAME oidfile newfile 
Renames the file oidfile as newfile. 

'SAVE filename aaaa bbbb 

'SAVE filename aaaa +1111 ■ -n 

Saves a specified range of memory to a file. The address range •] 
specified either as start address aaaa and end address +1 bbbb of j 

as start address aaaa and length ////. 

•SPOOL [filename) 

Copy all subsequent console output to the specified file. If the 
filename is omitted, any current spool file is closed and spooling is 

*l comment 

This is a comment line. Anything following the I is ignored. 


Note: To type the I symbol hold down E I and press (O 


BASIC and the Printer 

To list a program on the printer type: 
von 2 


,Vhen listing is finished type VDU 3 to cancel printer output. 

"o have the output of a PRINT command in a program only output 
on the printer use something like the following: 

10 VDU 2:VDO 21 

20 PRINT "This only appears on the printer" 

30 VDO 3: VDU 6 

Operating System 

"hese (trappable) errors 
Access denied (189): 

3ad command (254); 
Sad key (251): 
?ad string (253): 
Channel (222): 
Close error (200): 
Device fault (202): 

error messages 

are related to operating system functions: 

An inappropriate operation was 
attempted on a device (e.g. 
reading from the parallel port). 

A star command was invalid or 
incorrectly formed. 

An attempt to define a function 
key string failed, 

A string was too long, or had 
unmatched quotes. 

The channel number passed to a 
filing function was invalid 

An error occurred when trying to 
close a file. 

A time-out occurred when 
reading or writing a device. 


File creation error (190): 

Rte exists (196); 

File not found (214): 

File write error (198): 

Too many open files (192): 

•SPOOL failed, because the 
specified file could not be 
created (e.g. too many files). 

A "RENAME command specified 
the new name as the name of an 

existing file, 


or "RENAME failed, because the I 
specified file did not exist, 

An error occurred when writing a 
file with SAVE, 'SAVE, PRINT#, 
BPUT# or "SPOOL, e.g. because of 
insufficient memory, 

An attempt was made to exce« 
the maximum number of oper 
files (7). 


The Notebook Spreadsheet Guide 

What is a Spreadsheet? 

a spreadsheet is the general name given to those utilities that lay 
:>ut data, primarily numeric, in rows of lines and columns, similar to 
d balance sheet or calculation sheet written out on paper. 

i the same way that the word processor in your Notebook offers 
considerable advantages in terms of power and flexibility over a 
-vpewriter, so a spreadsheet can provide you with all sorts of new 
-me saving and useful features. It also lets you work on an 
electronic sheet that is far larger than any simple paper display 
rould sensibly be. 

iy its very nature, a spreadsheet is more complicated to learn than 
-ie word processing function built Into the Notebook. However, the 
\otebook spreadsheet does try to help you as much as possible 
:nd will always guide you as to exactly what you can type at any 
-oment. As you make entries it will check what you are typing and 
^ soon as you enter something incorrectly you are warned of the 
: -oblem. At any time you may press the &) key to bring up a panel 
.' help information that describes the function you are currently 
-/ing to use. 

-though it may at first seem that there is a lot to learn you will find 
-at the Notebook spreadsheet is just as happy multiplying 2*2 as 
- s solving complex engineering calculations. You should not be 
taunted by the size of the manual. The Notebook spreadsheet 
Dntains some very sophisticated features that allow extremely 
Dmplex tasks to be tackled with ease but the information has 

■ een laid out such that you can quickly and easily find just those 
-atures that you require and can ignore the rest. We do 
-commend, however, that you familiarise yourself with all the 
ctions available. You may well discover that there are many built 

shortcuts designed to make life easier for you. 

■ • well as providing all of the traditional features that you would 
•oect from a spreadsheet program, the Notebook spreadsheet 
?s been extended in many ways to give you completely flexible 
rntrol over your everyday data handling and calculation 


problems. You will find that it can often be used for things other 
than a spreadsheet is traditionally used for. For example, you could 
use it for storing data such as names and addresses. 

No programming language will have to be learnt in order to use 
the Notebook spreadsheet, although for greater flexibility it 
incorporates some looping features found in high level languages. 
It will allow you to do most day to day calculations, book keeping 
and accounts right up to complex scientific equations, The 
graphics features allow you to produce many different options of 
graph and chart display which can be sent to a printer (Epson 
compatible), use some simple database-like functions such as 
sorting and searching the data. Date and time functions can be 
built into the sheets. 

You will also find that the Notebook spreadsheet is one of the most 
'intelligent' programs available. Most computer utilities waste an 
enormous amount of their potential working time just sitting around 
waiting for the user to decide what has to be done next. You will 
find that the Notebook spreadsheet works much harder than that. 
Commands or data that you enter are checked for mistakes as you 
type each character rather than when you enter the whole line, or 
even worse, when the program attempts to do a calculation based 
on the entry. The result is that there is absolutely no ambiguity about 
what you have done wrong. 

This error handling extends far beyond a simple check of whether 
the entry is valid in terms of what commands and entries the 
computer will understand. The Notebook spreadsheet will also 
attempt to see whether the entry makes sense in terms of the whole 
sheet as it is currently set up. For example, in most spreadsheets it 
is important to avoid a forward reference when entering data in a 
formula e.g. it is usually impossible to enter a calculation in row A, 
line 1 that reads 2"B2. You will understand that you want the value 
in B2 to be worked out BEFORE that in AT or it doesn't make sense 
but most programs will attempt to do it the other way around. The 
Notebook spreadsheet works out an 'Order of Recalculation' 
number for each item as it is entered which ensures that the logical 
results that you intended from your sheet are preserved without any 
need to re-organise the arrangement of the rows and columns. 

These features may mean that people familiar with other 
spreadsheet programs will find that many of the restrictions they 
have been accustomed to simply do not exist. 


The Spreadsheet Section of the manual 

"he section of the manual that describes how to use the 

spreadsheet has been divided into logical parts designed to make 
t as useful as possible for both novices and more experienced users 

t's impossible in any manual to be able to arrange the information 
•o suit everybody. It is more important to present the information in 
a logical order and make it easy to find. 

Part One(a) is a Getting Started guide giving details of various 
-jndamental aspects of the program such as which keys can be 
„sed. It explains some of the special terms used when describing 
worksheets. It should be read by every new user of spreadsheets. 
After this, skip to Part Two, The complete Tutorial Guide.. 

s»art One(b) is a Getting Started guide for users who are already 
-^miliar with spreadsheet programs and want to get going quickly 
vth the Notebook spreadsheet. Such users will probably also find 

- worthwhile to read through Part Two, the Tutorial guide, though 
-ey may find the later chapters of more interest. 

'art Two is a comprehensive Tutorial guide mainly aimed at new 
^ers of the spreadsheet. Experienced users may choose to skip to 
:*er chapters or Part Three. The tutorial will take you step by step 

-■rough the various procedures involved in creating a new 
.orksheet and entering and manipulating data. Not all of the 
urious commands and aspects of the program will be detailed in 

- s section. Certain of the later chapters can be omitted if the 
■-ssons within are not of interest but the early chapters are 
-oortant in getting you used to the way that the program behaves 
-d handles the data. Some examples of use are also given, 

^art Throe is designed as an overview of the spreadsheet and recap 

• *he tutorial for those who have had some experience in the use 

• *he Notebook spreadsheet or similar products and who wish to 
3 details of some commonly used options in a hurry. References 
e given showing where more information on each section can 

-=■ found. It is recommended that beginners use this only as a 
■erence guide and supplement to the main index. If you find 
-ie of the subjects hard to follow you should read the tutorial 
;hon itself. 


Part Four is the Complete Reference where full details of every ' 
command and feature are laid out in alphabetical order. This wfl 
probably be the most frequently consulted area of the book for 
those more experienced users who are aware of the program's 
capabilities and who wish to exploit more sophisticated routines. 

Whilst we can teach you the various features of the Notebook 
spreadsheet it is not possible to give advice on all the many 
possible uses to which it can be put, though the tutorial chapters : 
do give some examples. 


Getting Started for Beginners 

-e following part of the spreadsheet manual gives you practical 
-'ormation about getting ready to use the Notebook spreadsheet, 
~e screen, the keyboard and some other points you will need to 
.-ow to use it effectively. Most of these points are covered later in 
~e manual but this first introduction may avoid some puzzlement, 
■ you don't understand some of this section at this stage, don't 
-orry, be prepared to re-read the section at a later stage. 

Using the Notebook spreadsheet 

-■ any time, while using the Notebook, you can switch to using the 
ceadsheet by holding down the Yellow key and pressing the 
\nite key. After a moment or two you should see a screen like this. 

Amstend NC28* 
S w P * • ** sheet. 





^t like in the word processor, you have three possible options. The 
•st. accessed by pressing the Red key, is where you first begin and 
. ■ start the spreadsheet program with nothing loaded. You can 
-en start a completely blank sheet and input your data. 

■ . pushing the Green key you will see a list of any worksheets that 
ou have already created. From this you can select one of the 
•ored worksheets (name ending ,MEM) and the spreadsheet will 
■3 started with that file loaded in for you to continue work on it. 

-e Blue key from the above screen also accesses a list of 

r -ead sheet files but when you select one it is loaded and a print 
Deration is started. 


To begin to actually use the spreadsheet, start at the above screen 
by pressing the Yellow and White keys, then press the Red key to 
select the "Start a new Worksheet" option. You will then see the 

opening screen of the spreadsheet: 

Hake sheet, Restart. Copy, Insert, Which Files, Demos, (*jto., Oult 


M NC200 


Press H to Make a Mont sheet of Fi.-.ed *ize " ti?i -.i ^88 >. 
R to Pest art - cont i rwe '.'or' king from last t.i.rfiv. . 
C to Copy a L'or ksheet from memory into the spreadsheet - 
1 to deFme a customised worksheet Csize end Format 1 

by Insert inci columns and rows. 
U to see Uhich Piles are available to c 
D to choose the Demonstration Piles. . . 

H to switch the Automatic calculation OFF or on. 
to Quit From *"'-- — ^--i-l --* 

Don't do anything yet but note that the only options open to you 
at this stage would be to make a sheet of predetermined size and 
format, restart at the point you had reached when you last used 
the spreadsheet, copy in an existing worksheet or to start a new 
one from scratch (by inserting new columns and lines). "Which files* 
will list any worksheet files already stored in the Notebook. "Auto* 
lets you switch off the automatic recalculation feature before 
loading in a large and complex sheet. The Demo option will give 
you access to some special demonstration worksheets built into the 

Details of the screen. 

To introduce you to the spreadsheet's normal working display here 
is a quick rundown of what the various pieces of information on the 
screen stand for. If you have not used a spreadsheet program 
before you should not worry if you can't take it all in at once, Just 
use this section for reference as you progress through the tutorial 

Press the L^°J key to select "Make sheet" and then press the Ld_ key. 
This makes a blank sheet with 10 columns and 200 lines where each 
cell will display numbers in a general numeric format. 



PBCEFG I JMHOPQST VWXZ * +-\/ > . ( '*tt++ 




The screen is divided into two main areas, the worksheet itself which 


*akes up the majority of the bottom of the display, above this is a 
•hree line status area giving further information on the state of the 

D ress the 1^ 1 key. Notice that the display switches to show you 
as much of the worksheet as possible. Fifteen lines of data cells are 
;hown. Only the top line is used to show you the column labels. You 
ran continue to type in commands to the spreadsheet although 
,ou won't be able to see what you are typing. You switch back 
^nd forth bet ween t his enlarged display and the normal display 

each time the lj~. I key is pressed. Even when you are part way 

"irough entering a command, you can switch between the normal 
^nd this enlarged display. Switch back to the normal display now. 

Parting with the top line of the status area, on the leftmost side is 
2 figure showing the co-ordinates of the currently active cell (Al in 
•nis case). This is followed, to the right of the dividing line, by the 
CONTENTS LINE which will display the information that is actually 
-eld in the current cell, as opposed to the information that has 
-een calculated and displayed in the worksheet area. (At present 
• is just blank because no data has been entered). 

•ou will often find that the value shown on the contents line is quite 
afferent to the value shown In the worksheet area of the display. 
-ie way the values in worksheet display are shown is completely 
:ependent on what display format has been chosen for them, 
ormats are an important topic to understand when using a 
oreadsheet and the subject is covered in quite some detail later 

- the manual. 

?n the right side of the top line is the co-ordinate of the bottom 

ght cell in the currently defined sheet - J200 in this case. This gives 
. du an indication of the size of the work area. In this case there are 
: columns (labelled A.J) and 200 lines (1..200). 

•.hen you first start to use the spreadsheet you will also see the 
-rter *c" in the top right corner. This indicates that Caps Lock is 
vitched on. Caps Lock will always be switched on when you start 
: use the spreadsheet and will be restored to its former setting 
.ien you stop using the spreadsheet. The reason that it is switched 

- is that normally you will work in columns A..Z and it ensures that 
.nen you enter co-ordinates you use the upper case letters. When 
:u come to type in text, such as la bels, yo u may find it easiest to 
vtch Caps Lock, off by pressing the l c " s -H key. 


The second line begins with a shortened description of the display 
format that is in operation on the current cell. This currently shows 
"Gen" which means that the active cell (Al) has a General format. 

Next to this is the prompt line on which you are presented with a 
summary of all the keypress options available to you at that time. 

The prompt line that you saw on first starting the spreadsheet 
presented you with the options:- 

Hake sheet, Restart, Copy, Insert, Which files, Auto., Demo, Quit 

This is typical of the Notebook spreadsheet prompt lines and the 
meaning of each of the commands can be looked up in the 
manual. Because you used the F3 option (Make blank sheet) you 
are now presented with this line: 

ABCEFGIJMNOPQSrVWXZ!+-\/>. ('*ti« » 

This line can be regarded as the central command panef for the 

spreadsheet. At this point there is almost every available option 
open to you, in fact there are so many that it is impossible for the 
prompt line to give any more help than to provide you with the first 
letter of each command name that is available (single letter 

If at any time you cannot remember what any letter or symbol 
stands for, consult the built-in manual by pressing the (~^) key and 
the Notebook spreadsheet will be able to provide you with a more 
detailed explanation of the available options. If you do press feT3 
you will see the first 16 lines of help information. Press any key, T 
for example, to see the subsequent pages of information. After the ; 
last you will return to the same prompt. 

All commands that are available with the spreadsheet work on a 
system whereby you are provided with prompts to remind you of 
what is available. 

You select the desired command by a one letter keypress based 
on a mnemonic of the full command name. You will find this a very 
convenient ana easy method to use but you must get used to not 
attempting to type the command in full or you may end up in some 
unexpected places. Don't worry if this happens - just press Ed and 
you will be back to something you recognise with no harm done. 


Atatch the prompt line whHe you ore finding your feetlo keep trade 

Df all the available options. 

At the right hand end of the second screen line is a figure 
epresenting the number of bytes of available memory left in your 
;urrent sheet. A byte is just a technical word meaning a storage 
ocation that can hold one character, The spreadsheet will keep 
~ack of how many bytes are free and will not let you lose your work 
' all the memory is used up. 

*he Notebook spreadsheet has three ways of working depending 
:n how much memory is free when it is started. If there is 65,000 
z /res (or more) of free RAM available then it will start up in a way 
-at provides you with about 32512 bytes of storage for 
oreadsheet data. If, however, you have already stored quite a lot 
:' information in your Notebook then the available memory may 
:e more restricted and you will see that there are only 20224 or 
rven 8064 bytes free when you first start. If you put a PCMCIA 
memory card into your Notebook and store most of your data on 
-at then you will always have the maximum amount of memory 
ee for spreadsheets. 

MOTE: The graphics facilities of the spreadsheet require a lot of 

memory to work and wilt only be available when you have 
more than 65,000 bytes free in upper memory before you 
start the spreadsheet. 

"-e last line of the status area begins with the prompt Next: 

owed by the entry line. The entry line displays the commands or 

: uta that you are currently typing into the sheet, In the case of the 

r-nmands each single keypress is expanded into the fuli 

: Tim and word, or words, that it represents. 

-ally, on this line may (or may not) be the message Auto, which, 

oresent, signifies that the Automatic calculation feature is in 
ze ration. You will learn more about this later. 

ere is a flashing block after the word Next : which shows your 

.'rent position on the entry line as you type. Normally this would 
~ referred to as a cursor (just like the "cursor" in the word 
Dcessor). However, the spreadsheet has a second, usually larger, 
,'sor which shows which is the active cell. For this reason, the 
.-sor on the text entry line will always be referred to as the CUE in 
■5 spreadsheet section of the manual to avoid confusion. 


The main worksheet will be formed below the entry line. As yo\ 

selected the Make blank sheet option from the opening screen, the 
area is already filled with cells that are 12 characters wide and in 
General format. (Formats will be explained in more detail later). 
These cells are labelled 1 to 12 vertically and A to F horizontally. The 
blank sheet is actually 10 columns wide and 200 lines deep. You 
can add further columns using the Insert command. 

Unlike many other spreadsheet programs you are not limited by 
available memory to how large the sheet can be. Any Notebook 
worksheet can be up to 52 columns and 255 lines, regardless of 
available memory, because unoccupied ceils do not consume any 
space. As you fill cells the available memory will be reduced and 
this is what will actually limit how much data you have in a 
spreadsheet. As a rough guide, the maximum number of occupied 
cells you can have is about 1 ,800 but this depends on the contents 
of the cells. 

The final thing to be learnt is there is a second type of worksheet' 

display that you can toggle on or off with c_J (for exchange) 
command. In this case each ceil shows the information that was 
entered directly into it irrespective of the result of any calculations 
or of the selected display formats. This option will only be of use 
when you have entered some data into the worksheet. 

When you use the X command it may be necessary to make 
adjustments to the column widths to be able to view ail of the data 

or formulae that have been entered. 

When you switch the formula display in this way, if you press the GD 

key the free memory value will change. The value now shown is the 
amount of space available for cell indices. Each time you enter 
data into a cell the data itself is stored and the "normal" free 
memory figure is reduced but, In addition to this, an entry is made 
in an index table to keep track of which cells are occupied. This 
second free memory figure shows you how much free space is 
remaining in the index table. 

The Keyboard . j 

Again, for reference purposes, here is a rundown of some of the 
keys you will be using most often. Don't worry about trying to 

remember it all first time, practice will make them familiar. 


You probably know about upper and lower case characters. You 
hold down a shift key while typing a letter to get the upper case 
capital form. Notice that the first 26 columns in any sheet are 
abelled A..Z in upper case and you must type any ceil co-ordinates 
n the correct case. If you type a,.z when you really mean A..Z you 
vill actually be trying to select columns in the range 26.. 52. To help 
/ou, Caps Lock is switched on when you start t he sp readsheet so 
mat you don't need to remember to hold down I" I when typing 
■V.Z. In fact, while Caps Lock is on (i ndica ted by a "c" at the top 
-ght of the display) you will find that h 1 switches back to using 
*ne lower case letters. 

"here is also a second form of shift key which is marked Control. This 

s held down in the same way as the shift while a letter is typed, 
£3-H means hold down the EE3 and type the letter following the 
jash, in this case, £D. 

"ne &iz3 key is well named and very important. It Is used to let you 
exit without harm from any commands that you may have set into 
->otion and then regretted. You are returned^ back to the primary 
rommand prompt ABC etc.. If you press bjz a further time from 
-ere you will leave the spreadsheet and return to the previous 
'.otebook menu, if you subsequently restart the spreadsheet and 
.•.ish to continue from exactly where you left off you just need to 
elect the Restart option from the opening screen. (This actually 
eloads a temporary copy of your work from a file called 
£ START. MEM. This will be explained later). 

.'ost of the alphanumeric keys will be used at one time or another 
: represent various choices for the single-key-entry commands. 

■ s possible that you may be able to enter commands faster than 
-■e Notebook spreadsheet can process them. The spreadsheet has 
. ouilt in type ahead facility which stores these commands until 
-ey can be processed, if the commands cannot be accepted you 
.• i hear a beep and whatever you typed will be ignored. 

<eys used to move the cursor 

■e cell cursor can be moved around the worksheet using the 
•dw keys - S3, ££,. fcti and t=±). If you try to move off the top, 
:tom or edge of the sheet you will see the message "outside 


As well as usingthe arrow keys to move the active cell cursor, 
keys (''a), n, FT), Q can also be used to move around the sheet 
acting as mnemonics for the commands Up, Down, Left and Right, 
These have the additional advantage that they can easily be 
incorporated into a command Macro. (A macro is just a technical 
word meaning a list of stored commands. This is explained later in 
the manual) For those who prefer to use a diamond shaped layout 
of cursor control keys the 



keys may be used in conjunction with Control, b""J. In summary, ■ 
keys you may use to move the active cell cursor by single 

movements are: 

LT], d, 





cursor up 

cursor down 
cursor left 
cursor right 

Each press of the arrow keys will move the cursor by one cell, Youj 
can also make bigger movements to navigate around you 
worksheet more guickly. When pressed with Shift, V ~1 , and] 

Control, tr~3, the arrow keys have the following effect; 

JIjj or - 
Jt-ii"; or + 

Move up a page 

Move aown a page 

jump to left edge on current line 

jump to right edge on current line 

jump to top cell in current column 

jump to bottom cell in current column 

jump to cell at top left of defined 


jump to cell at bottom right of defined 


The J^J- Jump command can also be used to jump the cursor to< 
selected cell. 





How to Get Help 

if, at any time, you find that you do not recognise or cannot 
remember the prompts that are displayed on the screen, pressing 
♦he fc} key will call up explanatory text that may be sufficient to 
answer all of your queries. 

«ou can summon a help screen at any time, except when editing 
a cell. 

*he first 16 tines of help information are displayed. Press any key to 
see the next 1 6 lines and so on until you have seen all of the help 
-ext. After the last key press you will be returned to the point at 
//hich you pressed C^D. Press E^ to leave help early. 

"he help that you call up is "context sensitive". What this means is 
•hat if you have started to use a particular command and then 
cress f S^l . the help you receive will relate to that command. So, for 
example, if you press (L I (which selects the Format command) and 
•^en press E£) the help you receive will describe the Format 
rommand. At the opening screen and main ABCEF... prompt the 
-elp you get is more general. 


Before we can go on to discuss the finer features of the spreadsheet 

t/e must first deal with some matters of terminology. Throughout this 

~ianuai the program that you use to enter numerical data is called 

-ie SPREADSHEET and the collection of data you build with it is 

- ailed a WORKSHEET. In other programs you may often see the word 

.-'eadsheet used to describe both the program itself and the 

orksheets that are produced by it, This can be confusing so is not 

: one in this manual. 

-e worksheet is like an enormous piece of paper divided into a 

;-d by vertical COLUMNS and horizontal rows or LINES. By 

onventlon the lines are numbered down the page from 1 and the 

oiumns are labelled alphabetically from left to right starting with 

■ B to Z, followed by a, b, to z (If you use a..z where you meant to 
;e A..Z you will get unexpected results or an 'Out of Range' error 
essage.). Caps Lock is normally switched on to help you to enter 

■ Z, Press {<**"" ■] if you want to switch it off while entering text 



The smallest unit of the worksheet is a CELL, produced at 
crossing point of one line and one column. Each cell is referred to 
by its column and line co-ordinates, e.g. A1, B12 etc. The cell ft 
where you enter each individual unit of your data, and each piece 
of data is known as an ENTRY. The entry can be of three types: text, 
numbers or a mathematical formula known as an EXPRESSION that 
resolves to a numerical value. 

Since you are concerned with entering information into one cell at 
a time, the currently active cell position is shown on screen by a 

CELL CURSOR cell printed in inverse text. Information about the 
current cell is displayed on top of the screen, as described above. 

The lines of the sheet are, again by convention, only one character 
deep. The cells are displayed with the boundaries shown by upright 
bar characters * |\ However, the size of each cell is not in fact 
limited by the size of the display, but rather can hold any length of 
data you wish to enter up to a maximum determined by the width 
of the screen. If the display size is smaller than the length of the. 
data then the spreadsheet displays as much of it as it can if text v 
or some warning characters (***) if numbers so you are not misk 
by truncated figures. In either case no information is lost. 

Any data, text or numeric, that will be used by the program in W 1 1 
calculations or other manipulations must, by necessity, be restricted I 
by the maximum size of the cell, but it is important to understand! 
that it is not restricted by the apparent size of the cell on the screen.' 
which can be shortened down to only one character wide. 

The Notebook spreadsheet will display as much of the information ' 
held in that cell as is possible given the limitation of the display and 
of the display FORMAT (don't worry about what a Format is just now, 
it will be dealt with in more detail later). The true value of the dotal 
is used in all calculations regardless of the way it looks in the) 
worksheet display. 

As an exception to the above rule It is possible to specify that Te 
data should be spread over several cells to act as permaner 

visible comments on the data that is being displayed. This is knc 
as a HEADING. 

The worksheet itself can be many times larger than can fit on sere 
at any one time - in fact up to a maximum of 52 columns by 25 



vou will find that as you move the current cell cursor position your 
view of the sheet will move with it, changing the cells that are 
displayed. In computer terms you have a scrolling window onto the 

As well as entries, columns and lines the spreadsheet is also able to 
-nanipulate specified BLOCKS of the worksheet. Consider a block 
3s a rectangular area of the sheet which you define by giving the 
;o-ordinate of the top left and then the bottom right corners. You 
vill find this feature very useful. It will allow you to collect your 
nformation together and then rearrange it in any way you like. The 
defined block can even be as big as the whole sheet if you wish to 
duplicate all of your work to date. 

"he full list of the parts of the worksheet is: 

Entry a single cell. 

Column a vertical band. 

Line a horizontal row. 

Block a rectangle from within the sheet. 

All the whole of the sheet. 

'ou will see later that only a couple of the commands. Blank and 
Hopy, can work on all five options, You will always be reminded 
*tiich options are available via prompts displayed on the screen, 

What to do when you make a mistake 

•du will always know when you have made a mistake because the 
oreadsheet will give you a beep and an explanation of your error. 

• will make sure that whatever mistake you make it will do no harm 

• o your work, Just press the key to back up the cue to the place 
oefore your mistake. The spreadsheet usually checks for a mistake 
35 each key is pressed and so you will rarely have to make long 

- you change your mind about an entry and want to abandon 
*nat you are doing just press the S key. This will stop the current 
entry and return the worksheet to the exact state before you 
-arted the entry, 

Of course the spreadsheet cannot catch mistakes In your logic that 
are still legal commands, 


Saving your worksheets 

When you have typed data into a worksheet it is temporarily stored 
in the working memory of the spreadsheet program while you are 
still working on it. To save it so that you can later load it back and 
continue working on it you must store it in a FILE. The word file is just 
a computer Jargon word which means a stored collection of data, 
The documents in the word processor are also files but the word 
"document" is a more meaningful description, 

To save information to a file all you need to do is type 
PHFTOnameLd] which means Copy All of the worksheet to a File 
with name "name". Choose your own file name which can be from 
1 to 8 letters long. This is not like the word processor where you can 
have a 12 character name. The reason may become apparent if 
you later look at the list of stored worksheet files. You will see that 
the letters .MEM have been added automatically to the name you 
gave - possibly making it a full 12 characters long. This is because 
the spreadsheet only recognises files whose names end with a full 
stop followed by either MEM, TXT, DAT or DIF - this is explained later. 

When you next start the spreadsheet you can select an existing file 
from the list stored worksheets screen to reload your existing work 
and carry on. Alternatively, you can select the start a new 
worksheet option and then use the f TlD command (Copy File) to 
load a worksheet file back into the spreadsheet program. 

In other programs you might be accustomed to using Save and 
Load to accomplish the same function. In the Notebook 
spreadsheet both saving and loading are achieved using different 
forms of the Copy command. 

Leaving the Notebook spreadsheet 

if at any time you want to leave the spreadsheet_you can either' 
just press fczJ at the main ABCEF... prompt or press HJ to select the 
Quit command. Your work up to this point will automatically be 
saved in a file called RESTART.MEM. This file is automatically 
updated and overwritten every time you use the Quit command or 
leave by pressing S. 

This is an EMERGENCY ONLY save of your work and normally yc 

should copy ail your work to file with your own choice of name, Jt 
type nf A JOMYW0RK tP) (Copy Ail of the sheet to a file with the 


name MYWORK) and your work will be saved in a file called 
MYWORK.MEM, This is explained in more detail later on in the 

■A/hen you next use the spreadsheet, you can select the Restart- 
option at the opening screen to automatically reload the 
RESTART. MEM file so that you can continue work from where you left 
off. Alternatively, you can just pick RESTART, MEM from the list of 
stored worksheets. Remember that RESTART.MEM will be overwritten 
next time you quit from the spreadsheet. 

t a request is made to see the stored files whilst the spreadsheet is 
neing used, only those files whose names have the last four 
characters .MEM, TXT, .DAT or ,DIF are displayed. When using the 
//ord processor, if you look at the list of stored documents you will 
see the spreadsheet files listed but you wont be able to edit them 
jsing the word processor (except .TXT files). 

Running the sample worksheets provided 

Built into your Notebook are seven example worksheets. They are 
jsed throughout this manual to illustrate the operation of the 
orogram and you could also use them as the basis of your own work 
oy loading one in, modifying it for the way you want to work and 
•nen saving it under a new name. 

,Vhen you first start, the demonstration files are hidden away in the 

-ead only memory of your Notebook so that they do not waste any 
of the valuable RAM space but you can easily copy them out into 
*>AM, while the spreadsheet is being used, so that they can be 
.vorked on. From the very opening menu of the spreadsheet 
choose the "Demos" command by pressing (°T3. After this the 
example files will be listed and can then be loaded into the 
program. When you stop using the spreadsheet the example files 
.-/ill be deleted from RAM to conserve space. 

*o look at the file called SALES.MEM notice that a Copy command 
-as already been started so you just need to type SALESGZi to 
complete copying the file and you will then see it on the screen. 
/ou don't need to type .MEM as that is added for you 

iALES.MEM Is a sample commission calculation showing the results 

cased on a stepping scale and a sliding scale, 


TAX.MEM is an example of a self employed tax calculation. This uses 
a function POS specially created for tax calculations. This makes no 
change if the argument is positive but gives a value of zero if the 
argument is negative. 

ADLIST.MEM is an example of using the spreadsheet to hold a name 
and address list. The spreadsheet's sorting and searching functions 
can be used to operate on the data and it is possible to print 
mailing labels from it - this Is explained later in the manual. 




TBEAM.MEM shows how an engineer might work out the property 
of a Tbeam. With routines like this whole books of formulae and 
tabulated results can be dispensed with. 

IRR.MEM shows how to work out the internal rate of return. The 

program in this case actively searches for an answer as this is the 
only way this problem can be solved. This worksheet uses DO and 
WHILE and several other useful functions. You won't be able to 
prepare this type of worksheet until you are quite experienced but 
it does show the level of sophistication to which you can go. 

PLOT1 .MEM and PLOT2.MEM are worksheets set up for graphics. See 
the tutoriai section that deals with using the Trace command for 
details of how to use the graphics. 

When you leave the spreadsheet program, the demo files are 
erased from the Notebook's RAM to conserve space. If you really 
wanted to keep one available then you must save it under a new 
name before you stop the spreadsheet. Because any sheets called 
PLOT1.MEM or PLOT2.MEM are erased when you leave the 
spreadsheet you must NEVER use these names yourself or your work 
will be erased. 

New users of the spreadsheet may now Hke to continue readlr 
Part Two - the Tutorial Guide. The following section is a quick start ' 

guide for people who are already familiar with the operation of a 
spreadsheet program. 


Quick Start Guide for Experts 

: or those of you who are too impatient to take each step in turn or 
vho have to get on with an important job here is the Notebook 
spreadsheet Quick start guide to fundamental tasks. 

Starting a new sheet - the quick way 

-om the opening screen of the spreadsheet select the Make blank 

eet command. Notice that when you press ED the whole 

,ommand Make a blank worksheet appears on the entry line. 

ou do not have to type the whole word. All commands work in this 
.■.■ay so, with the minimum amount of typing you can ask the 

oreadsheet to perform quite complex operations, 

"ie make blank sheet command will start a pre-defined worksheet 

-at has 10 columns and 200 lines made up of cells that all have a 

General numeric format and which display 12 characters: 


flBCEFGIJrWOPQSTVWZ ! +-V> , ( 'W*» 

at's all there Is to it. You could now continue with Step 6 in the 
lowing description which explains the fundamentals of entering 
: Dta into your blank worksheet. 

-lis method has allowed you to start a worksheet very quickly, 
Dwever, there is a limitation to this method of starting a new sheet, 
^e problem is that all the decisions of How many columns? How 
■any lines? What width are the ceils? What format are the cells? 
-e made for you. Often you will want to set up a sheet which has 
■ ore or fewer columns/lines, you might want some that are wider 


and some thinner and you may want some in different formats 
(such as text for adding iabeis). In this case you should use the 
following method: 

Starting a new sheet 


Begin by defining your worksheet. Press ['"3 which selects the Insert \ 
command to insert between 1 to 52 Columns. 

Next I 

Column^ 0-9 


flute ^ 

Press [Menu] for help anytime 

Notice that as soon as you type C J the whole word insert 
appears and the line above shows that you can either type the 
letter C to mean a single column or you can enter one or two digits 
between and 9 if you want to create a number of columns. Type 
6cE to mean "6 columns"; 


With width I 

32512 i 

Press [Menu] for help any time 

Now you must specify the display width of the columns, 1 to 67 
characters. New ones can be added at any time and the width of 
existing columns can be changed. Notice that you can either ente 
a digit or the J means you should then press the H key. Type io 
K to specify that the columns should have a displayed width of 
10 characters, You then see: 


0-9 ( Cam General; Heeding. Integer, Text, Plot 
Default FormoHobe^ 




You are asked to specify the default display format for the 
column(s), The most important choice is between text and numeric 
formats - text is specified as TL (left justified), TR (right justified) or 
Heading (always displayed in full despite the column width). 

Numeric formats are every other choice except Carriage Returns 

Formats do not actually alter the data you enter, just the way it is 
displayed. However, you can only enter text into cells that have one 
of the text formats and numeric data and expressions into the ceils 
that have one of the numeric formats. 

A full explanation of Formats is given In the tutorials and command 
reference section, 

For now just type (fZ) to select General numeric format, When you 
press Gri. you will see a single line with 6 columns, each 10 

characters wide: 

: o far you have a single line of 6 cells. To make a complete 
.•.orksheet you need to insert several copies of the line you have 
already specified. Press command key CJ again to select Insert, 
"nis time, type 15 F71G=L to say that you want 15 more lines. You 
;an have between 1 and 255 lines: 


End., Up, Doun, Left, Right, arrows, Jump, J 
Destination 1 

F1 c 



When asked for destination just hit so that the new tines are 
inserted before (above) the current cursor position, When you 
already have some lines set up and then use (' J to insert more, 
they will always be added before the cursor if you just hit S when 

asked for a destination: 



JMNOPQSTVUXZ ! +-\/> . ( ' *ti** 

Use the curso r keys to move around the sheet. You can also 
GL_J(jl and IT TT) to move forwards and backwards a page' 
at a time. If you try to move past the edge of the sheet you will 
hear a beep and see the message outside works heet. Just press 
any key to clear this message from the screen. Press i>— J to switch 
between the normal and enlarged views of the sheet. 

Switch back to the normal view, nowyou can try entering your first j 
data onto the worksheet. Press the Q key to start entering data: 

Ent©r number or expression 

You will be expected to enter data of a type that is correct for the 


he i 

current cell format. As all cells have the General numeric format 

you should type some numbers. If you were entering a lot of data 
you would not press the K key when finished but, instead, use the 
arrow keys to move to the next cell and you will remain in Entry 


As well as entering just numbers into cells you can also enter 
formulae that operate on data held in other ceils. So, for example, 
if you have entered 2 into ceil At you could enter Al+2 into cell Bl 
and the number actually displayed on the worksheet display would 
be 4 - the result of adding 2 to the contents of cell Al , If you then 
changed Al the result would be reflected in Bl. 

A full list of the functions, mathematical and otherwise, that can be 
nciuded in a numerical data entry is given in the Expression Entry 
Section in the Complete Command Summary. Worked examples of 
many of them are included in the tutorials. 

individual cell formats can be specified using the F for Format 
command. So, for example, in the sheet you have set up, all the 
cells are in general format. If you wanted to enter a value and have 
,t displayed in a format with 2 decimal places you could type 
Lj2rlE followed by the number to enter. 

Loading an existing worksheet 

• you want to load in one of the demonstration files built into the 
notebook just press (°~~] at the opening menu, to select demos, 
followed by the name of one of the files listed: 

' you want to load an existing MEM file use the command 

£ ,name to load in the file. As you will see, CF means Copy 

filename. When you type the command you will see all files that 


Could be loaded listed at the bottom of the screen. Just type the 
name of any one of these. If its name ends in .MEM you do not 
need to type the .MEM at the end of the name as this is assumed 
if you do not type an extension. 



PL0T2 . MEM 

If you are loading a file with The extension .DAT, ,DIF or .TXT you 
should first define an empty sheet big enough to hold the data. The 
cells should be defined with the correct format to hold the data 
loaded from the file. 

Only those four filename extensions are recognised. The Notebook 
spreadsheet expects each filename type to hold a certain type of 
data - do not use them indiscriminately. When in doubt use the 
MEM extension. If no extension is used .MEM is assumed. 

A file can be added on to one already in memory, if there is room, 
using the CF command. You will be asked to specify where the file, 
is to go, 

Saving a sheet 

Decide whether you want to save the whole sheet or just part of iti^ 
If you want to save a part you will have to specify the cell, line, row, 
or block that you want to save to a file in memory. 

Use the Copy All (or named part) to File filename command 

sequence to save the sheet. You do this by typing ^~]^J^nome: 





Hi edge 





•ice per L 


rTTTesper L 
Litres used 
Total Cost 

333 ! 82 

Use the filename extension ,MEM (or no extension) if you want ■ 
save the data for re-loading into the Notebook spreadsheet, Use 


the .DIF extension for loading Into another spreadsheet or graphics 
program if you intend to transfer the file to a different computer. 

Use the TXT or DAT extensions for loading into a word processor or 
for processing by BASIC or other programming language either in 
the Notebook or perhaps on another computer. 

' you get the message Memory Full then press S. Ail your work up 
-o this point can be saved but you cannot add any more data to 
-ne worksheet. Consider breaking it into sections. You may also find 
t useful to increase the Notebook 's memory by adding a PCMCIA 
SRAM card. 

Printing from the spreadsheet 

Decide what area of the sheet, if not all, that you want to print. 

' the width of lines is wider than your printer can manage print the 
sheet in two or more sections. 

Alternatively use the OUT command to select condensed print (if 
/our printer is capable of it). See the description of Out In Tutorial X 

"or more information. 

„se the Copy All (or specified section) to Printer command to print 
•he data. You type rTFD[ p ~*) to do this: 


ata is printed as it appears on screen, without line dividers or 
f/stem messages. 


Complete TUTORIAL Guide 

The following tutorial chapters work up from the most basic things 
you will need to know to start using the spreadsheet to some very 
advanced topics. As well as explaining the use of many of the 
commands that are covered in the complete command reference 
it also, by example, shows some uses to which the spreadsheet can 
be put. 

Tutorial I - Basic Techniques 

Creating a worksheet 

This is the picture you will have on your screen after first starting the 
Notebook spreadsheet if you select the Start a new worksheet 

Hake sheet. Restart, Copy, Insert, Which Files, Demos, Onto., Quit 


Ht NC200 ft. 


.-; II to M.-.i- 
tt to Rest 

blank sheer of Fi.--ed size lie .-. 28* I . 
t ~ continue Marking Frofi. last time. 

ito copy o worksheet from rnenory into the spread* but-, 
to deFme a customised worksheet Csize and FonMHTJ-** 
by Inserting columns and rows. v.. 

M to see Which FiTes are oyoi I obi© to copy From m**ory, 
D to choose the Demonstration riles. 
to si." itch t he ^ ft lit o mot ic calculation oF'F or on. 

To get started as quickly as possible we will leave a description of 
building a sheet _from scratch until later in the manual. For the time 
being just press f M o] to select the Make sheet option. When you press 
\j=L a blank sheet with 10 columns and 200 lines will be defined. This 
is made up of cells that are 12 characters wide and have their 
format type set to General. 

You will notice that it was only necessary to type ED followed by 
El to use the Make sheet option. You did not have to type the 
whole "Make sheet" command. The single key-stroke sequence 
used by the spreadsheet to symbolise each of the available 
commands should be extremely convenient to use but you must 
remember not to try type in the commands in full or some 
unexpected effects or error messages may appear. A similar form 
of prompting is used in a lot of computer program. They are 


-ormally referred to as menus. I.e. a list from which you make your 

■Vhepyou are typing commands, if you make a mistake, just press 
->e a key and you will go back to the stage before your error. If 
. ou want to abandon the sequence entirely press the E?°] key and 
. du will be returned to the previous menu. No harm will be done. 

'-ie numbers that you now see running down the screen are the 

•. orksheet line numbers and the A. ,F above them are the worksheet 
olumn letters. The columns across and the rows down have 
: vided the sheet into a grid. Each individual unit of this arid is 
ailed a CELL. 

e cell cursor is shown as a cell printed in inverse text (currently 

~ top cell in column A). This ceil cursor marks the currently active 

which is where many of the commands you type in will take 


ach ceil has a name, or co-ordinate reference, which you get by 
ombining the column letter and the line number. At the moment 
-e cursor is in column A and line 1 so the co-ordinate reference is 
As this is the active cell you will see this co-ordinate displayed 
■ the top left of the screen. The "Gen" below this tells you that the 
ell has a General format. This means that any number entered into 

//ill be displayed in a general format - rather like you might see 

a scientific calculator. 

-e active cell is the ceil that is ready for you to enter data into it. 
.' this now by pressing the EQ key which signals to the spreadsheet 
at you want to type in some information. Type a few figures 
lowed by LdJ and you will see your data appear in the active 

ell. Infact, if you want to enter numbers you don't even need to 
oe r -J to start entry. Just start to type a number and the 
readsheet will automatically switch into entry mode, However, 

nen you want to enter functions and formulae, you must start the 

-itry with ILJ . 

/ moving the cell cursor about using the arrow keys and entering 

atajnto other cells. If you have had enough for one session use 

-9 fe!3 or Quit options to leave the spreadsheet. Either press the 

: key or type °_J to select the Quit command. They have the 

:-*ne effect. 


Tutorial II - Inserting and Deleting 
Rows and Columns 



Now that you have had your first experience at using the sheet it te 
time to look more closely at the commands used for creating, and 
deleting parts of, a spreadsheet. 

To get started quickly in the first tutorial we just used the Make sheet 
command which made a blank sheet of predetermined size and 
type. As an alternative you could have started from scratch using 
the Insert command to build up columns and lines of whatever size 
and type you desired. 

Having defined a sheet of a certain size it is also important to 
able to remove unwanted parts of the grid, For this we use the Zc 


The Insert and delete (Zap) commands act on rows or columr 

either one at a time or in groups. If you still have a worksheet on 
screen from theprevioys section, clear anything you have done so 
far with UDOEEDCHj i.e. "Zap All'. Note that the spreadsheet 
asks for confirmation before proceeding with this possibly disastrous 
command. You will return to the opening screen of the 

If you had already left the spreadsheet then select, the start a 
new worksheet option. This time, instead of using C3 we will see 
how a sheet may be built up from scratch. 

By choosing to build a worksheet in this way you have complet 
control over exactly how many columns and rows there are, howl 
wide the columns are, what type of data they should contain and ! 
exactly how it should be displayed. 

Now type f~3FllO for 'Insert Column of width 10': 

Next: Insert column 

6-9. J 
ufdth \j^ 


///NC200 Press 

When you press 
for the column; 

:n- -elc anytime 

take q blank sheet of fixed size 1 10 >: 200). 

you are then asked to give a default forme 



0-9, Corr, General, Heading, Integer, Text, Plot 
Default Format to be I 


Press [Menu] for help anytime 

:ach new column you create will have its own default format, i.e. 
every single cell in the column is regarded as holding the same type 
;f data (numbers or text) that is to be displayed in the same way 
.nless you specify otherwise. You will learn about formats later, for 
-ow in response to the 'Default format to be' prompt type [ fi .H=L 
■or General: 

:o far you only have a single cell so next try entering some extra 
nes with flDlsFTiED for Insert 15 Lines. You are then asked for a 

End, Up, Doun, Left. Right, arrows. Jump, J 

R1 c 
Hut 0. 

-s well as asking WHAT you want to add to the grid the spreadsheet 
:50 needs to know WHERE you want to put it so it prompted you 
:r the Destination of the inserted lines. 

■ /ou just type G=Ll when asked for this destination the new lines are 
jt in front of the cursor. Your only alternative at this stage when 
ily one line exists is f r ]GZI for End in which case it will be put after 
-e cursor. When you have a more complex sheet already defined 
- ere will be more possible options and you can insert new lines into 
-e middle of the ones already defined. For now just type £*) which 
. il put the new lines above the current cell: 

A16 o 

. inserting columns and rows in this way you can build the 
:>rksheet up to a possible maximum of 52 columns and 255 lines. 
-e actual limitation on size will be dependent on the amount of 
ee memory available in your Notebook. The spreadsheet is 
esigned to use absolutely the minimum memory and so only those 
ells which are occupied with data use any memory at all. You can 


therefore start with as big a sheet as you like and fill in the detc 
later. If you have used other spreadsheets you will appreciate the 


You can use the ? 1 key for Zap command to reduce the sheet by 
column, by line or as a whole (i.e. a ciean start) with the ALL option. 
You will get more information about these later. 

Now type the following command F Js^sGZinPJaC 5 "!?]. This 
will insert 3 columns with a width of 8 characters each to be placed 
a t the end (i.e. to the right) of the current sheet. All the new cells 
will have a format of 2 decimal places. 

bi ° is i\ 

2Dec ABCEFGIJIOTQSTVUX2 ! +-V> . ( ' *U« £51* 

Moving around the sheet 

Try moving the cell cursor around the sheet you have created by 
typing Qu for down. Note that the active cell co-ordinate at the 
top changes as the cursor moves down, Move the cursor back up 
again with (33 for up. 

The arrow keys are probably the most natural keys to use to move 
the cursor but you will find that (%F~1SCJ can also be used to 
go Up, Down, Left and Right. These options exist so that you can 
use the direction movement keys in macros. This is described latec 

Alternatively, if you prefer to use direction movement keyjjaid out 
In a diamond shaped, cluster you can use the rJr_T V ) keys - 

pressing them with Errl The positioning of these keys corresponds 
to the direction they move in. 


I. u, E3-w 


Z]Q3 or + 


"he following were explained fn the Getting Started port of WIS 
3uide and are repeated here for your convenience: 

cursor up 

cursor down 

cursor left 

cursor right 

Move up a page 

Move down a page 

jump to left edge on current line 

jump to right edge on current line 

jump to top cell in current column 

jump to bottom cell in current column 

jump to cell at top left of defined 

jump to cell at bottom right of defined 

' you have to move the cursor to a specific cell you may find it 
-easiest to use the Jump command. This command goes directly to 
ne co-ordinate that you specify. Type (TO and you will see: 

D16 c 


£ =Z}m 




crd, Begin, End, Up.. Dam, tePb Right 

he 'crd' In this prompt means that you can specify a co-ordinate 
3 the destination for the jump. Type D6CT to move to the cell at 
-« bottom right of the sheet, If you just received the message "No 
.jch column" this is because you typed Jd6, rather than JD6 - 
emember that the first 26 columns are labelled with the upper case 
etters so you must use D, not d. 


There are six other possible Jump destinations - Begin and End, 
which refer to long jumps to the very beginning (top left) and very 
end (bottom right) of your worksheet. Right and Left go to the very 
end and beginning of the current line and Up and Down go to the 
top or bottom of the current column. Some of the \ n I and Er^ 
+ arrow key commands actually call these forms of the Jump 
command and you may find it easier to use those but the Jump 
command has the advantage that it always reminds you what the 
possible jumps are. 

Now use r Jr Id. J to move the cursor to column A, line 1 (that is. 
cell Al) and press ED to start entering a number. Type 37, when 
you hit EC you will see the number you entered displayed in the 
active cell. Now move the cursor right into one of the three columns 
that were created with a format set to 2 decimal places. Enter the 
same number in one of these. Once again you see the number 
displayed but there will be 2 places after the decimal point shown 
in the cell. This is because columns B to D have their display format 
set to two decimal places. Notice that the status information at the 
start of the second display line says "2Dec". In column A it was "Gen" 
which shows that it has a general display format. 

A note on destinations 

When using Insert you will notice that columns can be inserted on 
either side of the current column using either the left or right arrow 
keys. Other options are at the beginning and end of the sheet. 
When you are inserting any lines or columns you will be prompted 
with this range of options for the Destination: 

End, Up, Down, Left, Right, arrows, Jump, J 

Of these options UDLR, arrows and J all serve to move the current 
cursor position to the point where you want the new line/column 
to be inserted. When you have the cursor positioned where you 
want it in the sheet use the ED key to make the insertion. 

A new column will be inserted to the left of the column containing 
the cursor when E- is pressed. A new line will be inserted above 
the line containing the cursor when El is pressed, 

End is a special command that simply tells the spreadsheet to tack 
on a new line or column at the End borders of the current sheet i.e. 


Columns are added to the right ot the sheet, lines are added to 
*he bottom. 

«Vhen inserting a line or column, the cursor is positioned in the new 
ine or column ready for the insertion of data, 

More on Entering Data 

Clear any numbers you have entered so far by typing 
VDQEQS&). This uses a new command. Blank, to clear data 
'rom occupied cells but leave the empty ceils behind. This is similar 
•o the Zap command except that Zap also removes the empty 
cells. If the cursor isn't there already, type fHKLl"Li to jump to the 
Deginning of the sheet (cell Al). 

As you have seen, when you type t_J the screen will change to 

show this prompt: 



Enter number or expression 



~-:-.i-1:*t>--"- ; 

"his is called entry mode and as you have already seen, the 
spreadsheet is now ready to accept some form of data. This can 
either be text, a number or an expression. These are the three types 
Df entry that are possible. The possibilities open to you are 
determined by the broad choice of format type you have made, 
e. between a format suitable for text or one suitable for numbers, 

•'ou can use > instead of . to start entering data if you prefer. The 
-wo are exactly equivalent. There are other keys that can be used 
-o start data entry that are described in Tutorial III. 

'he amount of data that can be entered into a cell Is limited by 

•he width of the Entry line - 67 characters. 

"he worksheet we have defined so far has only used formats 
suitable for numeric data - General and 2 decimal places. The 
orompt you receive will reflect this. Try it now, enter a number 2 . 3 
2nd press L±/. If you make a mistake, press the key and the cue 
.■/ill backspace removing the last character you typed, Your screen 
.•/ill look like this; 








Note that the contents line at the top now has your entry enclosed 
in parentheses - (2.3). The brackets are an indication that the entry 
is a number or expression. You will see later that if it had been an 
expression the contents line would show exactly what you had 
typed but the worksheet display would only show the calculated 

Note also that the memory, shown by the figure at the end of the 
second display line, has gone down a little. 

You are next going to see the power of the spreadsheet. Move the 
cell cursor down with the Qj key and press EJ again. This time 
enter 2+AlPl which is an expression meaning "2 plus the current 
value at co-ordinate AT, Remember to type the A in upper case. 
You will now see: 



flBCEFGI JMNQPDST V14XZ ! +~\/> , ( ' *N++ 


H^_ 2,3 

Note that the RESULT has been calculated and shown in the display. 

Go back to Al , select entry mode again and enter a new value of 
3.7. When you press C-f) you will note that A2 changes at the same 
time. You have managed to enter an expression that uses a value 
from another cell and this expression works, however, you change 
that ceil value. The same principle can be extended to operate 
over the most complex of worksheets and formulae, 

Note that although the sheet display shows the RESULTS of tho ! 

formula you enter, the contents line still shows the expression that < 
you entered in the brackets, Move the cursor back to A2 and 
notice that although the cell in the worksheet is displaying 5.7, the 
contents line shows (2+A1). 



Note also how easy it is to alter an existing cell entry by just typing 
in a new value. 

One thing you may find useful is that if you use the arrow keys to 

move the cursor while in the process of entering text or expressions 
then it will finish off that entry and move the cursor to the cell in the 
direction you have specified. This cell will be set up ready for you 
to make your next entry. The cell format will be set up to be exactly 
the same as the previous entry. 

The use of arrows in this way can save much time with long lists as 
♦he one key stroke is equivalent to (~L, cursor movement and O 
for entry. Obviously the ( l sJCJEDF - ) keys cannot be used in this 
case since the spreadsheet cannot tell whether or not you are 
^tending to enter some text, a cell reference or a function name, 
you can, however, use B-QQ^ ],(!_] if you prefer. 

3y changing a single value a huge number of other cells that are 
dependent on it will all change at the same time, In this way the 
Notebook spreadsheet gives you the power to test the effect of 

different values on an answer and so do 'What if?' assessments of 
a situation. 

Entering Text 

Now you are going to create another column and Insert some text 
istead o_f. a number. With the cursor still in column A, type 
JF~)2 oG=jJC ~* Y T T sJL-J J . Some of these commands we have met 
oefore. The TL command is the default format for the column we 
-ave created. T stands for Text which tells the spreadsheet what 
vpe of information to expect. L stands for Left justified which just 
-neons print the text from the left hand edge of the active cell. 

Column A is now set up for you to put in the text. Note that the 

original column has been shifted to the right and labelled B. This 
Dgain shows how easy it is to alter the dimensions of your worksheet 
^rid at any time. 

refore you go any further, use the f=±3 key to move the cursor to 
^cation B2 which contains the expression we have already typed 
->. If you look at the top line of the screen you will see that the AT 
vhich you have typed in has now changed to Bl to keep track of 
•ne effect of entering another column. You can rest assured that 
.our expression will still work the way you intended if to. 



B2 (2+BI ) 

■^^ M9 


Go back to Al using the E±3 key for left and the SD key for up. Type 
FT] and you will see this: 

This time you are asked to enter characters because the cell has a 
text, rather than numeric, format. You may have noticed that the 
start of the second line in the status area of the screen is now 
showing TxtL which reminds you that the column's default format is 

Text Left justified. 

The Entry Line will display a marker (the vertical line just above the 
column B label) that reminds you of the current display width for 
the cell, but this can be exceeded - the actual amount of data 
that can be entered is only limited by the width of the Entry line, 

Make sure Caps Lock is switched off then enter some text, typa 
First numberS, You should see: 




First Nuiiber 
RBCEFG IJJ1N0PQSTVUXZ ! +- \/> . t ' *U++ 



First Number 

Now look at this list to remind yourself of some of the features you 
nave seen so far. 

Q is used from the opening screen to quickly 

make a blank sheet. 

C~3 is used to insert columns and lines. You have 

to say how wide any new columns will be 
and what type of format they should have, 

£3 or S3 moves the cell cursor up. 

F~) or CD moves the cell cursor down. 

FT! or @ moves the ceil cursor left. 

ED or f3U moves the cell cursor right 

FT] is used to jump to a particular cell. 

(f .1 allows you to enter a number, 

" ' expression or text. 

ED is used to accept and complete 

a command. 

@ press this key to abandon the current 

operation, without harm. 

S use this key to backspace and correct 

mistakes while entering data or commands. 

Al ,A2 are cell co-ordinates and may be used if 

they are numbers in an expression. 

•ou have now tried both expression entry and text entry. The choice 
: f whether text or number is to be entered depends on what format 
•^e cell was given when it was created, 

ou have also seen that the same number entered into cells with 
different formats is displayed differently. 


Tutorial III - 
More advanced 

Understanding the difference "* 

between text and numbers 

You will have seen already that the data that has been entered 
can be displayed in a variety of different ways, as defined by the 

current format. 

There are about a dozen built in formats that can be used but they 
divide into two broad types, some relating to text and some relating 
to numeric data, it is possible to switch formats as long as the cell 
is empty {using the Format command) or the data within a given 
cell can conform to the new type (using the New Format 

For example you can switch a number between Integer format, 
which only displays the whole number part of a value, to a Financial 
format, which displays data correct to two decimal places, it does. 
not make sense to try and switch Text to an Integer format for 
example and the spreadsheet will catch any attempt to do so 
during the entry process. Although you might think that it should be 
possible to switch a number or expression to a text format this is not 

Text data cannot be processed to a numeric value; you could ente 
a mathematical expression into a a cell that is expecting text data 
but you would not get a numerical answer. This is an important 
distinction for you to grasp, If for example you enter 23+23 into a 
numerical cell the spreadsheet will realise that it is expected to work 
out the answer and display 46, Entering exactly the same thing into 
a text cell will simply cause "23+23" to be displayed in the cell. 

Text is used for headings, explanatory labels or for information in a 
database such as names and addresses. The Notebook 
spreadsheet assumes that you may want to enter numbers and 
formulae into these cells as part of an explanation of the 
surrounding sheet so no attempt is made to calculate using these ( 


/ . 

Text data can NOT be entered Into a cell that has been set up with 

a numeric format. 

It is possible to use the EDIT command (described later) to change 
data to the wrong format but you will find that the error will be 
pointed out to you as soon as you leave the Edit mode. Pressing 
the rH key will return you to edit mode to correct your mistakes. 

Data can be assigned to an incorrectly formatted ceil if it has been 
loaded, in from a stored file onto an existing sheet. However, any 
attempt at performing a calculation on the data will throw up the 

Using Ranges 

Certain of the Notebook spreadsheet's built in functions and 
expressions work on a specified range or column of the data. For 
example to AVERAGE some of the data you would specify the 
'ange thus 

AVERAGE (B1...B10) 

When you type this in you only actually type a single . and it is 

automatically expanded to Any blank cells are ignored in the 

above calculation. This saves you from having to create 
jnnecessarily complicated expressions in order to encompass all of 
•he data required. However, if an occupied, text format cell is 
ncluded in the range you will see the error Text reference in 
an expression. 

Formats: changing the way the data is displayed 

•ou will remember that the format does not affect the actual data 
.alue that a cell holds, just the way it is displayed on screen. You 
:an therefore change a numeric cell from decimal format to 
iteger and back again without losing any precision of the data. 
.Vhilst you are moving around the sheet the contents line at the top 
3f the screen will always show the data or expression of the current 
;ell exactly as it was originally entered, regardless of the current 

ro far you have only seen the General and 2 decimal place format 
1 expressions and TL (Text Left justified) for text. 


If you are still unclear about what Is meant by changing the type 
of display format, consider this example. If you have a number such 
as 2 there are several ways you could write it down such as 2, 2.0, 
2.000, 0.2E1. 

All are perfectly valid but not all are as you would want for 

presentation in a report, or for immediate legibility. If It was referring 
to a whole number of items you would want 2. If it was the amount 
of money you would want 2.00. if it was a laboratory test result you 
may want to infer a precision to the nearest 0. 1 by using 2.0. 

Just in case you don't know 0.2E1 is known as "exponential" or 
"scientific" notation and means 0.2 x 10 1 . This is just another way of 

entering and displaying numbers. This is often used when 
representing particularly big or small numbers. It is far easier to work 
with 0.3825E14 than 38250000000000 ! 

You can produce any of the above layouts using the various 
formats available with the Notebook spreadsheet. The full list of 
available numerical format types is: 

Gen General, rather like a scientific calculator 

#Fin Finance, balance sheet format 

(# is number of places to shift by) 

#Dec Decimal places specified 

(# is number of places to be displayed) 

#Exp Exponent scientific notation 

(# is number of significant figures) 

Int Integer, nearest whole number 

Plot Plot format, horizontal bar graph 

Text formats can be: 

TxtL text left justified 

TxtR text right justified 



Careful use of the format options can help to produce some quit© 
sophisticated printouts. Notice that as you move around the sheet 
the start of the second display line always shows the format type 


of the current cell using a 3 or 4 tettercode' as described irt the list 
of formats above. 

'here is also a format choice of Carriage Return that can be 

assigned to individual Ceils or ranges. This is a special format used 
-o control printout in such a way that address labels can be 
oroduced. No data can actually be entered in cells that have this 
'ormat. When printed, cells with this format cause a new line to be 
Parted on the printer. 

f you use Insert to create new columns you are asked to give the 
rells you are creating a default column format type. If you select 
any of the numeric formats then subsequent use of tlJ to enter 
adta will ask you to enter a number or mathematical expression. If, 
en the other hand, the cells were created with a default column 
-ext format then using [" D will ask you to enter characters. 

"he D command starts data input using the current default 
:olumn format. However, you may wish to over-ride this for entering 
jst single pieces of data. There are several ways to do this. 

' you start data entry by typing the tZ (Format) command you will 

■vst be asked the exact format to be used for that particular cell 
and will then be invited to enter the corresponding data. 

f. Instead of . you start data entry by typing ( this always means 
•hat you want to enter a number/expression, rather than a piece 
of text, even if the cell was created with a text format. In this case 
.ou are not asked to specify the exact format to be used, instead, 
•he Default Global Numeric Format is used, When you first start the 
■:oreadsheet this is set to be General format. You can use the NG 
New Global format) command to change the default global 
•ormat. This is explained later. 

'. on the other hand, you start data entry by typing a quote 
;haracter (either ' or ■•) the spreadsheet will assume you want to 
?nter a piece of text even if the current cell was initially created to 
~ave a numeric format. This uses the Default Global Text Format 
../hich is initially set to Text Left justified. 

•ou may also change the default format used in a column when 
•ne E1J command is used. This is done with the ND (New Default 
•ormat) command. If some cells are already occupied and have 
associated formats they will not change but any data subsequently 


entered Into blank cells in the column using (ED will take on the 
newly set default column format. 

More on Numeric formats 

You can now experiment with some different formats. Go to cell A2 
(which is in a column with Text Left format) and type cJcJEI 
which means 'make this cell General Format and start data entry'. 

Because you have chosen a numeric format the type of prompt 
you will receive will reflect this i.e, Enter number or expression, 

Type 2.312H: 

' flKEFGIJmOPQSTVUXZ ! +-V>, ( 'iM« 


You will see that your value of 2.312 is displayed just as you typed 
It in. 

The for Format command should only be used on cells where 
you wish to change both the format and the data contained. It is 
also possible to change just the format of an existing entry without 
having to re-enter the data. Without moving the cell cursor type 
the following and watch the changes. 

Type SCD4P ']0 for "New Format to be 4 places Decimal': 




Type EDoEB for 'New Format, no shifted places, Financial': 







"he Financial format always shows 2 decimal places and will put 
commas into the numbers as they get larger. Negatives will be 
enclosed in brackets, You can have a financial value shifted 
Usually by 3 or 6 places) when you want thousands or millions, etc. 
•o be shown in a small number of digits. 

"ype EaJLDTJP] for 'New Format Integer': 




flBCEFGIJHN0PQS7VHffi!+-V>. ( ' 


E16 c 




<ow try BQ6FTETI 'New Format 6 significant figures Exponent' 

flBCEFGIJrW8STVHXZ!+-V>. ( '*N*+ 


■ is important to remember that however you display a value there 
. no change in the way the number is stored by the spreadsheet. 
; ormatting does not change the value that you have entered or 
:alculated, just how it is laid out on the screen or printed on paper. 
"ne contents line at the top of the screen always shows what is 
actually held in the cell. 

,ote that cells themselves do not have a particular format, it is only 
:nce a piece of data is entered that it has a display format 
^sociated and stored with it. It may get this format either because 
du specifically ask for it using the Format command or it may 


come from the default column format if you use the O command. 
The default column format is that which you specified when the 
column was inserted or when you used the ND command. Entered 
data may take on the global numeric or global text format if you 
start entry of the data with < or " respectively. 

Because a format is associated with a piece of data rather than a 
cell you cannot use the NF (New Format) command on a cell that 
has not yet had a piece of data entered into it, You also find that, 
if you move or copy data the data takes its format with it to the 
new location. 

Text Formats 


There are two normal types of text display, Justified in the column 
width is the first type, This has two subdivisions - you can specify that 
you want the text to be left justified (it hugs the left hand side ofJ 
the column) or right justified (it hugs the right hand side of thej 

The second type of text entry is Heading. This type will overwrite the 
column(s) to the right if there is not enough space to display all of 
the information in the single cell. As the name suggests this is most 
useful when entering explanatory titles or headings that you want 
to be displayed regardless of any changes in the various column 
widths on screen. 

The entry in cell A1, First Number, is currently shown in text left 
justified format as this is the default format of column A. Move the 
cursor to cell A1 then type Q^OHS, which stands for 'New 
Format Text Right justified' to see the effect of changing the forr 
to right justification without losing the data. 



First Number 




: Li _ 

1 Fir-it Itobetl 






-efore investigating Heading format you are going to change the 
Diumn width. Type tC)Q4L=Ll which stands for 'New Width 4'. 

First Number 



£16 c 


;j should note that only the start of the word "first" can be 

: splayed in the available space now that we have made the 

Diumn much narrower. The whole entry is still there in the worksheet 

-emory as you can see by looking at the contents line at the top. 

• /ou type BO^JED for 'New Format Heading' you will see: 


First Number 

EtS c 


- irst Nuriibf 



5 whole of First Number is again displayed and part of it 
.erwrites cell B2, 

. have learnt that data falls into two broad subdivisions, text and 
.meric. We have then looked at some of the format subdivisions 
•nin those two types that control the way the data is displayed 
- screen. 

: j have seen that it is only what is displayed that changes, The 

me value that you originally entered is always stored and used in 
emulations - however you choose to display the result, 

j have seen that when entering data into a cell one of several 
-*erent formats may be used. The column format (set when the 
:-umn was created) is used if you start data input with ED. A 
eciflc format of your choice is used if you start data input with 
■5 Li command. A global numeric format is used if you start data 
cut with ( and a global text format is used if you start data input 
-- 1 ' or ". 


Tutorial IV 

More on changing column widths and formats 

You have already used the New command several times to change 
the column width and to change the tormat of an entry. It can also 
be used to change the default column format. The default column 
format is the format that will always be used in your current column 
if you do not declare a particular one before each entry. You enter 
data using this type of format by starting with the ED command. 

The last item that may be changed is the global format. Despite 
the singular name this is a pre-set pair of formats, one for text and 
the other for numeric values, that may be used anywhere on your 
worksheet and which are quicker to call up than by explicitly stating 
which format type you require - they are time saving devices. You 
can call these formats instantly by using the < command for 
numerical expressions and the ' or " command for text. At start-up 
these formats are set to General for numerical expressions and Text 
Left Justified. 

If the vast majority of your worksheet is likely to use one format the*# j 

it will be worth your while redefining the Global formats. 

If you type S(LD and then a numeric format you will change the 
default global numeric format, while, if you type I^JCJ followed 
by one of the three text formats you will set the default global text 
format. So the same NG command may be used to set two 
different global default formats, 

The complete set of New commands Is: 





New column width 

(# is number of spaces to set width to) 

New format for a cell already containing data 

New default column format 
New global format 

You haven't seen the Global format in operation yet and so here 
are a couple of examples. Type (1 JQEU'Tti; to clear any sheet 
you have loaded, alternatively, start the spreadsheet with the "starts 


a new worksheet" option. Then type F3 sPH 10003 theh 
JaFTT-dlEl to set up a small sheet of general format cells. 

l 4ow type QCCM to change the global numeric format to 

"ype OL.O2 . 50 to enter the value into ceil AT . It is displayed as '2.5' 
oecause it is in general format. Now move to A2 then type (2 . 50 
nnd the number is displayed as '3' because it is In integer format. 


'ie operation is very similar if you want to put text in a column that 
o set up for a number. This time use the quote to start text entry 
jsing the Global text format. 

•ou can use the Global format entry method anywhere on your 
worksheet. You can, of course, also change the Global text format 
.sing the New command. 

-emember that you cannot use the New Format command for 
: hanging between text and numeric formats. The NF command will 
:nly work on an occupied cell because only pieces of data that 
-ave been entered actually have a format associated with them 
*hich can be changed, 

fven if you have managed to get the wrong type of data into a 
:ell, using the Edit command or by loading a file in, you still cannot 
change the Format between text and numeric in order to suit the 
rjata. You will have to rewrite what is there AFTER changing the 
•or mat. 

.v'e have seen how the global format can be used to quickly set 
.d cells for a certain data type. This allows the existing column 
■Dfmat setting to be over ridden. 



We have seen already how easy it is to replace the contents of a 
cell with something different. 

For most operations you will find that this is the most convenient 

method to use for making changes. However, sometimes you may 
wish to make only minor modifications to an existing entry and for 
long and complex expressions it would be more convenient just to 
edit the existing information. 

If you decide to change an entry without re-entering it you use the 
spreadsheet's cell editing commands. You just position Jhe cell 
cursor on the cell you would like to change and type f 6 L=L. The 
current contents of the cell as you originally entered it are 
displayed on the entry line and you can then amend it as necessary 
and press ED when finished. 

While editing you can type new characters which will be inserted! 
before the cue. You can move the cue along the existing line using 
the S and S keys. Existing characters can be deleted using 
either of the B or H keys. 

At any time before you finally press you can press the £r3 key. 

This abandons the changes you have made and retrieves the entry 
in the form it was before you entered the edit mode. 

The important thing to remember when you edit a piece of data' 
in this way (rather than entering it from scratch) is that the 
automatic error checking is turned off so you can change the value 
in a cell to something quite ridiculous and it is only when you finally 
press Q to leave the editor that the error wi!i be detected, 


Tutorial V 

Removing data from the sheet - 
Blanking and Zapping 

^t us recap on the Zap command. So far you have only used the 
^quence QLJ£3u%L=L) to remove (Zap) the whole sheet. 
-owever, this command also works on specified lines or columns, 
^•♦ner individually or collectively. It not only removes the data from 
-e cells in question but also reduces the size of the sheet. The lines 
:■- columns that are removed need not be on the outer edges of 
-e sheet. 

■ du are prompted to specify which rows and columns to remove - 
-e remaining cell co-ordinates will automatically adjust themselves 
• ; reflect the change. 

:ells cannot be zapped if there are other formulae that depend 
rn the data held within. If you try to do so you will be offered the 
: nance to use the BLANK option instead. 

• you are sure you want to Zap a column or line that has data 
dependent on it, as above, you must first find and zap or blank all 
■' the cell formulae that depend on the value held in the target 
ells for their calculation. This is more simply done than It may first 
•rem because the spreadsheet will tell you which are the 
:e pendent ceils in turn. 

- *hough the Zap command also offers the option of Entry or Block, 

• you select one of these it will only blank them. It would be 
-possible to completely remove a single cell (or a block) as this 
. ould leave a hole in the middle of the sheet, 

-3 an example you will see how to use some of the other forms of 
top command in more detail. 


Zap any sheet you are working on with the command 
OPTElQPl then copy in the demo file called ADLIST by typing 



fiB CEFGI JrWPQSTVWZ ! +-V> , ( '*t4++ 









-Jeremy Grove 
Osmaston Rood 






Suppose you do not want the top two lines which are just labels. 
You could remove. these by positioning the cursor anywhere in line 1 
and typing l/^FsX-L. Those lines are removed and the original, 
line 3 is moved up to line 1 . •'■ 



R T 

Abcefgi JtlNOPQSTVHXZ ! +-v> . ( ' m» 

F15 c 



16 Jeremy Grove 





Osmaston Rood 






Latimer Road 

Wythe. II 





Florence Rood 



H I 

This example also demonstrated a feature that is common to many 
of the spreadsheet commands (zap, blank, copy, move, insert) that 
you can normally specify a number to say that you wanted it 
repeated for several columns or lines. This is normally indicated 
when the prompt offers the option 0-9. 

Suppose you wanted to get rid of column F which just contains 

some numeric values. Move the cursor to column F by_pressing 
h IF-^1 Ybu can now remove the column with ( 7 F~~]E). 






You can use the Blank command to clear all, or parts, of 
worksheet. In contrast to the Zap command you will not change) 

the size of the sheet or any of the default settings with this option. 


However, individually set commands such as formats will revert to 
the default column ones. 

As an example you will see how to use the block option in more 
detail. Get back to the opening menu by zapping the sheet you 
//ere working on with the command OOSi^DP] then copy in 
•he demo file called ADUST again by typing ^ADLiSiCd] 

'ype OdZ)AllLDB3[^n which stands for 'Blank Block in the range 
A1 to B3'. Note that you are allowed to type a single full stop to 
specify a range but the Notebook spreadsheet automatically 
expands this to three for clarity. Remember that the cell 
:o-ordinates must be A 1 and B3 in upper case, If you type a1.b3 
-ne spreadsheet would think you meant columns 27 and 28 rather 
•nan 1 and 2. 

Now blank column D by moving the cursor to any cell in column D 
rjnd using the command frP], Move the cursor to line 4 and 

vpe lEX JQ] to blank that line. 

OBCFFGI JMNOPaSTUWXZ \ +-\/> , ( ' Mt±+ 


Redd i C Ch 


"ou will never be allowed to inadvertently destroy the sense of the 
=heet with the Blank command. If you have an entry like 2*B3 and 
••y to blank B3 the spreadsheet will check and warn you. However, 
. ou will be allowed to confirm that you wish to blank the cell, A row 
• '???' will then appear in that cell at every recalculation to signal 
■ : you that some data is missing from the sheet. 

"epending on the formulae that refer to the blanked cell you may 
- so trigger other errors such as 'Division by zero'. 

;j have learned how to reduce the size of the sheet using Zap 
:-id how to erase entries using Blank. 


Tutorial VI - Expressions 

Understanding expressions - 
the heart of the sheet 

We have already looked in brief at entering expressions in the first 
part of the Tutorial where we just used *2+AV to add 2 to A1. You 
will not be surprised to find that there is very much more to 
expression formulae than that. However, just take it slowly 

experimenting with each new feature and finding those that suit 
your particular needs. 

A worksheet that contains just numbers and text can be no more 
useful than a piece of paper; you can enter values that have 
relationships with each other, but the spreadsheet, like the paper, 
can't guess what these relationships are or do any of the working 
out for you. To really exploit the power of a spreadsheet you must 
get used to entering the relationships between the data, not the 
results of the relationships, and letting the computer do the 

For example, in a financial report, we may have an entry for yearly 
income, one for costs and one for profit. We understand that the 
value that represents profits is worked out as Income minus Costs. 

When using the spreadsheet we should enter only the data for 
income (in ceil AT for example) and for costs (e.g. cell Bl), in the 
third cell we then enter the relationship between these two that 
represents profits in the form of a formula (Al-Bl). The technical 
term for this formula is an expression, 

The power of the spreadsheet lies in the fact that you can enter 
extremely complex formulae and inter-relationships between the 
cells, but as soon as you make a change to one entry the ful 
repercussions of It can be calculated and the entire sheet almost 
instantly updated. 

Expressions are at the heart of the spreadsheet, for with them youl 
can do business calculations, as well as scientific and engineering! 
mathematics. An expression is defined as any entry that can be 
used to calculate a value. 

What are the features of an expression? We have said you may) 


*hink of it as a mathematical formula. 2+2 is an expression which 
should equal 4. 2+A1 is also an expression which as you have 
already seen is equal to 2 plus whatever is the value of Al. You can 
jse any of the following mathematical signs, known correctly as 

* plus 

to the power of 
% percent 

"he + and - signs you will, of course, be familiar with, but If you are 
-ew to computing the symbols *, / and a may be unfamiliar. You 
.■/ill always have to use the A symbol when you want to get 'to the 
cower of because super scripts are not available, so for example, 
-\stead of using 5 3 you use 5^3 which gives the result 125 (=5*5*5). 
'~e % symbol is not often used in calculations outside of 
oreadsheets. It means 'percent' such that 5%20 is 5 percent of 20, 
•.nich equals 1. 

• du will now see how to enter a formula into a cell. You may already 
ze wondering how to enter the formula on one line when usually 
~^ey take up 2 or more if written out longhand. This is simply done 

:/ splitting the formula into parts and enclosing these in brackets 
% . To show that one part is divided by another we put / between 
-em, so: 

. -Al becomes (2+Al)/(5+A2) 

-is is a common computing convention and will be familiar to 

rnyone who has used a programming language such as BASIC. If 

ecessary you can have several layers of brackets to avoid 

:^ibiguitles. if the spreadsheet finds a reference to a cell that does 

;t have a value it will use and the blank cell will show a line of 

.estion marks to show that a value is expected. This is a useful 

-ature that allows you to use a range of cells in some functions 

*hout worrying whether they all have the correct form of data. 

•9 Notebook spreadsheet works out expressions in normal 
gebra. This is the algebra you use in hand calculations. Some 
■rople with experience in computing may be relieved to hear that 
•5 back to front entry method (reverse polish notation) is not used, 


The spreadsheet understands the correct order of precedence of 
the operators during calculation. In general make up formulae as 
you would for pencil and paper, convert them to one line form and 
enter them and the result will come out as you intended. 

On many spreadsheets there is no built in order of precedence; 
1 +2/5 would be worked out to be 0.6, by adding the 1 to 2 before 
dividing by 5. This is not the correct result, the real answer is 1 .4 - 
that is, divide the 2 by 5 BEFORE adding it to 1 because the division 
operator has precedence over the addition operator, in 
spreadsheets that do not have a built in order of precedence you 
have to take positive action to force a correct result by entering 
1+(2/5). It is unfortunately easy to get unexpected results, but you 
will have no such problems when using the Notebook spreadsheet. 
The order of precedence of calculation is: 



A . 

* and / 
+ and - 

>, < and = these are logical operators. 
] , [ and | 

The Notebook spreadsheet starts the calculation with the Innermost 1 
brackets. Within the brackets it works out the part of the expression 
starting with the highest precedence operator. Where there are 
two operators of equal precedence the one on the left is done first. 
The next bracket is then done and so on. Do not worry about the 
details - just make up your expressions in your usual way. 

The other item you can use in an expression is a function. This is 
built in formula that can be called by a simple name and whic 

will return a value to your expression. The simplest functions are 
and PI which, when used in calculations, give the values | 
2.71828182845905 and 3,14159265358979 without having to ent€ 
them. PI is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, el 
the base of natural logarithms. 







There are also some functions into which you must first insert a 
value. An example is SIN(n) which means 'work out the sine of n 
degrees'. Note that the value you enter into the function must be 

enclosed in brackets: 




flBCEFC IJMNOPQSTVUXZ ! +-V> . ( ' itl« 




One feature you will find especially useful is that you could have 
out 2*15 or 4*A1 or any other expression in the brackets part of the 
'unction. The part within the brackets is calculated first and then 
-he result is fed to the function. You can even have functions of 
'unctions such as SIN(SIN(30)) and so on. There are no real 
-estrictions except the number of levels of brackets which are 
mited to five in any one expression. 

: or example: 

ABCFJGIJr1N0PuSTVl«!+-V>, ( '*U++ 



The last type of function is the one which has two or more values 
enclosed in ( ). These enclosed values are called arguments. For 
example, $UM(n?,n2) adds all the values separated by commas in 
the brackets. This function returns a value of nl+n2. Try these 
functions for yourself: 





(SU112,3» „ ,„ ,, . 



You can have as many parts inside the brackets as you like, Here I 
an example with three arguments: 







The values could also be expressions: 




(SUIKfll, 2*B1, C3-27)) 




You can see the full list of functions in the Expression Entry section 
of the command reference further on in the manual. 

If you want to enter a function such as SUM(A1,A2,A3,A4) to add 

the cells from Al to A4 you can use the shorthand SUM(A1...A4). 
A1...A4 is a range meaning use ail the values between the first 
co-ordinate and the second. You only have to enter the first full stop 
and the spreadsheet will add the other two for clarity; you just type 
ai(Oa4 (remember upper case!). 

You can even use the function in the form $UM(A1 ,.,A4,B7). Use 
range anywhere you would otherwise put a list of adjacent entrie i 
For most functions the range will still work if one or more of the 


entries is a blank. This is because *e functions only work on. th» 

non-blank cells. 

These, then, are what make expressions, There are just two more 

'acilities you might find useful. The first is the # symbol which, when 
jsed after you have typed a co-ordinate, puts its value into the 
worksheet . If you type 2+ai(D, # will put the value of A1 into the 
expression rather than the cell co-ordinate 'Al '. If you type # and 
Al is 3 you will find your expression becomes 2+3. 

This means that if you later change the value that is held In cell Al 

t will make no difference to your new expression, 

T he other facility is the ! symbol which forces the expression you 
are entering to be replaced by its value up to that point. So if you 
•ype 2+3! the display will immediately convert to 5 and you can 
continue the entry from that point. If you force a value that includes 
»me cell references e.g. 2*B3 this is replaced by a numerical 
constant and the value will not change even if B3 is altered. 

J28 c 



Enter nunber or expression 


.Vhen ! is pressed Instantly becomes: 
Enter nufflber or expression 





Both of these commands have the effect of making the expressions 
ndependent of changes in the data held in the cells referred to. 

The order of calculation 

A powerful feature of the Notebook spreadsheet is that you will find 

• does not matter where in the worksheet you enter your data or 
expressions, If you have used other spreadsheets before you will 


appreciate the difficulties of getting all your calculations Tn the righT 

order and avoiding forward references, 

As you enter an expression the Notebook spreadsheet gives it an 
'order of calculation number'. This is not affected by where you 
enter the expression, just by the references in the formula, if you 
enter 2*B1 into A3, for example, then you know that you want A3 
to be calculated after Bl otherwise it does not make sense. Weil, 
the Notebook spreadsheet goes through all the expressions as you 
enter them, working out which is the correct order for calculation. 

If the entry is a constant then it does not have an 'order of 

calculation number'. 

This feature allows you to rearrange the sheet as you like without 
affecting your calculated values, The operation is entirely 
automatic so you don't have to worry about it, 

You will be able to see the calculation numbers displayed in angled 
brackets if you use the E for exchange command. Those cells 
which contain a low order of calculation number are calculated 
before those with a high number. 

We have looked at some of the possible expressions that can be 
entered into the Notebook spreadsheet. It is these that make it such 
a powerful toot. 

Each expression is assigned a number that telis the spreadsheet 
which order they should be calculated in. 


Tutorial VII 

Mathematical Functions 

4ere is a more detailed list of the various mathematical functions 

available. Again, you need not worry about those functions you are 
unlikely to use, 

'his tutorial is designed to show you how to use functions in the 
Notebook spreadsheet and which are available - there will be no 
attempt to explain the meaning of the mathematical terms 

Remember, as you read, that arguments are what you put In 
orackets after the function name and which the function is 
expected to use to work out its current value. 

"he usual trigonometric functions are available and there are two 
.ersions of each for degrees and radians. 

"ne functions SIN, COS, TAN, ASIN, ACOS and ATAN refer to degrees. 

->ose with A in front represent the inverse values of those without. 

5INR, COSR, TANR, ASINR, ACOSR and ATANR are the equivalent 

^notions using radians. 

ach function takes just one argument enclosed in brackets. 

o that you can see what is going on with this screen example, the 
-xpressions in column B have been typed into column A in text 

xm, remember that although the two look the same the text 
olumn contains only 'words' which cannot be calculated, 


C0S( 45) 







1 ,73285030756888 






1 ,73295080756888 






The natural logarithm is referred to as IN and the base 10 logarithm 

is LOG10, The natural antilogarithm is defined mathematically as e* 
(the exponential constant e multiplied to the power of x) and is 
referred to as EXP. 

The equivalent base 10 antilogarithm must be obtained by using 
1 A x where x is the value for which you want the antilogarithm. 

The exponential constant e is available as a function without an 
argument e (lower case is essential when you type this), Similarly PI 

is available. 

The square root is called with SQRT. 



1 .371D6786227174 









Utility Functions 

Sum, minimum and maximum, available as SUM, MIN and MAX will 
scan a list and return the relevant value. COUNT will find the number 
of non blank entries in a list. All these functions are of the form 

SUMIF(crd?, crd2...crd3l is a conditional adding up function. Only 
those items in the range crd2...crd3 will be included that 
correspond to a cell entry in the column specified by crdl and are 
on the same line, 











SUMIFCA1. B1...B4) gives the answer 69.12 
SUM(B1..,B4) gives the answer 438, 13 

it should be noted that crdl may point to any cell in the mar 

column but must not point to a cell with a text entry in it or an er 
message will result. 


BLEEP Sets off a bleep. Use it as an audible signal. 

GROW takes two arguments, a value and a percentage, The effect 
of GROW is to cause a percentage increase to the value. The form 
is GROW(va/ue, percent). Despite the name, the percentage can 
be negative. 

The following functions in this section are of the form FUNC(value). 

The ABS function gives the absolute value of an argument, that is, 
the value ignoring the sign. 

POS returns the value of the argument if it is positive but zero if it is 

negative. This is useful in tax calculations. 

The integer (non-decimal) part of a number can be obtained with 
INT or if you want the nearest whole number to a value use NINT 
The decimal part of a number is given by the function DPART. 

ROUND is a useful function, it will round a value to 2 decimal places, 

NOTE: it is very different from most of the functions in that it puts this 

-ounded value back into memory and the original value is lost. You 
nay need this function in complex financial calculations which 
otherwise would not balance because fractions of a penny (cent 
etc.) are having an effect. 

BND returns a true integer random number between and 127. A 

-ew value is picked each time the sheet is calculated, 

Statistical Functions 

Permutation and combination can be calculated with PERM(n, r) 
3nd COMB(n, r) where n is the total number of items and r is the 

-umber to be combined or permed. For factorial use FACT( value). 





flBCEFCI JHNOPaSTVHXZ!+-V>. ( '*tl* 

Standard deviation and variance and average all act on a list to 
complete your set of powerful statistical tools. These functions are 
called STDEV, VAR and AVERAGE. (See the magazine BYTE Nov 1983 

pp560-563 for the method used). 














. 0.132480605547189 




Defined Functions 

A defined function works just the same way as a built in function 
does except that it uses a calculation that you have typed in 
yourself. It is therefore a way in which you can set up a complex 
formula once that you may want to use many times. 

It is a single cell formula that can be used by other cells and, of 
course, after the first time you do not have to write the formula out 
in full again. Consider the following formula, 0.789*(Al+3), which 
uses the value held in ceil Al. If you had to write it out 50 or 100 

times it would get very time consuming and also quickly use up your 
available memory. 

Let us try an example - set up a sheet as follows with a constant in 
Al.e.g. 23.4. Put the expression 0.789* (Al+3) in Bl: 




To use a defined function you only have to give the co-ordinate of 
tie cefl which contains the formula and follow it with another cell 
-eference so that it can get the value on which you want it to 
operate, To call the function, write the formula cell reference and 
'ollow it by a bracket, just as if you were writing a built in function, 
nside the brackets put the co-ordinate of the cell with the value 
•hat you want passed to the function, or put a constant, 

=ut a different constant, e.g. 18 . 9, in A3 and move to cell B3. This 

5 the cell where we will call our defined function. 



fiBCEFG I JMNOPQSTVUXZ 1 4-V>. ( 'it*» 





n the cell 83 enter bi (A3) - you can read it as: take the formula 
-i Bl and replace the first cell reference found by A3. This is what 
s done. 

33 IBHffi 
>i P6CEF 

P6CEFGI JMN0PQSTVUX2 ! +-V> . ( 'iH*+ 





*> the example the formula has acted on A3 to give the answer 
"7.2791. Note that Al and Bl are changed when the sheet is 
ecalculated (press ! to see this), 

• there is more than one cell referred to in the original formula then 
. au must have extra arguments in brackets for the defined function 
•d use. Note that if the same cell is referred to more than once in 
-le formula then it must also be repeated the correct number of 
-mes in the argument list. 

-ie number of arguments can be less than those in the formula, If is the case the later cell references will remain unchanged from 
...natever they were typed in as when you first defined your 
■ Drmula. This can be useful. 

• is important that the cell containing the formula for the defined 


function is kept separate from the rest of the sheet, This is because 
every time the formula is re-used the cell values referred to by the 
original formula are changed to those given by you in the 
argument. If the value of the defined function cell was used in 
calculations by any other cell in the sheet, undesirable results wil 

Next : 

Next ; 1^ 


(C1(A3>B3) ) 
abcefg umopgsmixz ! +-\/> , ( ' iW« 





<1> <(A1+B1)*5b,7) 

The above Is an example where there are two cell references in 
CI , As a reminder, to get this type of display just type (lD£D and 
the formulae will be shown instead of the results. The defined 
function call will be made in C3: 

C3 (CKffi 


(C1 (A3 B3) ) 



Note that the original values in Al and Bl are changed by the call. 
You will see this if you press ! to recalculate the sheet. 


You have now had an introduction to many of the functions that 
are available for use In your expressions and should be beginning 
to get an idea of the power of the Notebook spreadsheet, We have 
looked in more detail at some of the many functions that are 
available to you. In particular, mathematical and statistical 
functions, some general purpose utility functions and user defined 
functions. Later in this tutorial we will be coming back to look at 
some of the more advanced types of functions and expressions 
and what can be done with these. 

First, however, there are some more basic commands that have to 
be dealt with so that you can become completely familiar with the 
housekeeping of your worksheet and how to manipulate the data 


Tutorial VIII - More Techniques 

Seorganising the sheet - Copy and Move 
The Move command 

'oil use the Move command to transfer parts of the sheet to 
another part of the work area. 

:*art with a blank worksheet (you should know how to do this by 
-ow). Fill up the four top left entries again using the Y (Entry) 
rommand. Now type (SFTlAilLjBal^D (Move Block of range Al 
■o B2): 

Up, Down, Left. Right, arrows, Ju«p, ♦* 




ou are then asked for the destination of the move operation. Type 
Db30 (Jump to cell B3). The defined block will jump' with the 


t t: 

RBCEFGI JT1N0PQSTVIJX2 ! +-V> , ( '■«♦+ 


v the Move command with some of the other options, e.g. line 
:-id column. The only option not available with the Move 
; ommand is ALL. 

ie Move command will overwrite any data in the destination area. 

-ecause there is therefore some danger of you mistakenly 
destroying the sense of any calculations on the sheet, the 
creadsheet will make a check and prevent you doing so, However, 
^member it will let you overwrite some data if it appears that no 
•ner parts of the sheet depend on it. 

- -here are any co-ordinate references in expressions being moved 


you will find tfiese automatically adjusted m the new locations tar 

take account of the new sheet layout. 

The cells that are moved take their own format definitions with 

You cannot move or copy cells outside the sheet as it is currentty 
defined, You will just receive the warning message "Cannot multiple 
move there". You may have to insert some new lines or columns to 
make room to move the block into. 

Copying parts of the sheet 

The COPY command can be likened to that known as 'replicate,] 
in other spreadsheet software. 

As well as moving data from one part of the sheet to another it ■ 
probably come as no surprise that you can copy parts of the data. 
Start from scratch by Zapping the current sheet. Type 
f J3(Hl5EDnn^] for 'insert 3 Columns of width 15, Text, Right 
justified format' then ritalSJEl^ 1 ! for "Insert 3 lines'. Then type ED 
and put the entry abcdefghijklmno into cell AT. 








Now let us use the Copy Entry command sequence by typing 
F~l JI-JJ. In this case use the arrows to move the cursor right when 
asked for the destination, then press ['rL: 



ABCEFGIJmOPQSTMZ!+-V>, ( 'it*** 

C4 e 



Now let us try Copy Line. Type l c I L »!=£). Move the cursor down for 

the destination then press Q: 




C4 c 




Now Copy Column. With the cursor in column B press P I r " I 

Move the cursor right to column C for the destination and press f 





C4 c 

Now try Copy Block defining the block as a rectangle from cells 
A.1...B2. Move the cursor down and across to cell B3: 



C4 c 

- some ways the Copy command is the same as the Move 
Dmmand, only the contents of the original location are not 

releted. There is, however, one major difference. If you have 
>ordinates in your expressions being copied you will be asked 
nether you want the references adjusted. If you answer "Yes" and 
5, for example, a row copy, every reference to other locations on 
at row will be changed to take account of the new location. 

: j can try an example of an adjusted copy to get a feel for what 
nvolved. Type iOOSC^DC-tD to completely clear the sheet and 
-en (30 to make a blank sheet of general format ceils. 

juii: &i yi tixni'i "(<>•> tCi 1 --. 

> i O \ ■ivv'w '<*« M .' 


Type ED2Q toput 2 into location Al , move the cursor to Bl then 

enter 02*aiEl): 






Then type Fll L -JL=JJ for copy Hne: 




(2*fl1 1 

Up. Doun, Left, Right, crrous. Jump, *J, File, Print, Hoi I label 
Pest i not i 



Followed by LTJ to move the cursor down to the destination line^ 
then press I 

When you press PH you will then be queried about adjusting] 
references; it will not happen automatically, so type 0(3: 





fleCEFGI Jr1N0PaSTWXZ!+-V> , [ ' m++ 





You can see that what was 2*ai in Bl has become altered to 2*j 
in B2. If you think about it, the adjustment option has kept 
meaning of the first line, i.e. 'two times the value on the left', in ■ 
second line. You will find it is very much the same for columns. 

If you had pressed S when asked Adjust references the 

formula in B2 would have remained 2*A1. 

So far you have seen that Copy works the same as MOVE, exc« 
that the original data remains in the position it first was. The copk 
data overwrites anything that was already In the new position. 

However, you will now see that the Copy command is much mc 


flexible than that - it can be used to copy data to a file or to the 

printer as welt. 

The option you would use to do this is Copy All. The Notebook 
spreadsheet only uses the ALL option to send the data from the 

sheet to the Printer (normally or as mail labels) or to a file. Copy All 
from one part of the sheet to another doesn't make sense, 

However, you can of course, copy portions of the sheet, entries, 
ines, columns or blocks, to a file or the printer as well. 

Ate will look at these in detail soon but for now it does no harm to 
'un through the way data is saved to a file, Note the following 
sequence carefully. 

-ype FJQlD for Copy All to File. 







all- Destination Filenoa e 


filename, ext j 



■ you type myworkGD when prompted for a file name the whole of 
-ne sheet will be copied to a file called MYWORK.MEM. 

-i a similar way, all the entries could be copied to the printer. The 
rommand area and axes markers would be excluded, 

: j have seen how the move and copy commands have many 

.Tiilarities. They can operate on sections of the sheet of variable 
.ze to transfer or reproduce data, Both overwrite any data already 
resent at the destination, Both transfer the ceil formats together 
s-th the cell data. 


Tutorial IX 

A note on adjusting references - 
lagged variables 

You have seen that when using the Copy command you are 

prompted with the question: 

Yes, No 
Adjust references 

When using the move command the adjustments are made 
automatically; you are not asked. 

If you are moving or copying a LINE with adjustment then any 
internal references made to other cells along the same line will be 
adjusted to reflect the new position. 

Similarly, when a column is copied or moved, adjustments are 
made within the column, 

The same is true when a block is copied or moved - all references 

to ceils within the defined block are also changed. 

Normally, references to any cells which are outside the moved or 
copied section will not be adjusted. However, there is a built In 
option to get round this if you want to. Any reference will be 
automatically adjusted if you follow the reference to a ceil with a 
single quote ('). The technical term used for this is an offset or 
lagged variable. In other programs you may see this referred to as , 
a relative cell reference. 

For example, a cell reference of AT in cell B3 will always mean "the 
cell AT. However, a reference to A1' in ceil B3 means "the eel 
that is one column to the left and 2 lines above the current cell". If 
the contents of B3 are copied/moved elsewhere and it contained 
Al it would still contain A1. However, if it contained Al ' and was 
copied or moved to D4, say, the reference would change to C2' 
which is the ceil that is one to the left and two above D4. 

It may not be immediately clear why you would want to do this, or J 
how it works, so just follow this simple example. 

Imagine you were preparing a sheet that is designed to carry a\ 


value from the bottom of one column to the top of the next, I.e. 
each column will contain a cell that refers to a cell in an adjacent 
column. If any of the columns were copied the reference to the 
orevious column would remain unchanged unless marked by the 
Quote character, as a result the sense of the sheet would be lost. 

r he idea will be explained much more clearly if you follow this 
example for preparing a simple cash flow. 

Preparing a simple Cash Flow 

One of the most common applications for spreadsheets is budgets 
^nd cash flow predictions. You are going to see how to prepare a 
:ash flow sheet using some of the short cuts that the Notebook 
:-oreadsheet provides. Even if you aren't interested in financial 
applications it is worth studying this example because it 
remonstrates multiple copying, lagged or offset variables and 
automatic reference adjustment. 

•ou will normally start by setting up a text column with labels for the 
.arious items to be included in you r cash flow, Here is a very 
amplified example. Remember that h=±. J f can be usedto see 

-nore lines in your worksheet and the El JE and EL — )Qj keys 

•.ill go up and down a page at a time, 

Balance brought Forward 







Toto. I Income 


OFF i ce 


Mi seel laneous 

Total Expenditure 


■ you can see, there are four basic elements. These are the 
nance brought forward, the income, the expenditure and the 
nance for the period. The balance brought forward always refers 
: The previous period. The other three elements always refer to the 
.urrent period. 


Now you will see the rules that might make up such a sheet, This 
display was obtained using PH for exchange command. 
Temporarily, the width of column B has been increased so you can 
see everything. At this stage, no actual values have been entered. 

Balance brought foruard 







Tota I Income 




H i see 1 1 aneous 

Total Expenditure 

Bo I once 


<2> (SUHCB6. ..B1013 

<1> (SU1(B14,..B16)) 
<3> IB3+ BH-S1?) 


The line of question marks in cell B3 shows that it is used in a 
following calculation but no value has yet been put in. This is to 
remind you to do so later, This column is the dummy for the first 
month. Now you copy these formulae for the second month. With 
the cursor in column B type [ c ]F"j£=D. Move the cursor right in the 
answer to Destination then press 0, answer CLJ to the Adjust 
references question, and you will arrive at: 




You can see the balance brought forward for this new column is sti 
undefined, But it is equal to the value in B19 and so you can put 
B19 in C3. The balance brought f orward always relates to the 
preceding column. You want to set up column C so that you can 
copy it a few more times for the other months and include the 
balance brought forward. If you just put B19 in C3 and copy it, then 
the value B19 will remain unchanged. The Copy command only 
adjusts the formulae that relate to references up and down the 
column, other references are unaffected. 

There is a simple way round this problem. Just follow the reference 
by a single quote mark, This tells the Notebook spreadsheet that 


you want the reference to be relative and it should be adjusted 
whenever a copy Is made. So the entry you make in C3 becomes 

•ou now have a full dummy column for further copying, Note that 
-he actual number of entries you have made so far is very few. For 
-his example we are just going to set up two further months. This 
-me youspecifythat you want the column to be copied two times, 
'hat Is, rjFl20. 



(619' ) 

Up.. Doun, LePt, Right cirrous, J*p> ^ File. Print, Hail label 

Destination " 


Again you will be asked for a destination and whether you want to 
adjust references. Make the destination the column to the right and 
answer II3 to the adjust references question. 





You can see that the balance brought fbrwdrd has been adjusts 
for the new location in the way you would want. With a bit of tidying 
and the addition of actual figures you will achieve something like 


Balance brought Forward 





INCOME • ^.. 






Total Incone 


















i. 000. 00 





(liscel loneous 

Total ExpetyJiture 



















Tutorial X 

,iK",^.- - 

Saving, Loading and Printing - 

A further look at the Copy command 

When you create a new worksheet and type some data into it, the 
sheet you are working on is held in the spreadsheet program's own 
working memory. When you want to tinish working on the data you 
must save what you have done into a "file". A file is just a computer 
.vord that means a collection of data that has been stored away 
'or future use. In the word processor you are probably already 
aware that it stores what you type in "documents". Well, documents 
could also be referred to as "files" but in the case of the word 
orocessor the word "document" is more meaningful. 

"he difference between the word processor and the spreadsheet 
s that the word processor always asks you for a name before you 
start and then automatically stores what you have done when you 
oress F°B. In the spreadsheet, things work the other way round. You 
,vork on a sheet and then, at the end, you must use the Copy 
command to copy it to a file and give it a name at that time. 

f you just leave the spreadsheet by pressing F'°"j or using the D 
command before you have explicitly saved your work. It is still 

stored away for you in a file with the special name of RESTART.MEM, 
.ater, when you next use the spreadsheet, you can reload this file 
.ery quickly by selecting the Restart option from the opening menu 
:f the spreadsheet. You should not rely on this as the only means 
cf saving as RESTART.MEM is over-written every time you leave the 
:oreadsheet. It is far better to get into the habit of saving your work 
•a a named file, using the Copy command, each time before you 
eave the spreadsheet. 

~o copy the data you have entered to a file give the destination 
cs F for file, You will then be asked for a filename. Unlike the word 
cocessor, the spreadsheet imposes some limits on the names you 
ran use. This is mainly because it always uses the same characters 
or the last 4 characters of the name. (Either .MEM, .TXT, .DIF or .DAT). 
nis means that you can only actually give up to 8 characters, and 
o further restriction is that these may only include any printable 
character except $*?=/.,: or space. The additional 4 characters are 
called an extension. 


As you will see later, the spreadsheet treats each of these four typ 
of file in slightly different ways and expects the information in them 
to conform to certain types, It is only by this extension that the 
spreadsheet knows what sort of data is held in a file so you must 
always make sure you select the correct one. 

Valid names for spreadsheets might be: 




The following names would not be valid: 


too long, must be 8 characters. 
no space allowed in name 

If you are saving or loading .MEM (normal spreadsheet files) then 
you don't need to type the .MEM. For any of the other three types 
of file you must give the relevant extension. By doing this you wilf 
inform the spreadsheet of the type of file you want to read or write 
and, if reading, it will expect the file to contain information of a 
certain type. 

The command sequence to load a file is PTlDname i.e. Copy File 

name (to the sheet). 

To save a file the sequence is (HEDOname i.e. Copy All of the 
sheet to the File name. 

Of course, you can save sections of the sheet such as a block by 
jecifylna alternatives to the All command e.g. 



If you wish to insert a file into a sheet that already exists it is 
necessary to create room for the incoming file. Alternatively, the 
incoming file can be simply appended to the existing one. 

Blocks that are saved or loaded (or blanked) must be self 

contained, the formulae within must make no references to cells 
that are outside of the block. 

It may be necessary to ensure that the defined formats of an 
existing sheet are of the correct type for the incoming file. 


.et us look In more detail at the four types of file. 


; you wish to save all or part of the worksheet in such a way that 
-ie Notebook spreadsheet can read it and display it In the original 
-orm then use the .MEM (for memory) extension. 

■ou do not normally have to type .MEM as this is added 
automatically if you do not give an extension. This is the file type 

■nat you will use most of the time for day to day saving and loading 
:f the sheets you work on. 

•jote also that the .MEM file is the only type that can be used to 
eliably load in a sheet that has not already been defined, It is the 
.nly option that will let you load In rows or columns that are empty 
:f data. It can therefore be used for loading a predefined 
.orksheet matrix into which you need only insert the data - a useful 
sample would be in the preparation of yearly accounts that 
:onform to a regular pattern. 

' you intend to send or receive spreadsheet files to/from another 
:omputer and you use the spreadsheet program called "The 
backer" on that machine then you should use the .MEM file format 
-j, all information will then be preserved. The Cracker is the 
oreadsheet program on which the Notebook spreadsheet is 
zased. Versions are available for Amstrad PCW and IBM PC 
rompatible computers. 


.ext there is the .DIF file or Data Interchange Format file. This type 
:* file can transfer text and numbers between different types of 
oreadsheet and is commonly used by graphics packages as 
•^eans of collecting the data. The Notebook spreadsheet can read 
:nd write these files. You should not concern yourself with the 
-ternal organisation of these files, The only time you are likely to 
.se .DIF is when sending files from the Notebook to another 
-omputer that uses a different type of spreadsheet/graphics 



If you want to write out all or a part of your worksheet to a file that j 
can be used by an editor or word processing program, give it a 
filename that has a .TXT extension. This is very useful if you want to 
incorporate the results calculated by the Notebook spreadsheet 
into a full written report. The word processor in your Notebook can 
read in .TXT files produced by the spreadsheet, 

You can also read a ,TXT file into the spreadsheet and this provide 
a useful way of bringing in tables of information from oft 
programs. The numbers and text coming in will need to be in a 

proper tabulated form as the information is allocated to cells in the 
sheet depending on its location along each line. 

The .TXT file type is the only other example where it is possible to 
load in data without having first defined a blank worksheet. If you 
attempt to do this the Notebook spreadsheet will first read the 
number of lines in the data and assign each of these to a row in 
the sheet. However, ail of the information across the lines will be 
assigned to one, possibly very large, column. Do make sure that thij 
column is not allowed to exceed 127 characters, which is the 
absolute maximum column width possible. 

Such a text file can be read and edited in the Notebook's own 
word processor. So, you could enter data in the word processor and 
then load it into the spreadsheet or you could read results from a 
spreadsheet into the Notebook's word processor, Remember that j 
the file name you use must be limited to between 1 and 
characters followed by the extension .TXT for this to work. 


The .DAT extension is used when you wish to read a file of ontj 
numbers into your sheet. The file should be in character form such j 
as you would get from an editor or word processor, or formatted' 
output from a programming language such as BASIC. This could. 
for example, be produced by the Notebook's own word processoc 
or the BBC BASIC that is built into the Notebook. 

The file will be read in much the same way as prepared but b&\ 
careful that if more than one column is being read then zero 
readings should be shown by a and not just by blanks. It will do 
no harm but if there was a blank in the first column then the second 
column will be read as if it was the first. This form of file does not ; 


nave to be property tabulated as the lines are scanned to search 
'or the numbers on them. Each number can be separated by 
spaces or a comma. 

^et us try an example of loading in one of these file types. 

Jse the Notebook's word processor to create a file called 
EXAMPLE.DAT which contains this information: 

2.34, 23.7 
456.73, 84 

27, 3 

63.3, 1234.5 

Make sure there is a blank line at the end of the list. Then swttchjp 

•ne spreadsheet and create a blank worksheet by typing c°Jld.J. 
"his will definitely be large enough to take the incoming data. 

Mow use the Copy command to load in the data from the 
EXAMPLE.DAT file. Type P "IlJexample .datE, When asked for the 
destination just type tC to indicate you want AT, the current cell, 
•o be the start: 



"ne entries from your incoming .DAT file will be displayed in the 
default format of the columns. Because the spreadsheet knows 
-nat a DAT file contains numbers only, if the default format is text 
~>en the General numeric format will be used instead. 

Remember that any blank cells must be represented by a zero or 
->e layout may be structured wrongly. 

=or example if the EXAMPLE.DAT file contains this: 





it will be read into the Notebook spreadsheet as 



You may write out the data from a worksheet to a .DAT file to be 
used on another computer. However, such a tile cannot be edited 
using the Notebook's word processor. Use a .TXT file if you want to 
do this. If a .DAT file is written out, any text entries will be converted 
to 0,0 to maintain alignment of the data. Such a file is comma 
delimited, each piece of data is separated from the next by a 
comma, This is a format that BASIC and other programming 
languages can easily read (if this means nothing to you don't worry, 
it is another piece of computing convention). 

Type (H(!HAlOB4n)OEXAMPLE3.Txrf3 to copy the block of 

numbers to a file called EXAMPLE3 which has a text type. 

(2 34) 

t i notion Filename E)W1PLE3,TXT1 



Now swi tch to the word processor's list of stored documents by 
pressing h^'H -TII and select the file called EXAMPLE3.TXT, You wil 








1234 . 5 

Unlike a .DAT file, commas are not added in a text file. Entries are 
just spaced out into columns. Also note that it was purely giving a 
.TXT, rather than a ,DAT extension that caused the different file 
format to be used, 

With files stored using the .TXT extension, only the body of thai 
worksheet will be In the file, not the control area, column letters <x\ 
line numbers, 


The .DAT and .TXT file extensions cause very similar files to be 
produced except that in .DAT files any text Is replaced by a to 
maintain alignment and items are separated by commas. TXT files 
can be used in text editing programs such as a word processor 
while .DAT files can be used in programs that just want the 
numerical values to process them in some way. 

When using the Copy All command to save worksheets to either 

DAT, DIF or TXT files remember that every cell in the defined sheet, 
even if it is blank, will cause spaces or zero entries to be written to 
the file. So, if you started with the Make blank sheet command 
which makes a sheet with 10 columns and 200 lines then, even if 
you only have a few entries on it, the resulting saved files could be 
huge. It is best to use the Copy Block command to only. copy 
selected areas when saving data to files of these types. 

Printing from the Notebook Spreadsheet 

the Copy command is also used for printing data onto paper by 

specifying 0*3 for printer as the destination. Any specified Entry, 
Jne, Column, Block or All of the sheet can be printed. The data 
that is printed will appear without any column dividers, status lines 
or other system messages. It will be spaced and displayed in a way 
that conforms to the existing display format, column widths etc. 

in order to fit a lot of data on a page you may wish to make use 
of the OUT command to send control characters to your printer. 
Condensed print can then be selected. Consult your printer manual 
'or details of what type faces it is capable of, and which codes are 
-equired to select between them, 

•ou will find that a lot of printers (Epson compatible) list character 
'5 as the sequence to switch into condensed print. Character 18 is 
j,ed to switch back from condensed printing. You can send this 
rode from the spreadsheet by typing (T3 Lfcf3+G] E, Later, to 
switch condensed off, use the command [_<J E3+cJ EJ. You may 
also find that to switch NLQ printing on and off you must send ESC 
« 1 or ESC x 0. The "ESC" character is character 27, which you can 
-voe as Control-r so, to send an NLQ off sequence you could type 

- is sometimes desirable to be able to print out a copy of the 

•Drmulae or data as it was entered rather than as it appears under 
-~e current format. Use the O for exchange command to alter 


the display and then amend the column widths as required, (It is 
important to remember this last step or the full width of your 
expressions will not print). 

Printing mail labels 

If you want to use the Notebook spreadsheet to keep records of 
names and addresses see also the later sections on Searching and 
Sorting of data in Tutorial XII which you will probably find useful. 

If you do keep lists of names and addresses then you probably will 
also want to prepare and print address labels. Blank labels are 
available on listing paper suitable for most printers. The Notebook 
spreadsheet is able to produce these labels for you. Your address 
fist wilt, however, need a little preparation in the spreadsheet. 

The first stage is to indicate the ends of the lines to be printed. To 
do this, you must insert columns at the appropriate points, each 
with a default format of "Carriage Return". A Carriage Return is the 
code that you send to a printer that signals that you want it to start 
a new line. This has been included in the possible categories of 
default formats solely to allow you to control your printer when 
making labels. You cannot actually enter any data into a column 
that has been given this format. 

There is an example file called ADLIST.MEM in the built-in 
demonstration files that shows how a list of names and addresses 
may be stored, The following description is based on that example. 

From the opening screen of the spreadsheet type [^adlistL^D. 
This will load in the demonstration list of names and addresses. This 
is just a typical set of data to show you one possible way in which 
it could be laid out. 

In this example you will not want to print the last column as it only 
contains an amount of money. You must start by putting a carriage 
return column in front of column C: Move the cursor to anywhere 
in column C and type (' JF ]l0L=Hl c JUil. This inserts a column of 

width 1 which has a format type of Carriage Return. 









Osmoston Rood 




Now two further such columns are needed, one in front of the 
•own" column (F) and one at the end in front of the "£" column (G): 





Jeremy Grove 
Osmastori Road 



•^ow you are in a position to print out your first trial set of labels, You 
:nly want to print a portion of the sheet and so you use the Copy 
clock option. Note that the Mail labels option intercepts the 
;arriage return columns that you have set and works out the way 
■ne printout should be organised to produce the desired effect - 
ou don't actually get a new line started wherever there is one. 

,ote that it is absolutely essential for you to make sure that the end 

:f the range is on a Carriage Return Format column. You can see 
■-iat ceil H7 above is such. Omitting this requirement will do no harm 
jt will not give sensible results. You now need to copy a block of 
->e sheet to the printer. Type PH(EDa3(LJh7PI. When asked for the 
:estination type GteLdD (for Mail labels, 2 across). The names and 
addresses should now be printed two abreast; 


Destination Hoi i Lobeis, groups oP 

8-9, tJ 

117 o 


ere is what they will look like. Not very organised, but your next 
:sk is to change the width of the columns so that various parts line 
o under one another: 

;.L. Blake A.J. Hunt 

•7 Osmaaton Road 25 
r.iowle Wythall 

Latimer Road 

• A. Fisher CD. Beard 
2 Florence Road 86 Valley Road 
-enley Redditoh 


R.T. Cowan 

16 Jeremy Grove 


After some width adjustment, here is what you can achieve. In thtt • 
case the labels are going to be printed three abreast: 




Destination Moil Label z> 

B-9i J 

117 c 

Jeremy Grove 
Ositioston Rood 




G.L. Blake 

37 Osmaston Road 


CD. Beard 

86 valley Road 


A.J. Hunt H.A. Fisher 

25 Latimer Road 32 Florence Road 

Wythall Henley 

R.T. Cowan 

16 Jeremy Grove 


The column widths used in this case are A=4, B=16, C=l. D=3, E=17. 

F=l and G=21. The NW command is used to change widths of 
existing columns. 

Further adjustment may be needed with extra lines at the end of I 
changes in spacing to suit the particular labels. You will find that] 
this is guick and easy by trial and error. 

Note that if you had used the simple Print option rather than Mai 
labels the Carriage Return columns would have produced 
unpredictable and probably undesirable results. 

We have seen how the Copy command is also used for saving and 
loading data to/from files in memory and also for printing the data 

When saving or loading, the choice of name extension signals to 
the Notebook spreadsheet which type of data it should save/load. 

When printing you may have to make use of the OUT command I 
and a special Carriage Return format in order to get the desired] 


Tutorial XI 


Partitioning the screen 

As your worksheet gets larger you will at times want to work 
somewhere like the bottom right hand corner but stiii see your line 
and column headings which are at the top of the sheet. You can 
do this with the partition commands. These allow you to split the 
screen horizontally or vertically or both so that you get two, or four 
smaller displays. The usual term for such split screens is % windows'. 

As well as moving them independently you also have the option of 
locking the windows so that as you move in one part the other will 
move in a synchronised way. For example if you scroll the lower 
window the appropriate headings will scroll past In the top of the 
screen, It is easy to move around and between the windows with 
single key commands. One of the demonstration files can be used 
to experiment with this feature. Clear your previous work with 
J0I33 then re-ioad the example file with FHadlistPI 

1 ^BCEFGUrWOPOSTVUXZ ! +-\/> . ( ' «t+*« 

F17 c 



Jeremy Grove 
Osmaston Rood 
Lot iwer Rood 
Florenct Road 
Val ley Rood 


Know I e 

Redd itch 

-irst you are going to see the screen partitioned vertically. As you 
-ype refill for Partition Vertically you will see that a line of numbers 
s put up on the screen. You must use this to judge where you want 
-*ie split to take place. The number you choose will be the first 
ocation of the second window on the screen. You can see that the 
number 26 is about half way across the screen. Type 26EL; and the 
second window, to the right, will start at the indicated column 26. 



TxtL , 
Next i I 

RBCEFG I JMNOPQST VUXZ ! +-\/> . ( ' *t+»* 






Hi; i.. 












Jeremy Gro 
Os-noston R_ 

Lot i mer Ro_ 
Florence R_ 
Vol lea Roq_ 


Jeremy Grove 
Osmaston Rood 
Lot i mer Rood 
Florence Rood 
Volley Rood 

F1? o 


I Onto. 

Hampton _ 
Knou I e _ 
Wythol I 

Hen I ey _ 
Redd i t ch_ 

You should now have two sets of columns A..D. Don't be confused 
by seeing the same information in both parts of the screen, it merely 
means that both windows are set to the same part of the 
worksheet. You can leave the left view where it is and on a big 

worksheet move the right view far across the sheet. 

The next command to investigate is the slash ILJ. This is used to 
jump between horizontal window sections. The first time you press 
it the active cell cursor switches from being to the left of the 
partition line to the right. Press E again and you will see the cursor 
jumps back to the left window of the display. 

The effect as you can see is to jump to the same cell but in the 

other window. Move the cursor in the right window so that it scrolls 
left. Notice that the right window continues to display the original 
position, Press O and the cursor jumps back to cell Al in the left 
window. If you want both left and right windows to scroN together 
you must lock them together. To lock them use the i" BOGi 
(Partition Synchronised Vertical) command sequence: 

Now, as you scroll one of the windows left and right you will see 
that the contents of the other window follows it. 

If you push [«=^ZD to switch between the normal and enlarged 

display any horizontal partition will be lost but vertical partitions are 

You can divide the screen vertically in a very similar way using 
F^ifO (Partition screen Horizontally) and specifying the grid 
number, which is printed in column A of the right hand window. 
Type iL=D to keep the column labels at the top of the screen: 


HI Unit 



^^^^Ej Norfte 



Hiiniiiiii i—i i"n 

Win it 




Road _| 

Jerewy GroJ 
Osmoston O 












■an. J 



Latiner Roll 





F i sher 


Florence RT 


F i sher 





Vol ley RaaJ 




IFI? g 
I fluto , 

Jeremy Grove 
Osmaston Road 
Lot i rner Rood 
Florence Rood 
Vol ley Rood 



Hampton _ 
Knoule _ 
Uythol I _ 
Henley _ 

There are now four parts to the screen. Tomove between the 
horizontal parts you use the backward slash O: 



flBCEFGI JIINOPGtSTVHXZ ! +-V> . ( ' *H+* 

II II II I I —I I'll I I —— I Mill Mil Inl ■■lilTil 






Latimer Ro. 

F I orence 
Vai ley Roa_ 






Latimer Road 
Florence Road 
Valley Road 

F17 c 


Vou can synchronise the parts horizontally or stop it at any time. To 
get rid of the partitioning just type F^FJ for Partition End. if you 
save the worksheet to a file it will be in the unpartitioned form when 
next loaded. 

After entering headings or explanatory comments into one part of 
3 sheet it is often desirable to be able to see these even when the 
cursor has moved to a distant part of the sheet, 

"ie Partition command lets you define up to four separate windows 
:n the sheet which can be locked to scroll together or left 
ide pendent. 


Tutorial XII - 

Database Handling Techniques 


You may want to find a particular location within a large worksheet 
without having to go through it looking yourself. To help you, there 
is the GET command which goes through the columns and lines 
starting at the current cursor location looking for any piece of data 
that you care to enter. Note that it does not matter what format 
the target data is displayed under, only the data as it was entered 
is searched. 

The data you look for must start and end with a special "delineator" 
character. A "delineator" is just a computer word meaning a 
start/end marker. Valid delineators that can be used to mark the 
beginning and end of the string are any characters that are 
printable but not letters or numerals. The data that you want found 
will be assumed to have been completed when the second 
delineator to match the first character after the GET command is 
found^_For example, if you want to find the word SALES you could 
type t_J" sales. As soon as you type the second " the search is 
performed. If you were looking for a piece of text that contained 
" characters you could choose some other delineator. For example, 

Or'Blodget" Sales! 

If you want to find a second occurrence of the same string then 
you only need to type t" ] followed by the delineator twice and the 
string you last used will be automatically inserted between the 
characters^ In the above examples you would just need to type 
Q"" or E? ! to look for a second occurrence. 

Load the demonstration file called ADLIST again, 





8 lake 


Jereuy Grove 
Qsmaston Rood 



In this example you are searching for the number 25 which is founa 
first at location C5. The delineator used in this case is the / symbol. 




flBCEFGI JtWQSTTOZ! +-V> , ( ' iH« 


Jeremy Grove 
Osfloston Rood 
Lotimer Rood 
Florence Rood 

My t ho 1 1 

The cursor ends up at the location of the string. Using the command 
ID// will find the next occurrence at ceil F7. 

You should remember that only the actual cell formulae, numeric 
data and text entries are searched. If, for example, the last column 
^ad been in financial format and you had tried to search for 25.00 
, ou would not find it even though it was displayed. As you can see 
-om the contents line only 25 is actually stored in the memory. In 
practice this means you can only search for things that can be 
displayed on the contents line. 

*he Get command is useful for making long jumps across a 
implicated sheet. You can insert special text entries as markers 
vhich help you to quickly find the right place even if insertions and 
deletions have been made. 

Sorting the lines 

"-^e Notebook spreadsheet can selectively sort lines. You can 
oecify the part or whole of a column you want to be used as the 
rasis of the sort. Both text and values can be sorted, either 
-creasing or decreasing. With this facility you can handle address 
s f s and client lists. By using only part of columns in the sorts you 
■ arry out many of the activities that you would otherwise use a 
:atabase management program for. This example assumes you stiii 

Dve the ADLIST example file loaded, in this example the lines are 
::>ing to be sorted using the name as the basis. There are only valid 

ume entries in the cells B3..B7 so this is specified as the range to 

•e sorted. Type ?Db£ZIb7: 

F17 c 

crd.,,crdJ 32247 



Sort lines 








range: B3, 

Jeremy Grove 
Qsmoston Rood 




You are now asked whether you want the entries to be sorted into 

Increasing or decreasing order. Type [%)&] to specify increasing 




Column B is now in alphabetical order. Next you will see a numerical 
sort in descending order. Note that the sort is carried out on the 
internal value (as displayed on the contents line) of the number 
and not on the numerals as displayed. Type F~)f30f7[ "' 

The lines have now been sorted to make the numbers in column F 


Remember that if you do want to keep address lists you wi 
probably also like to be able to prepare mall labels. This wc 
explained in an earlier tutorial. 

There are two functions, a search command and a sort commar. 

that allow you to reproduce some simple database handlingl 
effects using the Notebook spreadsheet. 


Wr=+-(r*/ ; - 

Tutorial XIII - 

More complex use of the sheet 

More advanced expressions and functions 

Here we are going to look at more advanced Functions available 
to yo^use in your expressions. If you feel that we have already 
covered all of the built in functions that you can take ,n .during the 
early stages please feel free to skip these sections and concentrate 
on getting practice with the spreadsheet -However, we , do 
Scommend that you try to find time to read about al I of the 
functions later when you are more confident. Remem ^^J n h ® 
Notebook spreadsheet is designed to be a time saving tool fo you. 
and it may be capable of much more than you had in m.nd when 
you first started to use it. 

The IF, THEN, ELSE functions 

This is a special function group which is known In computing terms 

as a conditional branch, All this really means ,s hat the outcome 
of the function changes depending on the result of a J^thrf * 
-node on some portion of the data. It is a method of introducing 
idsTon making into the spreadsheet such that the calculation 
oerformed vary in their result if certain conditions are or are not 

^is conditional function is of the form: 
\Hexpression), THEN {expression) , ELSE {expression) 

-he first expression, following the IF, must be logical, logical' Is 

"nether piece of jargon that just means it must have an arcwwtf 
-RUE or FALSE. An example of a logical expression is IF (B3-4) whicn 
-So value of TRUE if B3 does equal 4 or FALSE if it does not, 

< the IRexpress/on) is indeed TRUE the THEN (expression) part of the 
• notion becomes operative and the current cell takes the value 
^cu°ated S the expression after the THEN. When the IF part « 
worked out to be FALSE then the ELSE( expression) is used. 


The full list of special operators you can use to give you an answer^ 

of TRUE or FALSE are: 





not equal (this is the symbol on C'i_Zld) 

greater than 

greater than or equal 

less than 

less than or equal 

You can also use the functions TRUE or FALSE themselves instead of 
an expression. In other words you can just type the words TRUE or 
FALSE in as a cell entry. They do not have arguments so nothing else 
has to be typed in. Although they are words they count as numeric 
functions, not as text. 

if an expression entry is TRUE it is given a value of -1 and if ft is FALSE 
it is set to 0, Don't worry about why this should be so, the reason 
lies deep in the roots of the history of computing and in the way 
that the logical functions work. Just be aware that if you put a 
logical expression into a cell these will be the displayed values, 

Alternatively you can set another cell, say B3, to TRUE or FALSE and 
then use the conditional in the form IF(B3), THEN(expr J), ELSE(expr2). 
It should follow from the above explanation that what this means 
is IF B3 reads TRUE then calculate expression exprh else (if B3 reads 
FALSE) calculate expression expr2. 

In place of the normal expressions after THEN and ELSE you can use 
the special function ERROR, if this is encountered during a 
calculation then the calculation is stopped and a message is put 
up on the prompt line. You can treat this as if it is a normal error 
message. No harm can be done using this function. It is a useful 
method for checking for genuine errors, for bringing macros to an 
end, or for warning the user that a certain unwanted result has 
occurred, for example if profits drop below a certain figure. 


•'ou can now try an example which includes some of these 

-jnctions and features. Clear the worksheet and use CjJldJ to 
~iake a blank one. Now type QtrueS into Al ; 

l qBKFGIJrlH3PK™XZ!+-V>.('itl** 


.ote that Al takes on the value -1. Type® to move to A2 and 
vpe Qnr<*l), then (5), else (ERROR) EH which means if Al is 
"?UE then give A2 the value 5 otherwise indicate an error: 

(1FIA1), THEN(5). ELSE( ERROR}) , 



-5 Al was TRUE then A2 has become 5. You can now change Al 
- see the effect on A2. Type CSEDpalseGzU: 




Enter lumber or expression 




(IF(fll), THEN<5), ELSE(ERROR)) 
ERROR col led from <R2> I 


has taken the value for FALSE. Because of the automatic 
:'culation feature, the error message has already come up saying 
-ere it was found, In order to make sure that you have noticed it 
• "error message will not let you continue until you have pressed 
<ey. You will also find the current ceil has been automatically 


changed to the one with the ERROR 'function fn it so that you c< 
do something about it. 

Table handling functions 

Several functions are available to let you extract values from 
specified list of cells. They are used in the same way that we would 
look up and read values from a table or list, 

As a first example you are going to see the LOOKUP function. This 
function, when given a value looks along a list to see where this 
specified value lies and then takes a reading from the adjacenf 
row or column, Consider it as being the same as looking up a value 
in a printed table where you look for your value in the first column 
to get your answer in the second, such as logarithm tables. 

A typical example of the use of this function may be finding 
commission percentage given sales income. These rates tend to 
jump from band to band. An example of this can be found in the 
demonstration files called SALES.MEM. Zap any sheet you have 
loaded and then load the example using the command 








i conmssiON calculation 








In this case the salesperson brought in £1 5,000 worth of business ana . 
so he managed to get into the band between £10,000 and £20,000 1 
for which he gets 10% commission. 

The form of the function is LOOKUP( value, lisf), the result returr 
by the function is taken from the adjacent list. You can see it use 
in cell B 16 of the sheet. Type EDbi6L=L to move directly to it, 
value to lookup is in cell B12 and the list of values is in cells B5...B104 
The corresponding percentage is taken from the column to 
right of the lookup list - that is, column C. 

There is a similar function which you can use in the same way calk 
INTERP which will interpolate a value from a list. It differs frc 

LOOKUP in that the function tries to work out (interpret) the desire 
answer even if it is not present in the list. This is used in Bl 7. 






fiBCEFGI JrWQSTVWffi!*-V>. ( 'it*** 

Here the salesperson has been told that the commission will be 
calculated on a sliding scale based on the sales and commission 
■able. As £15,000 worth was sold this is midway between £10,000 
and £20,000 and so he can expect a commission midway between 
0% and 20%. The INTERP function does this calculation for you and 
n this case comes up with the answer 15%. 

"he CHOO t SE function will look at a list and return the value of the 
;elf in the position in the list given by the first argument. The form 
•J this function is CHOOSE(va/ue, listi. The value will be rounded to 
-ie nearest whole number if it isn't one already. 

tnis example the CHOOSE function at A8 has looked through 
. A6 to find the 4th cell and returned the value held in it, in this 
3se 4000, 

SPV stands for Net Present Value and is a discounted cash flow 
.iction that calculates the effect of a discount rate on a set of 
3sh flow figures. The form of the function is NPV( rote, list) where 
jfe is the discount rate in percent and the list is a list of cells that 
ontaln cash flows. If you do not intend to use the Notebook 
;:-eadsheet for financial calculations then there is no need to 
;ther following the next example. 

<NPV(B3, B2...F2H 
fiBCEFGI JMNOPOSTVHXZ ! *-V>. ( '»+!♦* 












In this example you can assume that in 1993 some money is to be 
invested and the figures above represent the expected yearty 
returns on that investment. To find out how the investment win 
perform, the yearly values each need to be converted to 'present 
values' and summed. In this instance they are all converted to 1993 

The first return in 1994 will be calculated as 1 000/(1 +dr/ 100). The 

1000 is effectively worth less because of the one year taken to ge* 
it. The next year 1200 is obtained but this is worth less still because 
it is discounted once for 1994 and again in 1995 so its present 
value is calculated as 1 200/(1 +dr/100)/O+dr/ 100) and so on. The 
value of the return in n years is: return/((l+dr/100)An), 

The 'Interpol rate of return' is the discount rate necessary to mak»l 
the present value equal to the initial investment. It can be foundj 
by trial and error, changing the value of discount rate until you get 
the right answer, An example of how they can be automated and 
the Internal rate of return can be calculated by the Notebook, 
spreadsheet is given in the demonstration file called IRR. 

Zap any sheet you are working on and type (""IirbGH to load the 
sheet. Type FTkifiQ to move to the cells where the result * 
calculated. Then type ! to force a calculation. You will see th<*| 
several calculations are performed until it settles on a final value 
when the trial present value gets close to the target of £5,000, Use 
of DO, WHILE to perform repeated recalculations is explained in a| 
later tutorial. 

If you want to do a numerical integration then you would probabyj 
use Simpson's rule. You can use the function SIMPRULI to do th»| 





Jlntegrol of Sinrfx) between end PI/2 
|given by SMPRHECPI/8, B1...B5) 

fc. 38268343236569 
e , 92387953251 1 287 

In this example 5 values of SINR(x) have been calculated 
intervals of PI/8, The SIMPRULE function has been used to obtain 
approximate value of the integral. The exact value is 1 . The form i 


the function is SlMPRULE(step, range), the range must have an odd 
number of values. 

A Note on lists 

in most functions a list can be specified using a range such as 
Bl ...B5. You can, however, have blank entries in your range and the 
♦unction will still be worked out correctly. This feature allows you to 
set up a template worksheet and enter your particular data later. 
r wili also cater for the situation where the number of items will be 

Date and Time functions 

Tie DATE and TIME functions may be used in financial calculations, 
such as tax returns or yearly balance sheets, it is often the case that 
some account of the time of year has to be taken when 
determining the required output. By entering values for the time of 
,<ear automatic adjustments can be made within the program, 

Dates in these functions are expressed in the form ddmm.yyyy. The 
3d - day part - can be 1 or 2 digits, the mm - month part - should 
always be given as two digits so, for example, April is 04. The year 
snould always be expressed as 4 digits. Some valid dates are: 

1109,1957 nth September 1957 

904.1963 9th April 1963 

2407.1993 24th July 1993 

2512.1993 25th December 1993 

DATEAFTER(dafe, days) 

Sives the date that will be the number of days specified after the 
-put date. So, for example DATEAFTER(312,1992, 120) means - give 
•ne date of the day which is 120 days after the 3rd December 1 992, 
'ne answer is 204.1993, the 2nd April 1993. 

DAYSAPART(dafe?, date2) 

jives the number of days between any two specified dates. For 

-sample, if you were born on 9th April 1963 and today's date is 5th 
-jgust 1992 you could use DAYSAPART(904.1963, 508.1992) to see 
-at you were 10,711 days old (or 257,064 hours or 15,423,840 
minutes or 925430400 seconds old!) 



Returns the day of week as a number, Saturday has a value 0, 

Sunday 1 , Monday 2 etc. DAYOFWK(508. 1992) is 4 which means 5th 
August 1992 falls on a Wednesday. 



Returns the number of days between January 1st and the present^ 
day. For example, DAYOFYR(508.1992) gives the result that 5th 
August Is the 218th day of the year. By dividing this by 7 you can 
see that it is in week 32. 

Note: For the following functions to operate correctly you must 
make sure the date and time in your Notebook are set before 
starting the spreadsheet. Setting the date and time was described 
earlier in the manual. 


Gives the current year as a four digit number. 


The current month as a number between 1 and 12 


The day of the month as a number between 1 and 31. 


The hour in 24 hour format as a number between and 23. 


The current minute as a number between and 59. 


The current second as a number between and 59. 


Returns the date in the form of a single number, for example 
312.1992 being the 3rd December 1992. 



Returns the time in the form of a single number, for example 1 503.23 
- being 3 minutes and 23 seconds past 3 in the afternoon, 


Resets the elapsed time counter. Probably best included in an IF, 
THEN, ELSE entry. 


Returns the elapsed time since the ZEROTIME function was last 

operative. This is in seconds. 


Does nothing until n seconds have elapsed. It may be a cell 
-eference or a value. For practical reasons make it a cell reference 
vvith a value until you actually want to run you application. 



Sets off an audible tone. This can be used as a warning signal. On 
a sheet that takes a long time to calculate you could include the 
3LEEP function in the final cell to be calculated. You will then get a 

oeep once re-calcuiation has finished. 




Tutorial XIV 

An introduction to 'command' tunctions 

There are certain functions that we are now going to come across 

that are fundamentally different to those we have seen so far. The 
principle difference is that they act on a cell or cells other than the 
one in which they have been entered. They can be looked on really 
as more like commands than like the mathematical functions we 

have come to understand. 

These functions are useful in that they can be used to automate 
some actions that you may normally have had to do yourself If you 
were using direct commands. 

For example they can be used to create a worksheet that performs 
an entire set of calculations as soon as it has been loaded and the 
recalculation started. Certain of the demo flies, IRR for example, 
use this feature. 

They are also useful for creating subroutines that perform a range 
of actions or calculations automatically. We will see later how such 
a technique can be used to create and fill a table of values. 

Examples of functions that behave rather like commands are SET 
and IN IT, which assign a value to a distant cell rather than the one 
they are in, or INC and DEC which can alter the value held in a 
distant cell, 

There are also some command-like functions that may read a value 
from a distant celi but do not act on anything in particular. An 
example would be one of the Graphics functions we will see later 
such as MAI NTITLE (era). This reads the text to be displayed in a 
graph title from a distant cell, but it cannot display the answer It 
gets in its own cell because of different format types - it reads from 
a text cell but is used in a numeric cell. 

Remember that because they are FUNCTIONS with arguments they j 
must always be entered into a ceil that has a numeric format. 

Because the command functions act on a cell or cells other than] 
the one in which they have been entered, and because that J 
distant cell may sometimes contain text data, it is sometimes i 

unclear what value the actual function ceil itself will display, In fact. 


jometimes you will find they display the same value as held in the 
rfctant cell (if they can) and sometimes they will just display a zero. 

- avoid confusing the display of the sheet you may wish to place 
-Use command functions in a seldom seen area of the sheet. It 
-..isn't matter where they go - the Notebook spreadsheet will 
3 */ays find them. 

Multiple function lines and dividing commas 

■ -en you are entering functions into a cell it is valid to insert a 

- ..ding comma between them. The effect of a dividing comma is 
': cause an effective restart as if what follows was the beginning 
• the line. 

-e value that will be displayed In the cell will be that of the 

-toression after the last dividing comma. 

:' example start with a blank sheet and enter 10 into Al and this 

■ ■oression into Bl: 


1 abcefgI ™stvuxz!+-v>.< '1N» 



-e first calculation. 2*A1, is performed but is effectively forgotten 
3 il that appears in Bl is a copy of Al because this is what appears 
-er the comma. This feature so far looks like a waste of time and 
■emory but consider its application to the 'command' functions 

ascribed above. 

y entering this expression into Bl 

*f(Cl,10) ,SET(C2,20) ,SET(C3,30) ,SET(C4,40) ,A1 


(SETICIiINi SET(C2,20), SET{C3,30), SET(C4,40), ftl : 
ABCEFGI JtlNOPQSTVlKZ ! *-V> . I ' »t4+* 





Because the command functions all act on DISTANT cells their 
effect is performed on the sheet even though cell Bl finishes by 

only displaying the value obtained after the last comma. None of 
the earlier commands are wasted. This technique is also useful with 
the BLEEP function. 

It should be obvious that only these command functions have a 

useful effect if they are followed by a comma. 

Not all command-like functions can be treated in this way and 

some of the Graphics functions in particular will give unpredictable 
results if followed by a comma. 


It is unlikely that these functions will be of any use but they are 

included for compatibility with other versions of the Cracker 

spreadsheet, should you wish to use files from the Notebook on 

other computers. Use of these functions, especially OUT, on the 

Notebook will almost inevitably lead to the machine crashing in 

-- -«i«n|/E~ 

whichcase all you can do is switch it on holding down 

and M but this will lose all data you have stored in the Notebook. j 


Reads an 8 bit port given by the number or cell reference port. 

OUKporf, value) 

Outputs a value given by a number or cell reference to the port . 
given by a number or cell reference. 


Tutorial XV 

Producing graphs and charts 

"he graphics part to the Notebook spreadsheet has been designed 

-o allow you to create a graph with the minimum of work but you 
must of course provide the spreadsheet with some information 
about what you want plotted and how. 

'o do this there are some special functions, detailed below, that tell 
me graph plotter just what you want it to do. These can be entered 
anywhere you like in the sheet - the Notebook spreadsheet will be 
able to find them. 

"nere are two distinct types of graph that may be plotted: 

) For the business chart types you just supply a single set of 
values (Y values) and each is plotted at a subsequent X 
position. You also supply a set ot labels for the X axis which 
will often be some time interval (such as the months of a 
year). You can actually have several Y values for each point 
on the time axis. 

■>) For the scientific types of graph you supply (x, y) co-ordinate 
pairs for the points to be plotted. In this case the idea of 
"time labels" does not exist although, obviously, the X values 
could indeed be time increments. 

3t.OTl.MEM and PLOT2.MEM, included In the demonstration files, 
-e examples of business and scientific graph plotting, You may 
. sh to load these spreadsheets and exchange the rule/formulae 
ommands to see how the functions are used in practice. 

- see how a graph is plotted, zap any sheet that is loaded and 
-en type F TplotiK to load the demonstration file called PLOT! . 
-e command to force the spreadsheet to draw a graph is T for 
ace, Type OfTT-i to send the trace output to the screen. This 
. i| take some time; the rotating indicator shows that the 
ceadsheet is still working. 

+iially a small version of the graph is shown on the screen. This is 
-aled so that the complete picture fills the screen. You get an 
.erall picture of how the output would look when printed. Press 
tS and fjitl keys to switch between this reduced view and a 

- ^ 


larger view of the graph. When the larger view Is shown the ® ar 
Cokeys may be used to scan up and down the picture. 

When you have finished looking at the picture press S to return 
to the normal spreadsheet display, If you type l_J again you will 
see that you can also trace to printer. This offers the option of 
normal or high quality output. The printing of graphs from the 
spreadsheet will only work on Epson compatible printers. 
Specifically, the printer must support ESC K for normal output and 
ESC L for high quality output. 

Graph functions 

Here are the functions that are used to define what you want ta^ 
plot. This is followed by a description of how they are actually used: 

Note that where crd is specified in the functions below you must 
put it in the form shown. If you don't the current values may not be 
properly passed to the plotting section of the program. You can't 
use numerical or expression equivalents except where stated, 


All charts must include this function before you try to trace ther 
This function is used to define the type of graph or chart plot yc 
want, Give a value between 1 and 18 in the cell referred to by this 
function. If, for example, you want a Pie Chart use the function 
TYPEPLOT(Al) and put the value 6 Into cell Al. Do not try to uso^ 


Business graphs 

Use TYPEPLOT values 1 ..6 as described below, (these graphs requlr 
TIMELABELs rather than actual XVALUEs, this is explained below) 

1 . Bar chart (histogram) - there may be more than one bar 
over each time label 

2. Stacked bar chart - each bar for each time iabe! is 
superimposed over the others so that only the overlap H 

3. Line chart - lines Join each point on each of the plafrj 


4. Area chart - as above but the enclosed area is hatched, 

5. Hi-lo chart - each of the plot categories are shown as a 
marker above each time label. The markers are joined by a 
vertical line. 

6. Pie chart - the familiar segmented circular chart. 

Statistical, Scientific and Engineering 

Use TYPEPLOT values 7.. 18 as follows. For all these types of chart you 
must give x and y coordinate pairs using XVALUE and YVALUE. 

7. X:Y line joining points 

8. LogX:Y Line joining points 

9. X:LogY Line joining points 

10. LogX:LogY Line joining points 

11. X:Y points only 

12. LogX:Y points only 

13. X:LogY points only 

14. LogX.LogY points only 

15. X:Y points and Line of Best Fit 

16. LogX:Y points and Line of Best Fit 
'7. X:LogY points and Line Of Best Fit 

'8. LogX:LogY points and Line of Best Fit 


"he cell co-ordinate is a pointer to a text cell where the main title 

s to be found. The use of MAINTITLE is optional. If you don't use 
MAINTITLE, the title area of the chart will just be left blank. 


"ne same idea as for the MAINTITLE applies to the SUBTITLE. This is 
printed directly below the main title in a slightly smaller font. 



Where crd identifies a cell of text format holding the title to be 
written up the Y axis on the left hand side. YTITLE is not used for the 
Pie chart (TYPEPLOT 6). Use of YTITLE is optional. 


Where co-ordinate crd refers to a text format cell where the X 
title is. The XTITLE is the one across the bottom of the graph. XTITLE 
is not used for the Pie chart (TYPEPLOT 6). Use of XTITLE is optional. 

XLABEL<crd...cra), Of XLABEL(crd, crd, crd, etc.) 

This points to the text cells containing X labels which are the legend 
box items on the right of the chart explaining what the plot 
lines/bars etc. refer to. The spreadsheet also uses this function to 
discover how many plot lines/columns you want to display so you 
MUST include the XLABEL function. 

Unlike the other functions in this list, the range can also be a list 
individual items, each one pointing to one of the X labels, 

Please make an effort to get the number of X labels correct as the j 
program counts them to see how many lines or groups of Items' 
there are. If, for example, you get it wrong and enter too many 
Xlabels you will be informed there are Y values missing because it 
is expecting to have to draw further lines. 

All types of chart must have an XLABEL function. It is not optional. 


The time labels are the tagged items on the X or bottom axis that 
show what exactly is being plotted on a business chart. They are 
not always time labels but it is very common in financial graphs for 
example to plot values according to month or year. This function is 
only used with plot types 1...6; the other graph types will expect 
actual numerical values on the lower line - given by the XVALUE 
function. For plot types 1..6 there MUST be a TIMELABEL function, If 
you don't actually want time labels, then just point the function to 
cells containing a single space character (they must not bo.i 
completely blank). 


YVALUE(n, crd. crd) 

"his function points to the actual Y values to be plotted. The *n' 

-efers the number of the plotting line to which the values apply, 
"here will be one of these functions for each line. All types of chart 
-nake use of the YVALUE function. 


"he crd in this case can be a value or a reference to a value that 
;pecifies the maximum figure to be shown on the Y axis. Your choice 
.vill be rounded to a suitable nearby value to improve the 
oresentation. Use of YMAXIMUM is optional. If it is not used the 
„pper limit on the Y axis will be the same as the largest Y value. 


nis is a similar function to the above for a minimum value. 

Note that because the Notebook spreadsheet rounds the value for 
•ne minimum to the best nearby value to give an attractive display, 
.ou may have to experiment and perhaps set the YMIN1MUM value 
:wer than you first thought in order to get the desired display. 

<VALUE<n, crd.crdi function points to the actual X values to be plotted. The 'n' 
efers the number of the line to which you are referring. There will 
•e one of these functions for each line. XVALUE is only used for plot 
.oes 7. ..18, the TIMELABEL function is used for plot types 1...6 

■ MAXIMUM(cra) 

-9 crd may be a value or a reference to a value that specifies the 
aximum value to be shown on the X axis. Your choice will be 
jnded to a suitable nearby value to improve the presentation, 
of types 7... 18 only) 

<MIN I MUM (era) 

-niiarly for a minimum value. See the notes given above for 

."NIMUM. The XMINIMUM command only works on plot types 7 or 
: Dve. 


Remember that because the graphics commands are entered 
FUNCTIONS followed by values or co-ordinates each of the above 
should be placed Into a cell that has been given a numerical 
format, even though the Information they refer to may be text, The 
text itself of course has to be placed in ceils of a text format. 

You may be wondering what each of these cells that contain the 
above functions will actually display on the screen, In the majority 
of the cases the display will show zero. Some of the functions will 
display a numeric value if it is felt to be useful. For example the cell 
that contains the XL ABELS function will show the number of Xlabels 
defined - that is, the number of sets of data to be plotted. The cell 
that contains TYPEPLOT will show the number of the graph type 

Making a graph in practice 

Business type 

In a business type of graph you just have one or more sets of Y 1 
values that are to be plotted at discrete intervals along the X axis. 
You do not specify actual X values, the first point is plotted in 
column 1 , the next in column 2 and so on. You can, however, define 
"time labels" which are text labels to be placed on each discrete 
X position. The following shows how you can make a business chart. 
Here is some sample data that we might want to plot: 
















Prepare a sheet with this data that you want to plot. The actt 
data values can be up and down columns or across lines, as k 
as they lie in a range of co-ordinates. One obvious way to set out] 
this data would be exactly how we have written it above. All the • 
labels (including 1992 and 1993) are entered into text format c* 
- start entry with " to use the global text format. 

The numeric values are entered into general format cells using 
to start entry: 













n addition to the actual data and labels we will need some 
*unctions to tell the spreadsheet what is to be plotted. It is not 
critical how the other items are laid out so just set aside an area to 
out in the plotting Instructions. Each of these instructions is a pointer 
*o where the particular data items you want displayed are to be 

Start by putting the TYPEPLOT function into cell A6, Remember that 
/ou must include a ceil reference in the TYPEPLOT function, such as 
typeplot (A5). Don't just use TYPEPLOT(number). Once you have 
cut in the function to define the type of chart, you can then put In 
oointers to the various titles, although these are optional. These are 
MAINTITLE, SUBTITLE, YTITLE and XTITLE. In this case, just enter 
maintitle(aI) into cell B5. So far you may have something like 
-->e following: 



<1> (MflINTITLE(A1 





.ext you must tell the spreadsheet which cells contain the time 
:bels using the TIMELABEL function. Remember, these are typically 
-ie months or years that go across the bottom of the page, as in 
-us example, but they don't in fact have to relate to time but 
dually do. In this case enter timelabel (B2 . . .E2) into cell B6. 

<>r each position on the time axis we have two sets of data to be 
slotted, the values for 1992 and those for 1993. You must use the 
■ _ABEL function to give a name for each set of data that is to 
, otted. These labels will be used to print the key that appears to 
-ie right of the graph. The spreadsheet also knows that there are 
-wo sets of data to be plotted when you use this function. It cannot 
-e omitted or the spreadsheet would not know how many sets of 
xrta there were. In cell C5 enter xlabel<a3. . .A4). 


Lastly use the YVALUE function to point to the actual sets of data 
to be plotted. There will be one YVALUE entry for each set. In D5 
and D6 enter xvalue(i,b3. . -E3) andYVM.0E{2, B4...E4).You 

should have something that looks like the following: 



<5> (rlfilHTITLE(flU) 
<4> (TIrELflBEL(82,.,E2)) 



(I) (YVALUE(1,B3,.,E£ 
<2> (WflLUE(2,B4.,.EC 

If you particularly wish to specify the maximum or minimum values 
you want plotted then use the YMAXIMUM and YMINIMUM 
functions. Normally don't use these functions as the program win 
work out all the maximums and minimums for you automatically. 

The only thing that remains is to actually instruct the spreadsheet 
to plot the graph. You do this byusing the Trace graph to Screen 
(or Printer) command. Type P~~ JrDQ to start the plotting process 
Your current worksheet will be stored in the RESTART.MEM file ana 
there will be a short delay while the spreadsheet works out how the 
graph is to be drawn. The screen will clear and a small version o? 
the graph will be drawn to fit as best it can on the Notebook's 16 
line screen. This will give you an overall feel for how the graph wtf 
look when printed. 

You may want to see the picture in more detail and so it is possible 
to press the S and !!=♦) keys to get the spreadsheet to switch [ 
between this small version and an enlarged version of the picture. 
In the enlarged version you can then use the up and down arrow 
keys to move up and down the picture. Press the Space bar when 
you have finished looking at the on-screen chart. You will then be 
returned to the normal spreadsheet screen and your worksheet s 
reloaded from the RESTART.MEM file. 

As mentioned above, the example file, PLOT1 contains a worksheet! 
to produce a business plot. It is probably worth loading this file toj 
see another example of the plotting instruction being used 
Remember that you can use the (iJ-eXchange command to 
switch the display to showing the formulas. 

Try using the (LlKLJG=Ll command on PLOT! to see what it looks like 
You could try changing the value held in cell AT, which Is the 


of plot. Use any number between 1 and 6 to see the various types 

of business chart available. 

ifyou want to print a chart on your printer you use the command 
IJF^ED. You are then asked whether you want to print it in normal 

or high quality. The former is quicker but the latter will give better 

MOTE: The printing of graphs will only work on Epson compatible 
printers that support the ESC K and ESC L sequences for 
printing graphic data, If you are using a laser printer, see if 
it can be switched to emulate an Epson type of printer 
before attempting to print any graphs from the 

Pie charts 

"he first 5 types of business graph are all built in the same way. You 
-ave a TYPEPLOT to select the plot type. XLABEL identifies the labels 
•or the "key" to the graph and also tells the spreadsheet how many 
nes /columns are to be drawn. The Y VALUE function is used to tell 
•ie spreadsheet where each set of data is located. TIMELABEL gives 
-ie legends for the X axis, In addition to these you may also, 

: e charts are just a little different as the following example will 
now. In this case the aim is to show a set of data as fractional parts 
: < a circle. Let us assume that we have the following figures to plot; 

Computer Sales 









iter this data onto a blank worksheet as follows: 


ter Soles 






You must use TYPEPLOT to request plot type 6. Enter the value 6 , into 
ceB A4 and the typeplot (a4) function into B4. Each segment of 
?he Me "must have an XLABEL so in cell C4 enter the function 
LiI^l L D2) Although it is not used for anything other than 
a^S on the chart, you must also have a TtMELABEL function. So 
put a timelabel(aI) function into cell D4. 
All that remains is to tell the spreadsheet where the data to plot is 
focated Tach segment is a separate > YVALUE sc > you must have 
separate YVALUE functions for each segment. In Ab enter 
SE£«a,A3>. in B5 enter yvaloe(2,b3), then yvalue<3,C3) and 
yvalue (4, D3) in cells C5 and D5. 
You should end up with something like this: 






All that remains is for you to type the OTS COmm ZlV^Tc> 
the result Remember that the m and m keys may be used to 
Twitch between the full page and magnified view In the magnrfg 
view you can scroll up and down the picture usmg the I £. and Ll 


Scientific graphs 

linlike the business types of plot, the scientific charts require you tol 
aivel* y ) coyote Pairs for the points to be plotted. In this ca» 
you do not use the TIMELABEL function. Instead, you spec.fy a set 
of XVALUEs in the same way as YVALUEs 
An example will probably make this clear. Say. for example, thatl 
you want to produce a chart with two distinct lines on .t. For each 
line you wiil give four points as follows: 

Linel: (3,4), (7,2), (9,8), (10,12) 
Une2: (2,7), (5,9), (8,2), (11,3.5) 

Fnter these data values onto a blank sheet as follows. The ent 
fn SlKf and A3 will be used as the XLABELS on the chart 
identify the two lines. 





■Line 2 









As before you need to use the TYPEPLOT function to tell the 
spreadsheet how it should plot the data. For this example we will 
nitially use type 7 so put the value 7 into cell A5 and the function 
TYPEPLOT (A5) into cell B5. 

-ou must also tell the spreadsheet where It should find the Xlabels, 
3 ut the function xlabel (ai , A3) into cell C5. As well as telling the 

>oreadsheet where to find the labels, this has the secondary effect 
Df telling it that there are two sets of data. The cell displays the 
/alue 2 to remind you how many sets of data the spreadsheet 
-links there are. 

All that remains is to let the spreadsheet know which cells contain 
~ie data points. Put the following functions into the following cells: 

(VALUE (1,B1. 

LVALUE (1,B2. 
fVALOE (2 , B4 . 

.El) in cell A6 
.E2) in cell B6 
.E3) in cell C6 
.E4) in cell D6 

ou may now use the OEHQ command to see the result on the 
.:reen. It looks a bit sparse and you may like to add some of the 
blowing: MAINTITLE. SUBTITLE, XTITLE, YTITLE for a professional 
x>king result. 

'©member, if you would like to print a copy of the chgrtuse an 

oson compatible printer and give the command OlNEJldJ or 

: j can use these random sets of data points to see one further 

:;ility offered by the spreadsheet. Change the plot type number, 
cell A5, to 15. This selects an X:Y chart with lines of best fit. This 

-e. when you plot the chart, instead of the points just being 
ned, a straight line that best fits the given data points will be 
3wn. The key at the side of the graph will show the calculated 

action of the two lines in the form y=m*x + c. (The "*" is used to 

ean "times"). 


Further points about chart plotting 

If you do any EDITING of the plotting instructions or make 6f 
changes that do not force a recalculation, you may end up with 
an error message or values that do not seem to be true. This is most 
likely when you use direct values in your functions rather than cel ( 


An example may be: 

YMAXIMUM (20000) 

and a case where it would not occur would be: 


Don't worry about this, just remember the safest way to handli 
plotting functions that do not contain ceil references is to overwr 

them rather than edit them. 

The instructions for plotting are updated when a recalculation 
done, so if you have made changes the latest instructions may nc 
have been passed causing an error. If you get such an errc 
message just use the I force recalculation command and try 
plot again, 


Tutorial XVI - Automating Data ' 

Using macro command groups 

Dften you will want to go through the same set of commands 
•epeatedly. A typical example is the changing of the format of all 
-ie ceils in one column. This can be both time consuming and 
•edious. To get round this situation you should use the * macro 
:ommand. A macro is a computing term that you will come across 
-■ many programs. You may already be familiar with macros in the 
.vord processor. A macro is just a sequence of key presses that you 
:an easily recall to save you a lot of typing. 

"he Notebook spreadsheet will let you create predefined sets of 
nked commands. Just enter the command letters into a text 

•ormat cell as if you were actually typing them in to be acted on 
•^mediately, Where you would want to use a tli enter the @ 
,-mbol instead. 

o call the macro to perform these commands you only have to 

\pe * followed by the co-ordinate reference to the cell in which 

-e macro is stored. So *Al calls the macro in cell A1 . The maximum 

,ze of a macro is limited but you can put your macro in more than 

ie ceil by finishing with a reference to the continuation macro. 

^r example you might finish your Al macro with a reference *A2 

: force it to continue with the commands entered in A2. 

- you want your macro to loop and be carried out repeatedly then 

-ish it with a reference to itself, For example with cell Al this would 

ean finishing with *A1. Don't worry about this causing an endless 

20, there are lots of ways of making the macro come to an end. 

. an illustration the following example takes a column of numbers 
inancial format and changes them all to one place decimal 

3d the demonstration file called SALES.MEM. if you have Just 
:ted the spreadsheet type the following - FHsalesH. 











Start by moving the cursor to cell A2 where the macro is to be 
entered. Type " to get into text entry mode and then type 
nfid@d*a2@ which says "New Format one place Decimal, carriage 
return, cursor Down and finally do macro A2 again'. 

The @ symbol stands for the 03 carriage return. 



flBCEFGI JMNOPQSTVUXZ ! +-V> , ( ' «tl« 


Next move the cursor to the location you want the macro to star 
its operations. In this case it is cell B5 so type Qbs to move quickly 
to that cell. Now type *A20 to start the macro going. 

Text /Value change I 



The commands will then work their way down the column. But, as 
you will see, a macro is brought to a stop by any error message. 

You can see that the macro has come to a stop on cell Bll 

because it is not possible to change a text format cell to a numeric 
format. You see the message Text /value change. Just type S 
and your looping macro operations will be completed and you wi 
be in a position to go onto your next command. 


A macro differs from a subroutine function, which you will learn 
about next, in that it is a list of direct commands rather than 
functions - the macro can contain a command such as NF for New 
Format, which is something that cannot normally be entered into 
a cell as part of an expression. The subroutine, on the other hand, 
allows one that performs normal expression functions repeatedly. 

It is of incidental interest that if you were to restrict your macro 
definitions to the first 9 cells of column A they could be accessed 
by just typing *1 ,*2 etc. Move to cell C5 (type Ocsl^D) and then 
type *20 to see this in operation. This time the macro comes to a 
stop when an attempt is made to change the format of a blank 
cell - the NF command only works on cells that already contain 

Functions that allow looping 

Sometimes it would be very useful if you could use a few formulae 
-epetitively to work towards an answer. For instance when working 
Dut the internal rate of return example given in the demonstration 
• les (the file called IRR.MEM), a short entry has been set up that tries 
3 range of possibilities and stops at the nearest. 

"he functions that allow you to do these repetitive calculations are 
rften referred to as loops. The Notebook spreadsheet provides you 
•/ith two functions, DO and WHILE, designed to make the setting up 
:' loops very easy, 

.nlike the IF, THEN, ELSE example seen earlier the command word 
!0 is not followed directly by an expression but rather by a 
Terence to a range of cells that contains the desired expression, 
-■& saves you a lot of typing if your calculation is long and complex, 

ote that you must specify a RANGE, so your working must be in 

-e line or one column and not in a block. However, the function 
oks at the range and finds the highest and lowest order of 
calculation number and then all those entries between the 
.mbers are recalculated no matter where they are in the sheet, 
■ does not matter if some of your intermediate calculation numbers 
e not In the specified range as they will still be correctly 
: culated. 

jse a loop enter the DO(range) function which performs the 

-sired calculation followed by a comma then any other 


expression or function that you wish. Usually this second function wlB 

change a value somewhere that acts as a loop counter (counts 
the number of times that the calculation has been done), 

There are several related functions that make setting up a counter 
easy for you namely INIT, SET, INC and DEC. These respectively 
initialise a cell entry, assign a value to a cell entry, increment a 
value (increase by one) and decrement a value (decrease by 

After the loop counter section you should type in a further comma 
and then use the WHILE function, This function has a logical 
argument such as a logical expression finding whether the loop 
counter has reached a certain value, often zero. If the WHILE 
function is TRUE then the cell formula is started again at the DO and 
repeated to the WHILE until the WHILE becomes FALSE. 

That is a basic description and it will seem fairly complicated at this 
stage. Do not worry about it yet, follow through the examples and 
then go back and look at this section again. 

First, you are going to look in more detail at how the SET function 
works. It is of the form SET(crd, value). The value can also be an 
expression and can also include the referenced co-ordinate. 
SEKA2, A2+1) is valid and works in exactly the same way as INC(A2). 
The SET command works in a similar way to entering a constant 
value into a cell using the entry command, except that the value 
is entered as a result of the expression rather than directly by you. 
It is therefore a useful way of automating the entry of cell constants 
and ensuring that the value will be updated if the referred cell 
values change. 

If you think about it, SET is a way of filling one cell with a value whilst 
you are entering an expression into another cell. Try entering the 
function set(a2, 37) into cell Al of a blank sheet. Don't press & 


Enter number or expression 
SET (A2, 37)1 


n .s 

You may note that the destination cell is set even before the 
expression is fully entered. 


If you decided to press at this stage, to end the expression entry, 
the actual cell that contains the SET function (AT) would itself take 
on the value shown in the distant cell that has been set. This is 
orimarily because it hasn't been shown anything else to display 
-other than for any logical reason. 

Next see how the INC increment function works. This is not a 

particularly useful expression by itself but you will see later how it 
can form an important part of a DO WHILE loop. After the SET 
function that you have already typed continue with ,inc(A2>. 
Once again, the function works even before the expression is 
completed, so as you enter the formula you will see A2 first had the 
value 37 and then 38 as it is incremented. 




Enter number or expression 


Now although you are manipulating the values that are held in cell 
A2 don't forget that your current cursor position is still Al and that 
it is into Al that you are entering your expression. 

Remember that Al, i.e. the current cursor position, will take on a 

.alue that is calculated from the expression or function after the 
ast dividing comma in your expression list. 

fou can therefore put a further comma in and then an expression 

or value that doesn't manipulate A2 such as 2*A2B. You will see 
•nat A2 now contains 38 and Al shows the value 76 which is 2"A2. 

- ne effect of dividing commas is to cause an effective restart as if 
tfhat follows was at the beginning of the entry line. You should 
jnderstand that only functions like SET, INC and DEC have any 
actual effect on the worksheet if there is a later dividing comma, 
e. they act on cells other than the current one, so a restart does 
-iot alter the values that these cells have assumed: 

(SET(A2,37), INCIH2), 2*A2) 
fiBCEFG I JflNOPQSTVWXZ ! +-\/> . ( '*H*+ 



In this case the entry at Al has ended up with the value 2*A2 which 
is 76. The ceil entries as a whole have become a series of 
instructions executed in turn. 

Subroutines using the DO function ■■■*■ 

As well as being a part of a loop the DO function can be used 
without the WHILE to act as a call to a subroutine that is only 
executed once every time it is called. 

You may be familiar with subroutines but if not, here is an 

A subroutine is a group of formulae which you may want to use 
repeatedly. Rather than enter the formulae many times over you 
simply have to type them in once and access them with the DO 
function. You will see the similarity here with a macro command. 
Every time the subroutine function is found in a cell during 
recalculation the whole of the group is calculated again. Now 
have a look at it in practice: 

Start with a blank sheet and enter the formula 2*A4 into cell A3. A 
line of question marks appears because the formula in A3 is waiting 
for you to input a value into A4. In cell Al enter the following: 
SET(A4,5), D0(A3...A4)E. When you type the closing 
parenthesis of the set command the value 5 appears in celt A4 but 
the result (in cell A3) does not appear until you press Ldj 

The same function (2* A3) could be used several times to double 

values from all over the sheet. Each time the "subroutine" is called 
you just pre-load A4 with the parameter to the function and then 
use DO to execute the function in A3, 

Note that although you only want the function in A3 to be 
recalculated, the argument of the DO function MUST be a range; 
it cannot be individual entries (although it can be just two, one of 
which is blank) or a block. However, this is not as restrictive as it may 
sound because the DO function will calculate a complete 
sequence of formulae. Each cell in the range you specify will have 
an order of calculation number. The DO function will find the one 
that has the lowest number and the one that has the highest, 

As each function is calculated in turn, every cell in the sheet that 

falls within the bounds of these two calculation numbers will also 
be automatically recalculated. This means you will get the effect 


you want provided your range Includes the start point you want 
and the end point you want, 

When you call a subroutine like this you can make sure the result is 
copied into the calling cell by following the expression by a comma 
and a reference to the cell that has the answer, in other words by 
effectively resetting the expression you have typed and by copying 
•ne value of the answer cell into the current cell. 

\ow you can try using the subroutine group we have set up to 
multiply 7 by 2. To Illustrate that you can call the subroutine from 
anywhere in the sheet you can do this in cell C2: Enter 

SBT(A4,7),DO(A3. . .A4) ,A3 into cell C2. 


(SET(M,7). 00<R3,..fl4)) It iL 



-.ate that the cells that contain the subroutine are also changed 
s well. Thus you end up with 14 in cell A3 as well as in C2. Because 
:' this, it is as well to keep the subroutine cells well out of the way 
~j the rest of the sheet. 

'-te group used for subroutine calculation should not be referred to 

- v the main body of the worksheet other than as a subroutine call 
':■ it can give nonsense values. You are, after all. changing the 
:onstants in it several times during the calculation, 

ou can change the cell values with SET commands before each 
TO function, 

'nis is a trivial example but the same technique can be used for 
-uch larger sections of the worksheet. 

Looping using functions DO and WHILE 

ow we are going to look at how to use the DO and WHILE 

.notions in conjunction in order to build up a repeating loop. 

cur first job when setting up a loop is to set aside a cell to act as 
: counter to keep track on how many times the loop has been 
:erformed, Do this with the INIT function, 

The INIT function is almost identical to SET but the target cell will be 
given a very low order of calculation number and hence you can 
be sure it will be re-calculated early on in every forced 
recalculation. This is important because every time you run the loop 
INIT makes sure that the counter is reset to Its original value. Using 
SET in these circumstances may mean that the counter cell 
increases in value after the loop is used once and the condition 
tested for by the WHILE function may never be met. 

Blank the sheet and then put the function init (a2, 0) into cell Al : 






In this case the counter ceil is A2. The object of this example is to 

multiply the value of the counter by 2 and then increment the value 
and do it again. A criterion for stopping will be specified. 

Here a reference to the counter is placed In A5: 



flBCEFGIJHN0PQ5TWXZ ! +-V> , ( ' «W++ 




At this stage it has the value 0, The expression 2*A5 Is entered into 
cell A4; 





flBCCFGIJmOPOSTVUXZ ! *-V> . t '»t+" 



The counter and formula are now set up so the loop can be 
established: in cell A3 enter do{A4...a5), inc(a2). 
while <A2<10) . This is just like the previous example of DO but now 
we have added an extra WHILE function to the end. 


T<5. - 


Enter number or expression ,^, i(% „ 
DQCfl4.,,R5J J INQlfllk. WIL£(fl2<1B)| 



- ach time you press ! to force a recalculation. You will see A5 
: Dunt from to 9 and A4 (the result) will count up in steps of two, 

--« heart of the loop is the WHILE function which has the special 
r'operty that if the logical argument that follows it is TRUE then the 
expression is wound back to the DO and repeated. In the example 
• remains TRUE while A2 is less than 10. But note that after the DO 

- miction the counter A2 is incremented. The multiply by 2 formula 
-erefore has a different start value. Overall the effect is that on 
-e screen you see A5 going from to 9 while A4 goes from to 

5. Not a lot of use in this case but it shows the loop working 10 
~ies. Later you will see the looping used to fill a table. 

make it easier to see the rules of the spreadsheet you can 
invert the display to show just the formulae. Let u|iry this now. 
•st the column width needs to be increased, type iycJ45LdJ 

fiBCEFGIJmOPQSTVHXZ ! +-\/> . I '*Nh 


~->en the Q for exchange command Is used; 
:• (INIT(R2/0n 




exchange rules/results 






flBCEFGI JMNOPQSTVUXZ ! +-\/> , ( ' *U++ 

You can now see all the formulae. The number In front of the 

formula is the order of recalculation number. 

The way the looping is organised means that the DO formulae will 
always be calculated once before the WHILE is tested. This ties in 
with the way DO and WHILE work in the main computer languages. 
If this is not the way you would like the loop to work you can 

precede it with an ordinary IF THEN logic test. 

Note: It is NOT possible to have a DO-WHILE loop within a DO-WHILE 

Table filling using the DO function 

Because it provides an automatic method for filling cells with 
values, the SET command is useful for creating tables within the 

You are going to see how to fill a table with the values of SIN(x) 
between 10 and 90 degrees. As before, you start by initialising a 
counter to keep track of where you have got to in the table. In this 
case cell A2 is set up with 1 . Blank the sheet and enter init (A2, l) 
into cell Al 

As you want the sine values every 10 degrees you can use the 
counter multiplied by 10. This formula is inserted in cell A3 as io*a2 

Now you have a value for degrees you can refer to it with a SI* 
function in cell A4. Enter the formula sin < A3) into that ceil. 





flBCEFGI JltfiPQSTTOS! +~V> ,( ' *H++ 

324 . 

The object is to fill a table in column B with the sine values at every 


degrees. Somehow you must transmit the calcutated value to 
-ie required slot. Once more you can use the SET function but 
-ogether with the CRD(co/, line) function rather than a specific 
;o-ordinate defined when you first enter the function. 

CRD is another special function that we have not discussed before. 

- can be used anywhere you would use a co-ordinate reference if 
-.Ding directly. The two arguments are calculated to be a column 
2nd row number which are combined to make a ceil reference. 

- A5 enter the expression A4 , set (crd (2 , A2) , A4) . This expression 
•arts with A4, to ensure that it is not calculated until the result of 
■■4 is known. It will get an order of calculation number higher than 
-at for cell A4. 

-e CRD function is of the form CRD(co/umn, line). In this case the 
■ Diumn number Is' 2 which Is column B. The line number is the value 
■ A2 which is 1 at present. The CRD function will therefore become 
-e cell reference in Bl and will behave exactly as if the entry read 
-: T (B1 , A4). As you can see the cell Bl has already been set to the 
3-ue of A4. 

: is a counter and can be made to change in value by using a 
j function. As A2 changes so will the CRD function give different 
eii references, in this way we can fill a column of cells with values 
:-d form a table. 

-e next step is for you to enter the DO - WHILE loop. In A7 enter 
:o(A3..A6), inc(A2), while (A2<10) . A6 has deliberately been 
■" blank for the moment. The sheet will then look like: 

(00(A3,..A6), INC(A2)i WILE[fi2<10)) 



The DO.. WHILE says 'calculate the sine values as set out in c« . 
A3...A5 then add one to the counter and do it again as long as the 
counter is less than 10 - that is between 1 and 9': Press ! to torce o 
recalculation and you will see column B filled with the values of SIN 
at 10 degree intervals again; 


Press E_J to change from the display of results to display 

formulae used: 


<2> 11M21 

<3> (SINLA3)) _ , s 

<4> (fl4# SETf.CRD(2,A2),A4)) 

<5> (D0(fi3,,,fl6), ItC(A2), UHILECAK10)) 


You can add to the sophistication of the display by actually h< 
the degrees presented as well. To do this you must first ir 
another column. With the cell cursor on any cell in column B type 
rTTFT-jlBt.j]|.JH G IZj]. This inserts a new column B that is " 

characters wide and has a default column format of General. 




BBCEFGI JMNOPQSTVUXZ ! +-\/>. ( 'Kt**-» 

With the new column B inserted you can see that the CRD fui 
in cell A5 needs adjusting to refer to column C. This is NOT d 
automatically for you and so you will have to re-enter it or use 
Edit command to change the first 2 to a 3. For the practice let 
do the latter. Type EDas to move quickly to that cell and then 
FlGi to edit it. Move the cue to the right of the first 2 in the It 
and type Q to remove it. Now type 30. As soon as you leave j 


the editor a recalculation is performed- and this time column C is 
filled with the SIN values. 

All that remains is to add another SET function to fill up column B 
with the degree values which are calculated in cell A3: This must 
be in the range of cells executed by the DO function so we will use 
cell A6 which was left blank. In that cell enter 
A4, set (CRD (2, A2) , A3). Once again, the actual SET command 
s preceded by a reference to cell A4 so it is not executed until that 
:eli has been calculated. You could now press ! - this will force a 
-ecalcuiation to give the tables you want: 

'he SET command has one drawback compared to entering all of 
-ne values manually, The Notebook spreadsheet is not always able 
•o allocate order of recalculation numbers to the cells that it itself 
-ias set. The next example will illustrate how this can cause some 
-linor problems. 

•ou are going to use the tables in columns B and C to interpolate 
2 value for 25 degrees. You should enter the INTERP function in the 
allowing form to get the value you want. In cell A9 enter 
:kterp<25, B1...B9)Q 

5ut this does not work as an error message about an ambiguity 
-omes up. This is because you are trying to operate on a 
ralculated table and the spreadsheet cannot resolve just exactly 
wtiat calculation number to give your new entry relative to the 

ou can solve this problem by first putting a reference to the cell 

-Kit created the table. In this case it was the DO function cell, so 

3u have to put A7 before your INTERP function, That is: 

u, interp (25, bi. . .B9)£D. It may not be logically obvious but 

- ,s is a way of telling the spreadsheet that your new function should 
■ave a calculation number greater than that of the DO function, 

- was for this reason that you had to include the reference to A4 
:efore the two SET commands in cells A5 and A6, 


Switch to the display of formula with the Q command and note 
the DO function has a calculation number of 6 and the 1NTERP 
follows it with 7 so the attempt to interpolate is only made once the 
DO function has finished and the ambiguity no longer exists. 



ISM A3)) 




IA4, SET(CRD(3,A2).R4N 








(00(A3,,,H6), INCtffi), WHILE(fl2<ie)) 






If you use the X command you can switch the display back to see 
the result of the interpolation which gives value exactly half way 
between the sine of 20 and the sine of 30 as you would expect. This 
is just a linear interpolation, The actual value of SlN(25) is 0.42262 
but the INTERP value is close. 

Limitations of CRD() 

The CRD function should only be used with INIT, SET, INC and DEC 

to specify the ceil to be acted upon. It cannot be substituted In 
every instance where you would normally specify a cell co-ordinate 
directly - it is only a pointer, not a receiver of data. 

It can not be used to give the value of a ceil if used in ott 
expressions. It cannot be used, for example, in an expression si 
as 2+CRD(1,2) instead of 2+A2. 

There is an automatic function that will do this which is the VAL or 
value function which returns the current value of the cell to which 
it refers. The arguments are formed in the same way as for the CRD 
function. So, for example, if A2 contains 3 the expression 2+VALO ,2) 
will give the answer 5. 

Iterative solutions - using circular references 

As mentioned in the opening sections of this manual mosfl 
spreadsheets will get very confused if you try to enter formulae that 
refer to each other in a circular way e.g. making AT equal to 2*B1 
and Bl equal to 3*A1. 

The Notebook spreadsheet is more broadmlnded about sucn 
things, indeed not only will it let you set up such circular reference* 
but, if correctly done, they can be a powerful problem solving tooL : 


By setting up circular references to problems that are resolvable 

you will see that the spreadsheet makes an estimate about the 
values that belong in the cells in question. 

f you then force repeated recalculations then this estimate moves 
closer and closer to the correct solution until an answer is found, 
'his is known as an iterative method of problem solving. 

Such repeated calculations can profitably be automated using a 
DO WHILE function. 

Consider the next practical example. 

Solving simultaneous equations 

: multaneous equations can be solved easily using the Notebook 
;oreadsheet. The technique applies equally to awkward equations 
,vith the unknown you are seeking on both sides of the equation. 

*he principle is quite simple. You prepare a set of formulae for the 
answers as if all the other variables have known values. They don't 
oecause each formula depends on the results from the others, 
"nese are known as circular references, 

,Vhen the last formula has been entered you force a recalculation 

:nd each formula uses the latest results available. This improves the 
esult that each calculates. Further recalculations bring the 
:alculated results nearer to the true results, This is a powerful 
echnique that is often used for programmed solutions to 
equations. The difference is the formulae you enter are simple in 
;omparison and you are fully in control of the solution. You can 
-/en automate the solution using the DO WHILE functions. 

-ere is an example for two equations and two unknowns, It is trivial 
out that makes it easier to see the principles, 

"he equations are: 

•x + 3y= 19 

. + 7y = 26 

ou enter them onto the sheet using the constant multipliers of x 
:-id y and ignore the values of x and y themselves, i.e. in the form: 





Next : I 






Now you enter the solution formulae. Here you assume that the final 
solution for x will be in A4 and the final solution for y will be in B4. 
You can therefore refer to these cells as if they hold the answers 
you are seeking. First use the calculation to get x in terms of y. This 
is equivalent to manually rearranging the first equation with x on 
the left and everything else on the right. 

x = (19-3y)/5 

Insert this in A4 as <ci-Bl*B4) /ai. 








B4 or y is unknown but refer to it nonetheless. As B4 does not yet 
contain anything it is assumed to be zero so this produces a first 
approximation for x of 3.8. Next you rearrange the second line taj 
terms of the y unknown. 

y = (25 - 2x)/7 

Insert this as (C2-A2*A4) /B2 in cell B4. 


flBCEFG UrlHOPQST VNXZ ! +~V> , t ' itl++ 



Note that A4 or x is used in this equation even though it doesr 
have a true value. The first estimate of 3.8 is used. So these tw< 
equations now rely on the answer from each other. 

Before you go. any further, save the sheet as it is by typ 


FTEDDtaapGII. Next you only have to press the ! key to force a 

recalculation a few times and after about twelve recalculations the 
answers will settle down to the true answers of 2 and 3. 

84 KC2-A 
Gen R6CEF 
next : |" 





You may have found it tedious to have to repeatedly force a 
recalculation. This can be automated, Zap the current sheet and 
at the opening menu select Copy to reload the file called TEMP. 
Now enter the following into cell D4: 

INIT<E4,1) , DO <A4. . .B4) , INC (E4) , WHILE (E4<20) 

This would force 20 iterations to be calculated. As you press £3 the 

loop starts to operate and as cell E4 counts up towards 20 you will 
see the values in A4 and B4 repeatedly change until they settle at 
the final values of 2 and 3. 



Overview of Spreadsheet Functions 
and Re-cap of Tutorials 

This section can be read by all new users of the Notebook 
spreadsheet who have some previous experience of spreadsheets 
as a substitute for the tutorial guide. It is designed to give you a 
quick grounding in the way the Notebook spreadsheet operates 
and to ensure that you understand the philosophy behind the use 
of the various sections of the program, it is not intended to cover 
ail the features of the program but you should be able to obtain 
pointers to where you will find more detailed information. 

We must ask you to be patient during the explanation of what may 

be obvious points. Although much of the Notebook spreadsheet 
will be familiar, and will even use the same command names as 
other programs, you will find some features that go far beyond the 
abilities of any other sheet. It is well worth persevering to be sure 
that you appreciate all of the possibilities. 

The Notebook spreadsheet's Dynamic Data 
Entry and Error Checking features 

The Notebook spreadsheet has a unique system of dynamic 
prompting and error checking that provides you with full details of 
every possible command you can enter at any stage. Commands 
are input as one-letter mnemonics but if space permits, a full 
explanation of all the permissible entries is shown on the prompt line 
as you type, More extensive help can be obtained by pressing the 
[HD key. 

At the same time as you are entering the data the Notebook 
spreadsheet evaluates the results of the commands, as far as they 
have progressed, as you type. Any mistakes that you make will be 
immediately pointed out to you. 

If cell data that has been referred to by an expression is missing 
from the sheet, the calculation is performed assuming a value of 
zero, but you will see a row of question marks appear in the display 
to show where there is some data missing 


time consuming loops in the formula, 

ambS over exactly where a mistake has occurred. 

See the section More Details on Error Messages if you are still unsur 

*hat has gone wrong. 

m nil times the ^ key will take you back to the previous step i 
^L^orocess Mistakes are thus easily corrected. Pressing b 
^take^yCu Sack to the primary command options available. 

->,= «nh, mention to the above situation is when you are using tf 
new data into the cell. 

The spreadsheet and its uses 

3° z and 255 rows Cnd no matter what size you define it no memc 
s used until you start to enter data. 

in how complex the expressions you enter into ^eacr cen ara 

nave to be split into two. 

,Vhen you first start you have two options for setting up a workshe 

» Rv usina the Make sheet command you can instantly set ui 

quSdy try out some numbers and see what happens. 


2) Alternatively, if you want more control of the number and types 
of cells created then you can define all these things individually. 
Before you can enter any data into the spreadsheet you have 
to first define the depth and width of the sheet. The size of the 
sheet is set by using the Insert command to add the required 
numbers of Columns and Lines. The display width of each 
column is also set at this stage, although it can be changed 
again at any time. 

You are also asked to specify a default display format for each 
column that you enter. This will only affect how the data you enter 
is displayed, the values used in calculations will always be the 
values you actually entered. Individual cells can be assigned their 
own formats regardless of the column defaults. 

Each cell is only one character high but the columns can be any 
width between 1 and 67 characters. The New Width command can 
be used to change this at any time, The boundaries are shown on 
the screen by an upright line of vertical bar characters i.e. I . It 
would not be sensible to make a cell wider than 67 characters 
because this is the maximum width of the entry line. 

As well as the number and size of lines and columns you are also 
prompted to specify WHERE you want these inserted. The defined 
sheet always has a rectangular shape. The line and column labeb 
will be adjusted to reflect the new layout and so will any eel 
formulae that refer to specified co-ordinates, 

Lines and columns can be removed from the sheet by the use of 
the Zap command. If you use this, the size of the defined sheet wl 
actually reduce. Line and column labels and cell formulae wil 
again adjust to the new layout, Data that is erased in this way is not 
recoverable. An alternative approach is to use the Blank command 
which removes the contents of a cell but leaves the cell position 
itself in a defined state. Again the data is lost. 

You are not allowed to Zap cell co-ordinates or blocks that w< 
create a 'hole' in the sheet, nor can you remove data in cells 1 
are used by formulae in another cell, However, you are allowed to 
use Blank in any of these situations and in the case of the deleted 
data you will see some question marks to remind you that some : 
data is expected. 


Moving around 

•ou can use cursor keys to move around the sheet you have 
refined. As an alternative use the L,R,U,D keys for left right etc. or 
-e diamond shaped key cluster E3 + W,A,D,Z. 

~e current cursor location is the cell drawn in inverse text. To enter 

-ny data to the current cell you must use the dot command HJ to 
"o into Entry mode. This will enter data using the default column 
■V'mat. If you want to use the default text or numeric format start 
rata entry using " or < respectively. 

Any data, text or numeric, that will be used by the program in its 

■ ovulations or other manipulations must, by necessity, be less than 
"7 characters long, but unless you are loading in a file created 
■^m another source the actual limitation will be the width of the 
■ : -ry line on your screen (67 characters). Note that the data is not 
-stricted by the apparent size of the cell on the screen, which can 
e shortened down to only one character wide. The Notebook 
c-eadsheet will display as much of the information held in that cell 
~ is possible given the limitation of the display and of the display 
V-mat. The true value of the data is used in all calculations 
-gardless of the way it looks in the display, 

. s an exception to the above display rules, text can be entered in 
fading format which means it will all always be visible. If necessary 
• *ni spread other several cells to act as comments on the data 
-at is being displayed. 

-tead of entering data directly, special built in functions CRD and 

-"' can be used to create and fill cells on the basis of a calculation 
• formula. This is a useful feature that can be used to produce 
:oies automatically. An example of table filling is given in one of 

-e tutorials. 

-e third way of creating and filling cells is by use of the COPY 
notion for copying a specified portion of the sheet into a new 

'■-ation. If you choose this option you will be prompted to decide 
-ether or not you want the formulae held in the Cells that have 

•e-en moved to be changed to reflect their new position. 


Types of entry 

Cell entries fall into two broad format categories, text and numeric. 
Each of these can have several sub-categories of display which 
can be freely interchanged, Text and numeric classifications 
cannot be interchanged since the data can only belong to one or 
the other. Text data can, of course, freely contain numbers and 
formulae, for example as an explanatory comment for the 
accompanying data. Even so, it is impossible to change the data 
to a numeric format or calculate with if. 

If a numeric format is chosen each cell can be assigned a 
numerical constant as an entry, for example 3, 9000, 7.88401, or it 
can be given a formula value which calculates the number that 
should be displayed on the basis of the contents of the other cells 
in the sheet or of a calculation of constants. 

The maximum number of decimal places you may use is 38, That is, 
the maximum number you can use in the spreadsheet is 1X10 and 
the smallest number is IxlO" 38 . 15 significant figures is the most that 
can be entered and displayed but internal calculations are done 
to 16 or 17 significant figures. 

As well as entering numbers in normal format, you can use scientific 
notation for entering particularly big or small numbers. For example, 
rather than entering 12,345,000,000 you could be enter it as 
1.2345E+10 or 0.12345E+11. Similarly, 0,0000000765 could be 
entered as 0.765E-7 (or 7.65E-8 or 76.5E-9 or 0.0765E-6 etc.). You 
must type the E in upper case for this to work. 

You can use a special format to ensure that numbers are always 

displayed in an exponential format If you wish. Even in a General 
format ceil, if it holds a large number and its width is reduced the 
display may be changed to exponential format so that the number 

can still be displayed. 

Numeric ceils can hold either constant numeric values or they m< 
hold an expression. Simple examples of valid formulae would be 

3+Bl, 10*(343-A11), B23-C12/D13 

Unless you tell it to do otherwise, by switching off the automatic 
calculation feature, the Notebook spreadsheet will attempt to 
calculate the result of the formula that you type in as it is entered 
so that by the time you finish typing, the correct result, given the 


current status of the sheet, will already be shown in the appropriate 
cell. Blank values in cells referred to in a formula will be taken as 

-"ormulae can also include within them complex functions, either 
ouilt into the program already or those that are defined by you, 
Examples would include: 

3l+SDM(A10. . -A20) 

.Vhich means add the contents of Bl to the sum of all the non-blank 

cells in the range A10 to A20. 


.Vork out the sine of 30 degrees and subtract from It the cosine of 
vhatever value is held in A23. 

- tnese examples SIN, COS and SUM are all built in functions that 
ran be used freely in your calculations. Any cell that is referred to 
'- a formula, such as A23 in the example immediately above, can 
•self contain a value that is dependent on the solution of a formula 

t and ! commands are two useful commands that come into use 
,/nen entering data. If # is typed after a cell co-ordinate when 

Altering an expression then the reference is replaced by the actual 
. alue that is held in the cell at that time. If the value that is held in 
-re cell is later changed it does not affect the expression that has 
ceen entered. 

-e ! command is similar, but it causes the entire expression up to 
~e point where it is typed to be replaced by its current calculated 

• <s possible to switch between the normal spreadsheet display of 
jmbers and text and a display of formutae that go to make_up 
-ese numbers by use of the ED - exchange command. The L=L J 

.ey can be used to temporarily see more lines of the sheet. When 
-8 X command is used it is often necessary to widen the display 
; columns using the NW command. 


Circular References 

It is usually important to avoid circular references such as setting 
ceil Bl equal to 2*A1 and setting Al to 3*B1 for example, a situation 
that is not resolvable unless both cells take a value of zero. 

Some circular references are logically correct and in certain special 
circumstances it is possible and indeed very useful to be able to 
enter a circular reference of some kind for the iterative solving of 
simultaneous equations. An example of a circular reference might 
be to set cell Al equal to 0,5 then set Bl to COSR(Al) followed by 
setting Al to Bl. Then continually press ! to force a recalculation 
until the values settle down to a nearly constant value. You will have 
solved the mathematically very difficult equation: x=cos(x) (in 

A full list of built in functions available is given later in the Expression 
Entry section of the Complete command summary. The expressions 
and formulae you build up using these functions are the processing 
heart of the Notebook spreadsheet. It is these that make it such a 
useful tool. They can handle simple mathematics up to the most 
complex financial or scientific calculations. 

More on formats 

Each piece of data entered onto a worksheet will have an 
associated format that determines how it is displayed on the 


There are about a dozen built in formats that can be used, some 
relating to text and some relating to numerical data. It is possible 
to switch formats as long as the data within a given ceil can 
conform to the new type. For example you can switch a number 
between Integer format, which only displays the whole number) 
part of a value, to a Financial format, which displays data correct 
to two decimal places, 

Data can be assigned to an incorrectly formatted cell if it has been 

loaded in from an existing file onto an existing sheet or by using the 
edit option. However, any attempt at performing a calculation on 
the data will throw up the error. 

As is the case when changing the display width of a cell, changing 
a format will change the way that information is displayed on 


screen but will not alter in any way the actual value of the 

information itself. For example if you have entered the value 2.5345 
into ceil Al which is displayed in integer format (the value 3 is 
actually seen) and you put the expression 2"A1 in cell B2 which is 
also in integer format, which displays the value 5, this would appear 
to give the result that 3*2 = 5. A true integer caiculation can be 
forced by using expression such as INT( ) in the calculation formula. 

Certain of the Notebook spreadsheet's built in functions and 
expressions work on a specified range or column of the data. For 
example, to AVERAGE some of the data you would specify the 
range thus: 

AVERAGE (B1...B10) 

Which means find the average of all non-blank entries between Bl 
and BIO. 

Any blank cells that fall within this range are ignored in the above 

calculation. This saves you from having to create unnecessarily 
complicated expressions In order to encompass all of the data 
required. You can also leave a range of cells blank and only fill in 

the data when the other formulae have Peen entered. 

Careful use of the Format option can help to produce some quite 
sophisticated displays and printouts. Text can be left or right justified 
,n its Cell. There is also a format choice of Carriage Return that can 
oe assigned to individual Cells or ranges. This is a special format 
that is only used to control printout in such a way that address labels 
can be produced. 

The COPY command 

Dne of the most important commands available is Copy, its use 
extends far beyond that of simply copying data from one part of 
•ne sheet to another, it is designed to allow any information to be 
written from any input device to any part of the sheet, or from any 
Dart of the sheet to any output device, or between any two parts 
:f the sheet. It therefore takes the place of both a save and load 
;ommand and of the printing command. As well as saving, loading 
r printing entire files it is also possible to perform operations or 
refined blocks or ranges of the data. 'Blocks' as small as one Cel 
:an be copied to a file in memory or the printer. Once the option 


has been selected you wlti be prompted through all of the- 1 

available choices. 

When copying within the sheet you cannot copy beyond the 
current sheet boundaries. Any data at the destination will be 

overwritten unless another part of the sheet refers to it. The copied 
data takes its own format details with it. 


Unlike other spreadsheet programs which have separate Save and 
Load commands, the Notebook spreadsheet achieves all these 
functions with the ubiquitous Copy command. Saving is achieved 
by specifying "File" as the destination of the copy, Loading Is 
achieved by specifying "File" as the source of the copy. 

When you save data to a file you can specify up to an 8 character 
name. This is then followed by a full stop and either MEM. TXT, DAT 
or DIF. This "extension' determines the format of data written to the 
file. If you don't give an extension, .MEM is added automatically. 

The different file formats are explained in the tutorial and within the 
command reference section. 

If you use the Quit option to leave the Notebook spreadsheet 

without having previously saved your work then the spreadsheet 
automatically makes a copy of the sheet called RESTART.MEM. This 
file should be renamed or resaved as soon as possible so that it is 
not accidentally overwritten. When you next start the spreadsheet. 
you can use the Restart command to quickly reload this file and 
continue where you left off. 


Once again, the Copy command is used to achieve a task tha* 
may be done by a separate command in other spreadsheet 
programs. Worksheets, or a portion of them, can be printed by using 
the Copy to Printer command sequence. Sheets are printed as they ; 
appear in the display but without dividers or system messages. 

Mail labels are a special print option but to use them to their 
advantage will involve inclusion of special columns containing! 
Carriage Return default formats. An example of this is included inj 
the tutorial. 


Database functions 

The worksheet can be searched to find a specific data entry, either 
text or numeric. The search will operate on the true data value or 
expression that has been entered in the ceil NOT the displayed 
data. The command used for this is the Get command. 

Lines of data can be sorted into order, i.e. physically re-arranged 
in the sheet such that the information in the specified column 
ascends or descends. The Sort command is used to do this. 

:t is best to sort either text or numeric data, unpredictable results 
occur if they are mixed. If the data is text then upper case letters 

are treated the same as lower case, numbers rank below letters 
and are treated in a textual way e.g. 7 ranks higher than 66. 

Advanced functions 

Conditionals, Loops and Macros 

"he Notebook spreadsheet includes some features that will be 
; amiliar to anyone who has had experience of high level computer 
anguages such as BASIC. 

"he conditional command sequence IF (logical test) THEN 
expression!) ELSE (expression 2) can be used to build decision 
-naking into the sheet. If the logical test is passed as TRUE the part 
ot the expression after the THEN is calculated. If the test is FALSE 
-nen the ELSE part is calculated. 

An extension of the IF THEN sequence is the DO (range of 
expressions) WHILE (logical test) loop. The expressions in the cells 
sted following the DO is performed at least once, and then 
epeated over and again whilst the logical test is passed as TRUE. 
As soon as the test becomes FALSE, or an error occurs, then the loop 
• stopped. The simplest form of logical test is to set up a counter 
■-iat is increased or decreased with every DO expression, special 
jnctions INIT, INC and DEC help you to do this; when the counter 
eaches a specified value the loop will stop. 

a Macro is a term given to a sequence of commands that you are 
3ble to access with just one command. The * command is used to 
-all a macro. They are most useful when you find that you are 
aerforming a certain sequence of commands over and over again, 


Looping Macros can be defined. I.e. ones which continue to re 
until the task is completed or an error occurs. 

Note that a Macro is a loop of direct commands rather than of 
mathematicai functions such as occurs with a DO WHILE loop. It 
can contain commands such as L for cursor left, or NF for new 
Format, commands that act directly on the sheet and can not be 
made part of an expression. The Macro commands act exactly as 
if you have typed them in at the keyboard. 

Table creating and reading 

Certain functions, (SET, INIT, DEC, INC) exist that will let you set the 

value of data held in another cell. These can be incorporated into 
a DO WHILE loop in order to facilitate the automatic creation and 
filling of tables. 

Other functions exist such as LOOKUP and INTERP which are 
designed to automate the process or consulting tables in order to 
extract data. 

Date and Time Functions. 

The Notebook spreadsheet will let you input date and time 

functions into the sheet. The spreadsheet gets the correct date and 
time from the Notebook's own clock so you must ensure it is set 
correctly if you use these functions. It is possible to build these 
functions into formula expressions, logical tests, loops and macros 
such that the program will adjust its output dependent on time. 

Graphics options 

A range of graph and chart designs can be created through 
spreadsheet's Trace graph command. Special functions exist to 1 
signal to the spreadsheet which type of graph you want to display j 
and to inform the program of which data ranges are to be plotted} 

together with labels and axis scales etc. 


Command Reference Guide 

Expression entry 

An expression is rather like a mathematical formula that can be 
entered into a given cell. The formula normally remains invisible bir 
the Notebook spreadsheet will work out the resulting solution anc 
display that in the ceil when it is on screen. 

An expression is typed in on the edit line (after Next:) and or 
completion is inserted into the memory together with an order o' 
calculation number. On completion, the memory remaining is alsc 
calculated and displayed and if automatic calculation is switchec 
on, the worksheet is recalculated. 

As you type the value of the expression will be worked out anc 
displayed in the target cell, but the expression itself will b€ 
displayed inside brackets on the cell contents line at the top. 

Evaluation of expressions 

Expressions may contain functions, co-ordinate references 
numbers, arithmetic operators, logical operators and specia 
purpose operators. Expressions are evaluated according the rule; 
of normal algebra. 

As in algebra all operators are given an importance whicr 
determines the order in which the various parts of the expressior 
are calculated. This order of importance is over-ridden b\ 
parentheses, each set of which is evaluated as if it were a self 
contained expression. The innermost set of parentheses i: 
calculated first and then the next innermost and so on workinc 

in order to multiply two sets of parentheses, an asterisk symbol mus 
be put between them, this is the computing convention for c 
multiply sign. You cannot have (2+5X3+7) to multiply the twc 
expressions; instead you must put (2+5)*(3+7). 


The operators within the expression or set of parentheses are 
calculated in the following order: 


+n, -n 

unary plus and minus 



nl A n2 

raise nl to the power of n2 

nl*n2, nl/n2 

multiplication and division 

nl+n2, nl-n2 

addition and subtraction 

nl>n2, nl<n2, 

ni=n2 greater than' and Mess than' 

and 'equal' 

nl]n2, nlfn2 

greater than or equal' and 

'less than or equal' 

not (nl) 


If an exclamation mark is encountered on the entry line then the 
value of the expression to that point is determined and replaces 
the whole of the expression on the edit line. 

if, for example, you have typed an expression such as 2*bi+20 the 
resulting value displayed In the cell will change if the entry that is 
held in Bl ever changes. By inserting an exclamation mark thus 
2*Bi!+20 the expression is calculated using the value that is held 
in Bl at that time. The resulting entry is therefore constant and no 
longer dependent on Bl. 

Alternatively, you could use the hash symbol # after the Bl and jusf 
the value of Bl would be replaced in the expression. By using 2*bi# 
you would get 2*1.17 on the edit line if cell Bl contained 1.17. 

The ! should be used with caution as indeterminate results may 
occur if, for example, it is used from within a function. 

Building expressions 

The valid parts of an expression are as follows: numbere? 
co-ordinates, operators, conditionals, functions and user defined 

Numbers can be either be entered as normal digits or can b»| 
entered in exponential, scientific format. You could, for example. \ 
either enter 274529000 or 2.74529E8 (or 0.274529E9 or 27.4529E7 
etc). You can enter up to 15 significant digits. Internal calculations 
are performed to 16 or 17 significant figures. The range of number* 
you may use is from 1E-38 to 1E+38. That is from 


.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,01 up to 10,000,0- 

Co-ordinates are references to other cells in the sheet and consist 
of a letter A..Z or a..z which identifies the column, followed by a 1 
to 3 digit line number. It is very important to get the case of the 
column letter correct. The first 26 columns are capital A.. capital Z, 
The next 26 columns are lower case a.. lower case z, 

Operators, listed below, are the normal mathematical symbols such 
as ■+■, •'.", etc. Most are used in the form "expression" operator 

A conditional is like an operator but is used to build an expression 

that evaluates to an answer of TRUE or FALSE (these are actually 
represented by the numeric values -1 and 0). Conditionals are 
normally used with the IF() or WHILE0 functions. You might, for 
example, have IF(A1>7)... which means "if the value in cell Al is 
greater than 7 do the THENO part of the expression.". In this case 
the ">" is the conditional operator. . 

Functions comprise a named operation with its required 

parameters in brackets and where there are more than one, these 
parameters must be separated by commas. There are three types 
of function, those whose arguments have multiple parameters, 
those which have single parameters and those which have no 

oara meters at all. 

,Vhen an apparent function name is encountered it is checked 
against the list of built in functions. Functions may call other 
'unctions in their parameters. Indeed a function may even call itself 
amongst the parameters. 

•'ou can have a function as a parameter to a function as a 
aarameter to a function... etc. However, there is a limit to the 
amount of "nesting" you can use. All you need to know is that if the 
nesting has become too great (i.e. if there are too many levels of 
arackets in your expression) an error message will come up and it 
A/ill only be necessary to rearrange the expression so that it is 
placed into two entries rather than one. 

A user-defined function acts just like one of the built in functions but 
~iakes use of a formula that you have entered onto the sheet and 
s called by giving the reference to the cell containing the formula 
-a use with any parameters listed in brackets after It. 


Expressions are evaluated as you enter them, not on completion. 
This means that you have dynamic error checking character by 
character, if you enter a wrong character you will get an 
immediate error message. To correct an error, backspace with the 
FH key and then enter a new character. 

Note that it is impossible for the Notebook spreadsheet to check 
for errors that are 'legal' in the context of the program but are not 
the correct expression that you intended to enter. For example, it 
you enter A 1+3 when you really meant to type A3+1 no error can 
be detected because the spreadsheet thinks A 1+3 is a valid 

If you are entering a complex expression such as a DO-WHIu£ 
formula then the calculation character by character can get 
bogged down. This is because it will be trying to do the whole DO 
loop as you enter the instructions. In this case first switch off the 
automatic calculation. This is done with the Automatic Calculation 

The valid operators in an expression 

Arithmetic Operators 

+ Addition 

- Subtraction 

* Multiplication 

/ Division 

a Exponentiation (raising to a power) 

% Percentage 

Logical Operators 

Logical Operators act on arithmetic values or expressions (A and 
below) and produce a result of TRUE (-1) if the condition is met 
FALSE (0) if it is not. 


= Equal 

Greater than 
Less than 

(A = B) 

Greater than or equal (A ] B) 

Less than or equal (A [ B) 

Not equal (A I B) 

(the i symbol is typed with El 


Built in functions ni tliudlo 

The following pages contain a list of all the functions recognised by 
the Notebook spreadsheet. They are given in alphabetic order. The 
following are one or two notes about some of the specific types of 

Trigonometric functions 


There is no restriction on the size passed to these functions as 2*Pi 
or 360 degrees will be repeatedly subtracted until X is within range. 
X may be negative. 


'he value passed to these functions must be between -1 and 1 

Logical Functions 

ou can enter the functions FALSE or TRUE where a logical 
expression is expected. FALSE will result in a conditional test failing 
.vhile TRUE will make it succeed. The actual display in a cell holding 
~ie FALSE or TRUE function will be or -1 respectively. 

.ogical functions analyse a list of logical values or expressions 
given as X, Y, Z below) and return a value of TRUE or FALSE as 
refined above. In practice each expression or value is tested to 
ee if it is -1 or 0. If it is -1 it is taken as TRUE, if it is it Is taken as 

: ALSE. 

Date and Time functions 

lere a "date" is called for or returned by a function it Is an 
<pression of a particular date as a single number made up as 
.-■lows - ddmm.yyyy. The dd part is 1 or 2 digits that specify the 
■ ^te (1 ..3 1), the mm part must always be given or read as two digits 
; ving the number of the month (1..12). For months 1..9 it is 01. .09. 
~e yyyy part Is the year and is always four digits. 


Alphabetic list of built in functions 


The absolute value of Xis returned, It is defined as the numerical 
value of Xwith a positive sign. 

ABS(-2.345) =2.345 
ABS(2.345) =2.345 

ACOS(V) "Tl 



These functions determine the angles in degrees whose cosine, sine 
or tangent respectively is given by Y. The result is given In the range 
-90 degs to 90 degs. 




These functions determine the angles in radians whose cosine, sine 
or tangent respectively is given by Y. The result is given in the rang* 
-PI/2 to PI/2. 

AND(X, Y, Z.) 

X, Y. Z are in turn checked for truth. If they are all TRUE then the 
function returns a value of TRUE (-1). 



The average of the non blank values In the list Is calculated. 

AVERAGE (3, 4, 5) ■ 4 


Sets off a bleep. Use it as an audible signal. Can be useful to] 
indicate that a recalculation is complete. Arrange for it to have th»| 
highest order of calculation number by including a reference to th»| 
last result calculated in the cell that contains BLEEP, 


For example; " ; ' 

B9, HT.RgP 

CHOOSER lisi) 

The nearest integer value to N is found and the Nth item in the list 
is returned. 

CHOOSE (3, 5,6,7,8,9) = 7 

COMB(/V, R) 

The number of ways of combining R items from a total of N is 

COMB (8, 3) = 56 



Returns the cosine of X where Xis in degrees for COS and in radians 

for COSR. 

COS (45) = 0.707106781186548 


The list is checked for the number of values that are not blank. 

O0UNT(2,3,4,B5) = 3 cell B5 is blank. 

CRD (column, line) 

Can be used in some functions where a co-ordinate is expected, 

The column must, however, be expressed in a numerical form (A=l, 
Z=26 etc.). This function is useful in filling up tables from DO 

SET (CRD (3, 7), 10) sets cell C7 to the value 10 


Returns the date in the form of a single number, for example 

312.1987 - being the 3rd December 1987 


DATEAFTER(dafe, days) 

Gives the date that will be the number of days specified after the 

input date. Be careful to put months 1 to 9 as 01 to 09. 

DATEAFTER (1308. 1992, 50) =210.1992 .. 

50 days after 13th August 1992 is 2nd October 1992 


Gets the current day of the month from the Notebook's internal 
clock, The result will be a number between 1 and 31. 


Returns the day of week as a number. Saturday has a value 0. 

Sunday 1 , Monday 2 etc. 

DAYOFWK (1308. 1992) = 5 ■ Thursday 

DAYOFWK (DATE) = 3 if date is 904.1963 

= Tuesday 9th April 1963 ^1 



Returns the number of days between January 1st and the giveqj 
date. In this case, the date does not need to include a year but < 
remember that leap years include an extra day. 

DAYOFYR<904) = 99 9th of April is 99th day of the year 

DAYSAPART( date J, date2> 

Gives the number of days between any two specified dates. 

DAYSAP ART (904.1993, 2512.1993) = 260 


Returns the value of X minus 1 . This is also intended for DO-WHILE ' 
iterations, primarily to act as a counter. This is a command function 
that will change the value held in the cell specified. 

INIT(B1,10), D0(A1...A4), DEC(Bl), WHILE (Bl>0) 



Does nothing until n seconds have elapsed. It may be a cell 
reference or a value. For practical reasons make it a cell reference 
with a value until you actually want to run you application. 


Allows subroutines, looping ana iteration on the specified range. If 

iteration or looping is required the line will need to be terminated 
with a WHILE function. 


Takes the value of the decimal part of X, that is the part after the 
decimal point. Be warned that this function loses one significant 
figure for each figure that was previously before the decimal point, 
if you get unexpected results consider this. 

DPART(5.78) =0.78 
DPART(-3.45) = -0.45 


Gives the exponential constant e - the base of natural logarithms. 

e=2. 7182818284905 


A special function that if encountered in a calculation will bring up 
a message that an error has been called from that cell. Usually used 
n a check that values entered are in a permissible range. 

IF (A1=0), THEN (ERROR), ELSE{3/A1) 
prevents an attempt to divide by 


-aises the constant e to the power in the bracket following, A 
:neck is made to ensure that the exponent Is not too great. This 
lives the natural anti-logarithm, Natural logarithms are calculated 
'sing LN(). 

EXP<3. 14159265358979) = 23.1406926327793 



Works out the factorial of X. if Xis not an integer it is rounded up or 
down to the next nearest integer before the factorial is calculated. 

FACT (5. 2) = 5*4*3*2*1 = 120 


Takes a value of FALSE (0). This may be used in logical expressions. 

GROW< value, percentage) 

Will increase a value by a percentage, The percentage can be 


GROW (300, 5) =315 ' 


Uses the Notebook's Internal clock to give the current hour as a 1 

number between and 23. 

\f (logic expr), THEN<expr ?), ELSE<expr 2) 

This group is used to build decision making into the worksheet. The 
logical expression is analysed and if TRUE, THEN expression 1 is used 
to get the value for the cell. If the logical expression is FALSE then 
the ELSE expression 2 is used instead. The expressions themselves 
can be further IF... sequences building up extremely complex 
decision making sequences. 


Reads an 8 bit port given by the number or cell reference 'porfj 
Only included for compatibility with other versions of the Cracker 
spreadsheet, Its use on the Notebook should be avoided at all cost. 


Returns the value of X plus 1. It is general purpose but is mainly 
included for convenience in creating loops. It is a command 
function that will update the value held in the cell specified. 

INC (2. 345) ■ 3.345 

INC (A3) will add one to whatever is held in A3 and th«« 

write it back. 


[NIT(crd, vol) 

Will initialise a cell within a specified value, The cell containing this 
function will have a low recalculation number. The function is used 
for setting up loops and iterations. It is very similar to the SET function 
except that it is guaranteed a low recalculation number. 

INIT<B7, 10) will »«t cell B7 to contain the value 10. 


Takes the value of the integer part of X, that is the part before the 
decimal point, with the sign retained. 

NOTE: this definition may not be the same as that to which you are 
used if you are familiar with some computer languages such as 
BASIC. The function NINTO behaves more like you might expect. 

IKT(5.78) = 5 
IKT(~3.45) - -3 

1NTERP(/V, range) 

Compares N with each value in the rang© to find the two values 

Detween which N lies. The two values from the adjacent line or 

column (to the right or below) are then interpolated to give the 
final value, The interpolation is done by taking the proportionate 
distance that N lies between the first two values and applying it to 
•he adjacent values. 


Determines the natural logarithm to the base e of the value in 
orackets. The routine will check for negative or zero arguments 
A'hich are not allowable. 

LH(10) = 2.30253509299405 and EXP (2. 302585. .. ) ■ 10 


Determines the logarithm to the base 10 of the value in brackets, 

^OG10(1234) =3.09131515969722 (and 10 A 3. 09131. . . =1234) 



LOOKUP(/V, range) 

N is compared with each value in the range to find the first one it 
is greater than. The value from the adjacent line or column (below 
or to the right) is then returned, 


A graphics function explained in the description of the Trace 
command and Tutorial XV, ; , 


The list is scanned and the maximum non blank value returned. 

MAX(2, 7, 3) = 7 


The minimum non blank value in the list is returned, 

MIN<2, 7, 3) « 2 






Reads the Notebook's clock and returns the current minute as a 
number between and 59. 


Reads the Notebook's clock and returns the current month as a 
number between 1 and 12. 


The nearest integer value to X Is found, 

NINT(2.23) = 2 
NINT<5.67) = 6 
NlNT(-3.45) = -3 


The truth of X is checked and the opposite is returned as the 
function value. If the value of X is TRUE then FALSE (0) is returned. * , 
the value is FALSE then TRUE(-l) is returned. 


N0T<3>5) = TRUE 


Calculates the present value of the cash flow list using the discount 
% as specified. See tutorial for example. 

OR<X. Y,Z.) 

X, Y, Z. are in turn checked for truth. If any of them are TRUE then 
the function returns a value of TRUE (-1) 

OR (TRUE, FALSE, FALSE) = TRUE one item is TRUE 
OR(FALSE, 35, 7) = FALSE as none is TRUE 

OUTtporf, value) 

Outputs a value given by a number or cell reference to the port 
given by a number or ceil reference. This should not be confused 
with the OUT command which sends characters specifically to the 


NOTE: This function is only included for compatibility with other 
versions of the Cracker spreadsheet. Its use on the NotePook is to 
De avoided at all costs as it will almost certainly crash the computer 
and the only recourse will be to switch on holding down the 
p^3H and F"J keys. Ail data In the NotePook will then be lost. 


Finds the number of ways of permuting R items from a total Of N. 

PERM (5, 3) = 60 


Returns the value of the constant PI - the ratio of a circle's 

circumference to its diameter. 

PI = 3.14159265358979 

POS(>0 „ _ 

Sives the value of the argument if it is positive. If it is negative then 

* returns a value of 0. 

POS (2.345) =2.345 
POS (-2.345) = 



An Integer random number between and 127 is found. This 
number is taken from the Z80 refresh counter. A new value is 
returned each time the function is recalculated. 

RND = 23 
RND = 120 

RND = 3 


Takes the value of X rounded to two decimal places. It is of use in 
financial calculations to avoid cumulative errors caused by 
including fractions of a penny (cent etc.). The rounded value is not 
just displayed; it is also the value stored in the internal memory. 

ROUND (1357. 5679) - 1357.57 


The Notebook's clock Is read and the current second is returned at 
a number between and 59. 

SET<crd, value) 

Will set a cell to a particular value. The cell must initially be e'rtt 
blank or a constant, A formula will not be over-written, Thh 
command function is usually used with the DO function to fill up a 

table with values. 

SIMPRULE(sfep, range) , 

Works out the numerical integration of the range by Simpson's rulejj 
The first parameter is the step length. Range holds the values fc ' 
integration. The range must be an odd number of value*] 
consecutively. The latter parts of the range can be blank and thes^ I 
will be ignored. This makes flexibility in setting up worksheet! 
possible. An example is included in the tutorial. 


Determine the sine of angle X, where X is in degrees. 

SIN(45) = 0.707106781186548 



Calculate the sine of angle X, where X is in radians. 

SINR(PI/4) - 0.707106781186548 


Determines the square root of X. 

SQRT(2) = 1.4142135623731 


Looks through the list and works out the standard deviation. 


A graphics function explained in the description of the Trace 
command and in Tutorial XV. 


Will add up the non blank values in a list and will return the total. 

SOM(2, 3, 4) = 9 

SOM(-3, 4, 5, A4) = 4 if cell A4 contain -2 

SUMIF<crdJ, crd2..crd3) 

This is a conditional adding up function. Only those Items in the 
range crd2...crd3 will be included that correspond to a cell entry 
in the column specified by crdl and are on the same line, 

A B 











SUMIF(A1, B1...B4) gives 69.12 
S0M(B1...B4) gives 438.13 

NOTE: crdl can point to any cell in the column but must not point 

•d a cell with a text entry in it or you will get an error message. 



Determine the tangent of angle X, where X is in degrees. X=90 or 
-90 will give an error as the result is infinite. 


Calculate the tangent of angle X, where X is in radians. X=PI/2 or 
X=-PI/2 will give an error as the result is infinite. 


Reads the Notebook's clock and returns the time in the form of a 
single number, for example 1 503,23 being 3 minutes and 23 seconds 
past 3 in the afternoon. 

TIMELABEL(crd. . . crcf) *1 

A graphics function explained in the description of the Trace 
command and Tutorial XV. 


Returns the elapsed time since the ZEROT1ME function was las: 
operative. This is in seconds, 


Returns a value of TRUE, that is -1. May be used in logh 



A graphics function explained in the description of the Trace 

command and Tutorial XV. 

VAL(co/umn, line) 
Gives the numerical value of the cell specified by the twdl 
parameters. The co-ordinates are defined in the same way as for 
the CRD function. 

VAI-(8, 3) = 7 if cell H3 contains 7 



Looks through the list and works out the variance. The variance is 

the standard deviation squared. 


Must be used together with a DO function. The expression must be 
logical and if TRUE the line will be recalculated from the start of the 
DO on that line. If FALSE the WHILE will do nothing. 

XLABEKcrd.crd), or XLABEL(crd, crd, crd, etc.) 




XVALUE(a crd. ..crd) 

These are graphics functions explained in the description of the 

Trace command and Tutorial XV. 


Reads the Notebook's clock and gives the current year as a four 

digit number. 




YVALUE(n, crdcrd) 

These are graphics functions explained in the description of the 

Trace command and Tutorial XV. 


Resets the elapsed time counter. Probably best included in an IF 
THEN, ELSE entry and used with TIMELAPSE, 


Text entry 

If you use the . command and the column was created with a 
default format set at Text, or use the (^-Format command and 
choose a Text format, or use the Global Format form of entry with 
the " command, then you will be set up for entering text. A marker 
wilt be put on the edit line to show the current column width, but 
you are free to over-write this with a longer entry. The marker just 
shows how much of the entry will display in the cell with its current 
width setting. 

The prompt Enter characters will come up. Any number or 
character may be inserted and if a mistake is made the a key 
may be used to go back and correct errors. If the entry has been 
completed and you want to move to an adjacent cell and insert 
information there, then you can use the arrow keys instead of the 
H key. This does, of course, mean that you cannot move back 
and forth along the line you are entering using the arrow keys, If 
you notice an error towards the start of the line finish entry and then 
use the Edit command to make the necessary amendments. 


Complete command reference 

FH - Automatic calculation command 


Automatic calculation on/off 

'■ calculation 

On /Off 

Automatic calculation, or perhaps it should be called automatic 
recalculation, is the feature by which as you enter any new data 
or formulae, or replace existing data by something new, the 
Notebook spreadsheet automatically updates the displayed 
worksheet in order to fully reflect these changes. 

When you first start automatic calculation is switched on. You can 
turn off the automatic calculation by typing an £J followed by EH. 
Similarly, a second entry of Q followed by (V=D will turn it on again, 

As you get more experienced with the program you will probably 
find it useful to switch off the calculation process while entering 
iong or complex formulae or perhaps large tables of data. The few 
seconds taken up each time to calculate and display the results 
can slow down the overall entry process. 

When you switch on the automatic calculation again a full 
-ecalculation will immediately be carried out. If you wish to leave 
-he automatic calculation off permanently then you can use the 
! - Force recalculation command to force a recalculation at any 
ime you would like it. 

Automatic calculation proceeds as you type when you are 
entering new data or formulae. This is an important part of the 
Notebook spreadsheet's error catching features. As soon as a 
calculation or command has been entered that the spreadsheet 
cannot deal with the calculation will stop and you will know exactly 
.vhere the mistake lies. 


The only exception to the above rule is when you are using the Edit 
command to make small changes to existing entries. In this case 
calculation is suppressed until the editing session is completed or 
you would find that as soon as you delete a certain part of a 
formula it is probable that an error would be found, The Notebook 
spreadsheet therefore automatically turns off the calculation until 
the editing is finished, at which time a full update of the sheet is 

New users of the sheet may find It preferable to avoid using the EDIT 
function and simply delete and re-enter any formulae that you wish 
to change. You are then assured of the benefits of error checking 
and the command line prompts. 




(ID - Blank command 


All, Entry, Block, Una, Column, 0-9 





crd...crd J 



Yes, No 

*} E-J 

Whole sheet 
is blanked 

No action 

Current celt entry 
is blanked 

c , 



Block of cells between 
coordinate I (top left) and 
coordinate! (bottom right) 
are blanked 


One or more hoes 
are blanked 

One or more columns 
are blanked 

Blank removes the specified entries from memory but does not 

affect the structure of the worksheet. Blanked entries cannot be 
retrieved so if in doubt you should first copy the unaltered 
worksheet to a ,MEM file before starting on complex 

Before the blanking is carried out the program will check whether 
any of the items to be blanked are referred to elsewhere in the 

worksheet, if cross-references are found the command will stop and 
warn you. You may then choose to blank the cell even though 
•here is a reference to it. The formula that refers to the cell that is 
olanked will then assume that the cell now contains zero and line 
d1 question marks will appear in the blanked cell to show that 
another cell relies on its value. 


CD - Copy command 


F*» M. £*¥. Hoc*, un*. COWn O* 

nu9U*eocr j 

3 . £ 

» c-m™ 

Fit. Prill «■>** 





.', vwymvtl ■ 

£/*. Up. DoWn. I* 1 - "tK ""jw*. An*. J 



Br*** iMMUMtl.VOuptf 


1 — J — I 

L } * 

fc «■ caw jtJ 

The COPY command Is used to transfer copies of sections of the 
worksheet or entire files to other locations, other files or the printer. 
There are restrictions with just what can be transferred to where but 
even so this is a most useful command. 

Copying within the worksheet 

You have three options, Firstly you can make a single copy of anl 
entry, line, or column to somewhere else in the sheet. Secondly you 
can copy several lines or columns in a single command to a new 
area. Thirdly you can copy one entry, line or column several times. 

When you type [ h 1 to start the copy command you can then type 
a number followed by f 1 or FT) to say how many lines or colur 

you would like to copy. 

if you are just copying a single line, column or entry, you may ' 
type a number to say how many copies of it you would like, 

Generally when making a copy you will be asked if you want 
adjust the references. This means that if you are copying a line, alj 
references to other locations on that line will be changed to the] 
destination line. This preserves the sense of the calculations ale 


a line. The same applies to adjusting references down a column 
and, by extension, in a block. 

If the formulae do not appear to be adjusted as you would wish 
you may be trying to copy something so that the copied items are 
all at an offset to some other item, in this instance follow the offset 
cell reference in the formula with a quote, ' . This is often known 

as a "lagged" variable or a "relative reference". For example, a 
formula may be: 


Copying to a printer 

Copy also performs the role of a Print command and can be used 

to produce hard copy of specified data from the sheet, ranging 
from a single entry, lines, columns, blocks and the entire sheet. The 
printout of course reproduces the data as shown in the current 
display format and using current column widths etc. 

Copying formulae to the printer 

It is often useful to be able to print out a copy of the rules or 

formulae that underlie the worksheet display. To do this you must 
make the formula Visible' by using the Q -exchange command. 
Next adjust the column widths, using QEH, so that they can be 
seen fully and finally copy the area in which you are interested to 
the printer. 

Areas larger than the displayed screen can, of course, be printed. 

When printing out large worksheets you may often wish to fit as 

much information as possible on each sheet of paper. It is possible 
to switch to condensed print, if your printer is capable of it, by using 
the OUT command to send the appropriate codes. This is discussed 
in Tutorial X, 

Preparing mail labels 

T-iis command will prepare printed mail labels. The addresses will 
jsually be on a single line in the worksheet so you will have to insert 
markers where you require each new line to begin. This is done by 

iserting an extra column at the end of each address line which is 
given a format of Carriage Return. Remember to put in a carriage 
eturn column at the end of the address. You will get confused 


results if you leave it out. You will need to adjust the column widths 

to correctly align the addresses onto the tops of the labels. A more 
detailed explanation is given in the tutorial guide. 

Copying from files into the sheet 

If you are already working on a sheet and then select the Copy File 
command to load In an existing sheet it may be put into any 
specified blank area of the worksheet or be placed as an addition 
at the end of the sheet. This command allows very flexible file 

The file to be read may either be in the format of a ,MEM file or be 

a .DAT, .DIF or .TXT file. The program will check that the area to 
which the file is to be copied is vacant and is large enough to hold 
the data and if not you will just see the message Not enough 
space. Each file will be first read to determine its structure and then 
read for a second time to extract the data itself, 

Each filename extension signifies to the Notebook spreadsheet that 
it should expect a certain type of information that is held in a 
certain form. The rules are as follows: 

DIF format files are often used by graph plotting programs and 

many other spreadsheet programs can read and write data in the 
DIF format, However, only numerical values are saved/loaded in this 
way. The formulae used to create the results are not saved in this 
format of file. If you are trying to read DIF format files from another 
program you may need to rename the file to have the .DIF 
extension because the Notebook spreadsheet will not otherwise 
recognise it even though it has the correct format. Numbers wilt 
come in formatted to be General and text to be Text Left Justified. 

To bring in data from a word processor or screen editor a file must 
have a TXT extension. The Notebook spreadsheet can read both 
normal ASCII text files and most Document files created by word 
processors. These are converted to normal text files as they are 
read in. (Document files differ from standard text in that they 
contain certain, normally invisible, control codes that are used by 
the word processor to include bold/italic etc. and to ensure that 
the right hand edge lines up etc.) 

The data text should be laid out in tabular form. It is possible to bring 
in the numbers as values that the spreadsheet can use 




calculations. The requirements are that you set up the column 
widths so that each column in the worksheet coincides with one 
column on the incoming file. The way to visualise the operation is 
to picture the text coming in as being laid directly on the top of 
the worksheet as it currently is. Wherever it lands the spreadsheet 
will try to interpret it sensibly. Remember that the column divider will 
count as a space, 

You must also set the default formats for the columns to be suitable 
for the incoming file. Be careful that stray items of text in a number 
column cannot be sensibly calculated and so will stop the 
operation (without harm). To get round this problem try starting with 
all the default formats set to Text Left and check that everything 
looks suitable. If necessary delete items that would cause a 
problem, Then copy the loaded file back out to another .TXT file, 
(of course if there are no problem cells then there is no need to 
create a second TXT file, you can just reload the first one). Blank 
All and set the default formats to the final form using the c-Jr J 
command and finally read in the second ,TXT file. It's easier than it 
will seem on reading this. 

Files with the extension of DAT are expected to contain just 
numbers. The files can be created with a word processor or other 
editor (including document files) or as the result of formatted 
output from a program written in BASIC or FORTRAN. 

Files with the extension of MEM are intended purely for use from 
within the Notebook spreadsheet itself. They contain ail the 
information for the program to be able to exactly reproduce the 
layout and display of the saved file. This is the normal type of file 
you use to save and load sheets on a day to day basis, You don't 
have to put the ",MEM" on the end of a name. It is added for you 
automatically if you don't use one of the other three extensions, 

Copying to files 

You can use the Copy command to copy the contents of the 
spreadsheet display to a file In memory. You can choose to save it 
as a .MEM file if it is to be reloaded into the spreadsheet. 
Alternatively, you can save to TXT, DAT or DIF files for use in other 
orograms on different computers. 

There are two types of Text file that can be read by other programs. 
The first with the extension .DAT will only copy numbers as they 


appear on the screen to the file. The second with the extension ,TXT 
will copy both numbers and also any text, titles and headings, as 
laid out on the screen. Both will copy any part of the worksheet. If 
you arrange your .DAT file correctly before saving you should be 
able to read it from a BASIC program if you want to do further 

Status lines and column dividers are not saved in such files, 

To copy to a file for reading by other spreadsheets or graphics 
packages just give your file the extension .DIF for Data Interchange 
Format. Do your copying in the normal way and the program will 
make whatever adjustments necessary. 


Cross reference checking 

A section of the sheet cannot be deleted or blanked If there are 
other parts of the sheet which depend upon values that are about 
to be deleted. Similarly, if a section of memory is to be written to a 
.MEM file, it must not make references outside its own area. That 
section must be able to stand on its own so that filed sections to 
be merged in do not interfere with the running of the worksheet. In 
this way the dynamic error checking is maintained at all times. If 
you have trouble in erasing by line or column, go back to the Blank 
Entry command sequence and remove the entries one by one in 
the reverse order of their calculation numbers. 



(ED - Edit command 




Edit contents 
of current cell 

Entering the edit mode 

You can edit the contents of any occupied cell. While editing, the 
automatic calculation feature will be switched off, so you may 

make errors in what you are typing without being warned. However, 
on completion of the editing a full recalculation will be carried out. 
You will then be warned of any errors, which is in direct contrast to 
what happens when you insert an expression for the first time. You 
•nay find it easier to overwrite expression entries rather than edit 
them, although no real harm can be done either way, 

if an error is found when the recalculation is attempted thepgrt 
that is in error will be displayed. At this point you may press MtU 
to re-edit the line. You can correct the line at this stage by using 
the Q key to remove characters. Then make insertions that are 
necessary and finish off with a U^J. 

The Edit command is entered by typing PH followed by G3 after 
which the contents of the current cursor cell will be displayed on 
the edit line and the cue will be located at the start of the line. 

You can use the u&3 and E^l keys to move along the line. The two 

delete keys can be used to delete characters to the left of, or 
jnder the cue. Pressing £D will exit from the Edit mode and the 
amended line will be placed into the relevant worksheet cell. If Q 
s pressed while editing, any changes are lost and the original cell 

;ontents are left unchanged. 


ED - Exchange command 

exchange rules/results 

The display is switched 

between showing ihe results of 

the cafculat ions and the formulae 

that lead 10 those results 

The ©Xchange command is entered by typing an Q followed by 
a Q7), ^e effect of this command is to change the display in the 
cells from the numerical results to the rules or formulae from which 
they are calculated, it wili usually be necessary to change the 
column width with the New Width command sequence. Go back 
to display of the answers by typing Q once more. 

Together with the formulae each expression ceil is displayed with 
its order of calculation number in angle brackets followed by its 
formula. If ED is pressed after the display has changed, the free 
memory figure will also change to show the amount of index table 
space that remains. When (LJ is used to switch back to the normal 
display, the free memory figure will, once again, show how much a 
space remains for cell data. 


□ - Format command 



0-B. C*n. CwnM< HMdr» M**0* Tait PM 

0-9. MdmH. Exponent fmoKm 




n a 

[*rc*i Decimal s^ngs&oowrt p(*cw «MtM Finance Oo*g* r**«T» Gewal H**d»a K^ge* mt*o»*«s tytfrmea 




You use the O - Format command when you want to start typing 
data into a ceil but first want to specify a special format for the cell 
rather than accept any of the default formats. Before you are 
asked to enter the data you will be asked what format you would 
like to give the data in this cell. 

When entering data there are three types of format that could be 
applied. The first is the default column format (the one you gave 
when the column was first inserted). If you started the sheet using 
the GD-Make sheet option then all columns have a default column 
format of type General. If you start entering data by pressing EJ 
then the data you enter will be given this default column format. 

The second format that may be used is the Global format. Any data 
you enter will be given this format if the entry is started by using 
either the < or the " command C may be used in place of ••)■ 

Actually there are two global formats, one for text and one for 
expressions and numeric values, On start-up the text one is set to 

Text Left Justified and the value/expression one is set to General. 
You can change these formats to a variety of options using the New 
Global command. 

The third format that a piece of data may have is that given by 
using the L r , - Format command. 

The various formats that may be applied to a piece of data have 
no effect on the way an entry is stored in memory, only on the way 
* is displayed, 


Once specified the format will stay with an entry even if moved 

copied to a new position. This is because it is a piece of data that 
has a format and not a ceil location. 

Internally, the numbers are stored in a binary floating point format. 
It is not important to understand the details of the internal floating 
point number merely to know that it will ensure accurate 
calculations with up to 15 significant figures. Generally you would 
not want to display all the available accuracy so the program 
allows you to define just how many decimal places you want to 

If you do not really know how many decimal places you can ask- 

the spreadsheet for the vague format definition called General 
Format. It will display the number in a similar fashion to that of 
scientific pocket calculators. Thus if the number fits into the space 
available in its entirety then it will be shown in full. If it is too large 
or too small then it is converted into the Exponent form (see below). 
This format will make sure that whatever the result of a calculation 
the result will be displayable. 

The maximum number of decimal places is 38. 15 significant figures 
is the most that can be entered or displayed but internal 
calculations are done to 16 or 17 significant figures. 

Format types 

The format options you have available when entering a value or 
expression into a cell can each be set to any one of a selection of 
Format Types detailed below. When specifying a cell format you 
can choose any of these options, the Global or Default Column 
formats can be assigned types using the New Global format 
command sequence. 


CARRIAGE RETURN, this can only be used as the Default column" 
format when you choose to insert a new column or change its 
format with the ND command. It should only be used with a blank 
column, usually of width 1 character. Its purpose is to put in 
intermediate end of line markers in mailing list and database 
applications. It has no other use. It is not possible to enter data into 
cells that have default Carriage return format, 



DECIMAL, the # defines the number of decimal places that will be 


format 5D, memory 123.456789, display 123.45679 
format 2D, memory 123.456789, display 123.46 


EXPONENT, the # defines the number of significant figures to be 
displayed in the decimal part. The exponent form is sometimes 

called scientific notation. It consists of a decimal number followec 
by the power of 1 by which it must be multiplied to give the actua 
number. This power is called the Exponent. A letter "E" separates the 
number from the exponent. 

format 5E, memory 123.4567, display 0.12346E+03 
format 3E, memory 0.001234, display 0.123E-02 


FINANCE, this outputs all values in balance sheet format layout. The 
* represents the number of places shifted you want the results. This 
is the same as saying the number of times you want the numbei 
dividing by 10 before displaying it. With this facility you can display 
your answer in thousands (3F) or millions (6F). Commas are addec 
every third place in the usual way of presenting financial output 
Negative values are enclosed in brackets. 

format OF, memory 12345.678, display 12,345.68 
format OF, memory -12345.678, display (12,345.68) 
format 3F r memory 12345.678, display 12.3 



GENERAL, this is a general purpose format that will display the value 
as simply as possible and as nearly in the way that it might be 

displayed on pencil and paper calculations. Unnecessary zeroes 
will be removed and if the number Is too large or small it will convert 
to exponent format. The format bears some resemblance to that 
used on scientific calculators. 

format 6, memory 123.0, display 123 

format G, memory 0.123, display 0.123 

format G, 0.000000123456, display 0.123456E-06 


INTEGER, the value is displayed to the nearest whole number. 

A- . — 

format I, memory 567.89, display 568 


TEXT LEFT JUSTIFIED, is for alphanumeric entries. The 

contents will be displayed left justified in the cell. 


format TL, memory 'TEST' , display TEST 


TEXT RIGHT JUSTIFIED, Is for alphanumeric entries. The memory 
contents will be displayed right justified in the cell. If the eel! is 

smaller than the entry the display will be filled as if it was going to 
be left justified. 

format TR, memory 
format TR, memory 

'TEST' , display 

display this IS A T 



HEADING, is for alphanumeric (text) entries. The memory contents 
will be displayed in their entirety even if the column is not as wide 
as the entry, This format can therefore be used for titles when the 
column width is, at different times, liable to be varied, Adjacenl 
entries will not be displayed if the heading over-rides them. 

format H, memory X THIS IS A TITLE' , 

display THIS IS A TITLE 


PLOT, will fill up a cell with asterisks to the nearest integer value 01 
the stored number. This is used to provide a very simple histogram 
representation of data. 

format P, memory 5.556, display ****** 


If there is insufficient space to display a numerical value then the 
cell will be filled with asterisks to avoid misleading you with 
incomplete figures. The same does not occur with text entries (c.f. 
also headings) 


format 4D, memory 1234.56789, display ******* 


F~] - Get command 




<character>text to find<character> 

The cell cursor 

is moved to the 

fust occurence of 

the searched for text 



The Get command is used to search from the current cell location 
to the end of the worksheet for a particular string. The string is 

delineated on the edit line by a single printable character which 
must not be a letter or numeral. When this delineator or marker is 
next encountered on the line the string you are typing is assumed 
to be complete. This system Is adopted to give you flexibility over 
which characters actually are included in the string. 

The string length may be up to 30 characters not including the. 

delineators. Only the text or expression as it appears on the 
contents line is searched. You cannot search for displayed values 
that appear as the result of manipulation by the current formats. 
The search proceeds across each column and then down a line^ 

and so on, 

If repeated searching is to be used then after initially setting up 
string it is merely necessary to follow the G command with the samel 
two delineators as used before, The string that was previously use<r 
will be re-displayed and form the basis of the following search. 


Q - Insert command ■* 


Line, Column, 0-9 






0-9, J 



0-9, J 

(0-9) G3 

With width 



0-9 L=L) 


End, Up, Down, Left, Right, arrows. Jump, J 

For column insertion you arc 
now asked for the default column 
format - see Uie [" ] command for 
more details 

These options allow the destination to be selected 
- when [ZT \ is pressed the new line(s) are 
inserted at the current cursor position or the 
bottom of the sheet if End was selected. 

The Insert command is used to increase the size of the worksheel 
The sheet does not initially exist but you can either press (5D to make 
a blank sheet of fixed size and type. Or, if you choose to use th? 
Insert command to create your sheet you must start by defining a 
least one column. Once a column is inserted you can insert lines 
You can insert several columns or lines at a time, 

You are asked for a destination so the spreadsheet knows where ii 
the sheet you wish the new lines or columns to go. The first lines cai 
only be inserted in front of the cursor (press E) or after the curse 
(press n for End). As the defined sheet builds in size the availablf 
options increase. 

The options "Up, Down, Left, Right" and "arrows" in the destinatioi 
prompt just mean that you can press t 17 !),!? 1.F7) or 7~i or use th< 
cursor keys to move the cursor. When you press 13 the iine/columi 
will be inserted above or to the left of the cursor. You can also us« 
a jump destination to move the cursor to the position where yo 


would like the insertion to take place. See the Jump command' 

description for more details. 

If you are Inserting one or more columns you will then be asked to 
specify a default format for the columns. See the description of the 
Format command for more details. 

Increasing the size of the sheet does not use up any of your 

available memory, this only happens when data Is entered. 

-, r Hte,H et^ 

-U ,rw 


CD - Jump command 


Jump to 

ckJ. Begin. End, Up. Down, Left. Right 


Cursorjumps Cursorjumps Cursor jumps Cursotjurnps Cinwrjurrrps Cujsot jump* to Cursor jumps to 

to the specified to the boaom toihciop tothelopofthe 10 the bottom of ihc left end of the the right end of the 

coordinate right cell left cell tuner* column the current column current line current line 


Eqrtnbnl lays: 







The Jump command Is used to move the cursor directly to the cell 
you specify or edge of the worksheet. The crd prompt refers to the 

co-ordinate ceil reference to which you want to go. The other 
prompts refer to the extremities of the worksheet. So EED - Jump 
Right means take the cursor across ail the columns to the right hand 
side of the worksheet. This command can be used both as a 
primary command and in answer to the request for destination. 

iZmt 5 ] will go to the top left of a sheet, 

2Ll)F~] will go to the bottom right of a sheet. 

TDE3 will go to the top of the current column. 

jIlK 5 "! will go to the bottom of the current column. 

IHFD will go to the start of the current line. 

£DD will go to the end of the current line. 


Loading a file 

The Notebook spreadsheet does not have a separate Load 

command. This is achieved using the Copy File command. See the 
description of the Copy command for more details. 



:■(+? to ?>ob' - - 


E3 - Move command 

■>o weM - 1-3- 



Entry, Block, Line. Column, 0-9 





: 3 

crd...crd J 



coordinate! EIj coordinate? O 






End, Up, Down, Left, Right, arrows. Jump, J 


^ £ £ , 4» £ ^ 

Movement keys move roe cell cursor *nd 
then the selected area is copied to it when 
is pressed 

The Move command transfers a section of memory to a new 
destination. Unlike Copy, the original cell locations are blanked and 
all references to the transferred area, and within the block Itself, will 
be automatically adjusted to the new location. 

The same options are available as with the Copy command, 

If several lines or columns are being moved an Internal check is 
made that the destination specified will provide sufficient room. 


- New command &nr 


^:OQ & 


Default, Global, Format, Width 




New width of column 

0-9, J 

Formats are now set using 
menus similar to the r I 

0-9 U) 

Column containg cell 
cursor is changed to display 
with the new width 

The New command defines a change of either width of a cotumn, 
format of an occupied cell, default column format or Global 
format. A new format can only be a change between compatible 
types for example a change cannot be made between a Text and 
a Finance format. This is because one is character information and 
the other Is numerical information, A change in default column 
format will only affect future entries that do not have their format 
explicitly defined. No change will be made to existing entries, 
Please also study the FORMAT command reference. 

New Default format will change the default format for blank cells 

in the current column. (It over-rides the format that was set when 
the column was first inserted). 

New Global changes the global format accessed when you start 
entry with " or (. If you set a text format this changes the global 

text format and if you set a numeric format this changes the global 
numeric format. 

New Format is used to change the format of a piece of existing 
data, This cannot be used on a blank cell. 

New Width will change the displayed width of a column. 


°e - Out command 



**0* - C 

■;& Print 

char, J 

characters to send to printer S3 

After selecting E3 the 
j characters you type until 

] you press fJ] will be 

sent directly to the 

The OUT command is the way you output control commands to 
your printer, You can set up your printer for special features such as 
condensed print or different character font or a different colour if 
you have it available. The affects you can achieve on your printer 
are completely dependent on the features that it supports. The 
spreadsheet just send the codes that you type to the printer. It does 
not try to understand the effect they might have. 

All characters including control codes are valid and so you cannot 
use the Q keyto backspace. If you make a mistake finish off that 
entry with a ET and start it again. You can abandon an Out 
command by pressing H. To produce the "Esc" character that 
many printers use to access their specific features press E^+O. 
Finish off each entry with a G=Ll. Your characters will be echoed on 
the screen, control codes will be preceded by a a. You will find the 
printer commands in your printer manual. 

The printer command you will often want to send to your printer Is 
the one to switch it to condensed print (17 characters per inch). If 
your printer is Epson compatible the code to do this is character 
code 15, (EB+O). You would send this by typing Ejl EB+t%j ED 

If you use a laser printer and pages aren't fed out immediately after 
printing then this may be because it requires a "form feed" 
character to be sent to it. Type 113 followed by FTT3 (together) 
and finally til On dot matrix printers you can type ED then type 
EE3Q (together) to repeatedly feed one line through the printer 
for alignment. Press B or to finish. 


Q - Partition command bflommoo tuC 


Hora, Vert. Synch. On*ync*i. Six* 



O.B, j 0-9. J VW1, HoriZ Vert. HorCr 










TV tool I mg of *« to * 
Btpmntvt M*lo*-i if co««cc««I 

Thp ■tfioDiij of An ra 
ia connected « fcro*:«i 

The screen may be partitioned either vertically or horizontally to 
give 1 ,2, or 4 available windows and the movements of the cursor 
locations within these windows may be defined as synchronised or 
unsynchronised for both the horizontal and vertical partition. 
Synchronising means that movements in one window will be 
matched by equivalent movements in the other. Without it the 
inactive window will be unchanging. 

The horizontal partition location can be specified by taking a 
number from the grid that will be displayed on the screen, The 
vertical partition is similarly defined. Partitions may be removed by 
the PE partition end command sequence. 

To jump the cursor from one window to another the slash 
commands are used. O will jump left to right and vice versa and 
the C will jump up and down between windows. 



Printing a worksheet 

The Notebook spreadsheet does not have a separate Print 
command. Printing is achieved using the Copy command to copy 
part or all of the sheet to a printer, See the description of the Copy 
command for more details, 

A special destination "Mail label" can also be used to print address 
labels. See the tutorial for a worked example of this, 

■■•te&, ■-.. 


O - Quit command ** ^ -^ o p- 

Pressing at the spreadsheet'^ rrtaln menu is the 1 - same as 

selecting the PD - Quit command. 

The Quit command clears the screen and makes a return to the 
previous screen of the NotePook, where you can choose to start 
new, list stored or print a worksheet. A copy of your current 
worksheet is always saved in a file RESTART. MEM. However, you 
should get into the haPit of using the Copy command to save your 
work to a file you name yourself Pecause RESTART. MEM is 
overwritten next time you leave the spreadsheet, 

When you next use the spreadsheet you can select the Restart 
command to load the existing RESTART.MEM file Pack in and 

continue on from where you were last working, 


Saving a file ? " " ~?otoaZrC5 

The Notebook spreadsheet does not have a separate Save 
command. This is achieved using the Copy All to File command, 
See the description of the Copy command for more details. 


(LD - Sort command 



Sort Iine6 using range: 

;rd J J 

coordinate 1 O coordinate2 G3 


Increasing or decreasing 

Inc, Dec 



The selected range of lines are 
sorted into increasing or decreasing 


The SORT command allows sorting of lines using any specified part 

of any particular column as the list of items to be sorted, The sort 
may be by increasing or decreasing values and may be carried out 
on both numerical values and characters. You should avoid sorting 
where you have mixed formulae and constants In any column over 
the range or you may get very confusing results. 

Note that mixing of text and numerical values in the sort should be 
avoided as this will give indeterminate results. Capital letters and 
lower case letters are taken to be of equal value. With text sorts 
numbers come after letters followed by blanks, punctuation marks 
and finally control codes. All punctuation is taken to be of equal 
value. Remember that any numbers that are entered as text 
characters can sort in unpredictable ways, for example "8" will sort 
as a higher value than "24*. 

If text or blank entries are within the specified numeric range, or 
vice versa, they will tend to sort to one or other end of the range. 


□ - Trace graph command 


Trace graptilo 

Screen, Printer 




Normal, High quality 


Normal quality 

High quality 

SPACE BAR to return - use arrows - WAIT 

Graph is drawn on screen. Use arrow 
keys to switch between small and large 
image and move up and down. Press 
the Space Bar to return to using the 

Printing ■ WAIT 

Graph is printed on an 
Epson compatible printer. 
Press the £™j key » abandon 

The Graphics features of the Notebook spreadsheet work by using 
a set of special functions to point to cells containing the data to 
be plotted and the text for the labels. 

Note that where crd is specified in these functions you must enter 
a reference to a cell co-ordinate. You can't use numerical or 
expression equivalents except where stated. 

The Trace command requires a lot of memory to prepare the image 
to be output and may not be available if there Is not much memory 
left in your Notebook, You could transfer some documents 
/ spreadsheet flies to disk or another computer and then delete 
them to make more space. Alternatively, you could use a PCMCIA 
memory card to make more space available. 

When you use the Trace graph command you can have the output 
drawn on the screen or sent to an Epson compatible printer. When 
•tie output is drawn on screen it is initially drawn so that the whole 
;hart fits on the screen. You can switch between this and a 
magnified view using the &p and f=e!l keys. In the magnified view 
,'ou can use the HD and HD keys to scroil up and down. 


When you output to a printer you get a choice of Normal or Higft 

Density. The former is quicker but not as detailed as the second 
option. (These two options use either the ESC K or ESC L sequences 
supported by most Epson compatible graphics printers). 

When you start a Trace command the current spreadsheet is saved 
in the file called RESTART, MEM and then the spreadsheet draws the 
Image in its own workspace before finally showing this on the 
display (or outputting to the printer). This operation takes some 
time. The rotating line shows that the spreadsheet is still working on 
the picture. 

Once the picture is displayed on the screen you can press 
Spacebar to reload the spreadsheet data and continue working 
on it. 

The following Is a list of the functions used for building graphs. 
Tutorial XV explains their use in more detail. 

TYPEPLOT ( crd) 



TIMELABEL (crd. . . crd) 

XLABEL (crd. . .crd), or XIABEL( crd, crd, crd, etc.) 


XMINIMOM(crd) ° 

XTITLE (crd) J ' 

XVALUE(n, crd. ..crd) 



YTITLEf crd) 

YVALUEfn, crd. ..crd) 

Remember that the above are functions with arguments and as 
such must be entered into cells that have a numerical format even 
if they refer to some textual data such as a label. The ceil that 
contains the label itself must of course be set to a text format. 

If any errors are encountered while using the graphics an error 
message will be given and a return will be made to the 



Limits of the graphics commands -oo 



max length 


24 chars 











number of 




9 (no. < 





(no. Of lines) possible on one chart 

If you use lengths longer than specified above they will be 

truncated or ignored. 

If you do any EDITING of the plotting instructions or make any 
changes that do not force a recalculation, you may end up with 
an error message or values that does not seem to be true. This is 
most likely if you are using direct values rather than references to 
cell co-ordinates. 

The surest way to handle plotting functions that do not contain cell 
references is to overwrite them rather than edit them. 

The instructions for plotting are worked out whenever a 
recalculation is done so if no recalculation has occurred the latest 
instructions may not have been properly determined. If you get 
such an error message just use the ! force recalculation command 
and try the plot again. 


□ - Verify command 



Recalculate, Check for problems 


Check for problems 


A full recalculation 
including constants 
is performed 

Worksheet structure is 
analysed and any problems 
found are corrected 

The VERIFY command is used to cause a full recalculation including 
the constants within your worksheet, That is in contrast to the ! 
command which only recalculates expressions. Normally force a 
recalculation with the ■ command. The Verify command is only 
normally used when you have brought some data into the 
spreadsheet from a .TXT. .D1F or .DAT file. 

If you ask for "Verify Check for problems* then the structure of the 
worksheet will be analysed to look for inconsistencies and if any are 
found an attempt will be made to fix them. This is a safety 
precaution to ensure as much as possible that you are never left 
with an unworkable spreadsheet. 


D - Which files command 

**sleb> ■■-:■?;- 


Which files available 



J, Erase, Rename. Fetch demos 







filaname.ext GH 

fllename,ext C=D 


filename.ext t"J 

Demonstration files 
ate added to the list 
of available files 

The Which files command Is used to look at files associated with the 
Notebook spreadsheet and also to give the basic file handiing 
operations you may want. They include erasing files, renaming files 
and fetching the built-in demonstration files. This allows the demos 
to be accessed without returning to the opening screen of the 

The files in the Notebooks memory will be read and all the 
compatible files, i.e. those that end In .MEM, .DAI .DIF and .TXT will 
oe displayed on the screen. After this you will be able to do any of 

the file management operations you want to. 

f memory becomes full you may be able to use the Erase function 
to remove some unwanted files from memory to make extra space, 


F~] - Zap (delete) command 


r ~&w 

Zap (delete) 

All, Entry, Block, Line, Column, 0-9 







crd...crd J 


Yes, No 

iv JJ FZ j] 

Whole sheet is No action 
deleted and a 
return is made to 
the opening menu 





r t; 

Current cell enli\ 
is blanked 

Block of cells between Oneormorclioea OMOcmorecotumre 

coordinate 1 (top left) and are deleted are deleted 

coordinatc2 (bottom right) 
arc blanked 

Zap deletes the specified entries from memory. If the command 
refers to an entry or a block then the command acts just like the 
Blank command. For references to Line, Column, or All then the 
size of the worksheet is actually reduced by the command. Deleted 
entries CANNOT be retrieved so if in doubt first copy the worksheet 
to a file before embarking on complex rearrangements, 

Before the deleting is carried out the program will check whether 
any of the items to be deleted are referred to elsewhere in the 
worksheet. If cross-references are found the command will stop 
and ask if you really want to blank the referenced items. If the ceils 
in guestion remain on the sheet they will be filled with a row of *?' 
to signal that data is missing. 

If you use the Zap All command and confirm that you want to 
delete everything by typing Y you will be returned to the opening 
menu of the spreadsheet as if you were starting from scratch. 


! - Force recalculation command ;M - * 

The • force recalculation command has two main purposes! Ttle 
first is to' cause a calculation when the Automatic calculation is off, 
It is a minimum recalculation and therefore takes less time than the 
Verify and recalculate command, 

The second usage is for solving Iterative problems such as 

simultaneous equations or other circular reference problems. In 
these types of problems there may be two cells which refer to each 
other. Initially they cannot both be valid but on repeated 
recalculation they will approach true answers. 


* - Macro command 

The * Macro command is initiated by typing an asterisk, *, followed 
by a reference to the co-ordinate of the cell in which the Macro is 

The purpose of this command is to call in a predefined set of 
commands, Just type the appropriate key presses for your desired 

commands into any text format ceil. Where you would want to put 
a ED use the @ symbol. Where you want to move the cursor use U. 
D, L or R to move it Up, Down, Left or Right. 

It is valid to finish a seguence with another Macro command or 
even a reference to the same macro. With a self-repeating 
re f erence you can create macros that go on repeating until an 
error is found. 

This command is ideal for repetitive changes of format down a 
whole column for example. The macro NFG@D*1@ placed In eel 
A1 will change an occupied cell's format to general and then 
move the cursor down, The *1@ at the end means that it is called 
again and so the cell underneath it is changed and so on. This wil 
stop when an attempt is made to change an unoccupied or text 
cell or if the cursor is moved outside the worksheet, 

The Macro can be used to create a loop of direct commands. 
which differs from a loop of functions such as you may use in an 



More detail on spreadsheet error messages 

A-Z, or 0-9 

Only a letter or numeral may be used at that point. 

Ambiguity (see manual) 

The order of calculation number can not be resolved without 
ambiguity. The expression must be preceded by a reference to the 
cell that created the SET( ) to which this cell refers. The solution to 
this error is shown in Tutorial XVI - Table filling. 

Argument too large 

If calculated the EXP( ) of this value would be greater than 1E+38. 

EXP will only accept a value up to about 88. 

Argument > 1 . 

ASIN, ACOS, ASINR, ACOSR can only have arguments between 
and 1. 

Cannot multiple move there 

There is not sufficient space at your specified destination to move 

this group of lines or columns. 

Column first 

Please insert a first column before you try to enter lines, 

Comma only 

You seem to have confused the layout of this function's argument. 

Def function badly set up 

The layout of the defined function is wrong. 

Division by zero 

You are trying to divide by zero which would give infinity. The 
Notebook spreadsheet for all its power cannot handle that, This 
message may appear if you have blanked some cell entries. 

DO ( ) needed with WHILE ( ) 

You cannot use the WHILE( ) function on Its own. Part of the job It 
does is to seek out the DO( ) on the same line. 

E+38 maximum 

The maximum exponent that is available in the floating point 
numbers used in the Notebook spreadsheet is +38. 


Entry too long 

The maximum entry width is the free area in the middle of the entry 

line. This has a fixed limit of 67 characters, The error message 

appears if you try to type beyond this limit. The absolute maximum 
a cell can hold is 127 characters when loaded from a file. 

ERROR called from <crd> 

This is an error you yourself have called by using the ERROR( ) 


FILENAME. EXT not found 

The file named cannot be found in memory. Use the \U for Which 
files command to find which files are available, They are also listed 
when you use the Copy File command. 

Function ((({{5))))) max * 

You may only nest functions and brackets to 5 levels, 

Logical expression only 

The IF( ) function must resolve to a value of TRUE, FALSE, -1 orO. 

Missing "(" 

You have too many right hand brackets. 


Missing ")" 

You have too many left hand brackets. 

Move cursor 

The command you are trying to do does not make sense unless you 

actually move the cursor. 

Must be a constant 

You cannot overwrite a formula wrth a SET{ ) or INIT( ) function. 

Must be a letter 

A column letter is expected. 

Must be "logical" (-1 or 0) 

The required argument at this point must resolve to a logical value. 

Must be one of +-*/ 0-%[]|), or J 

One of these operators are required. 

Must not refer to this cell 

The cell that contains the DOC ) function itself is in the range of Ms 
own argument. This is a circular call that cannot be resolved. 


Negative argument 

Cannot have a negative argument to a logarithm or square root. 

No function "XXXXX" 

This function you have entered is not one of the built In functions, 

No such column 

You have made a reference to a column outside the worksheet 
area currently defined. 

No such line 

You have referred to a line outside the worksheet area, 

Not enough memory 

There is not enough memory left to read in this file. 

Not enough space 

Part of your destination area would be outside the worksheet as 

currently defined. 

Not found in this range 

The LOOKUP{ ) or INTERPC ) first argument was not present or 
enclosed by any two values in the list that you have specified. 

Not in marked zone 

You are trying to partition outside the area marked by a grid on the 


Number or value missing 

With LOOKUPC ), CHOOSEC ) and INTERPC ) none of the Items in the 
list can be blank. 

Odd number of values required 

Simpson's rule works on an odd number of values only. 

Operator at end 

You cannot end an expression with an operator. 

Out of memory 

"he memory available for entering data is all gone, Your work to 
date will not be damaged. Try to split your work and write an 

ndependent portion to a file so that you can later consolidate the 

outside worksheet 

<ou have moved the cell cursor past the edge of the worklsheet. 


Reference outside worksheet 

This cell reference is outside the area of the worksheet as you have 

currently defined it. 

Result more than 1E+38 

You have done a mathematical operation that gives too large a 
result. This is probably because of an error in one of your constants, 

Second "." 

You can only have one decimal point in a number. 

Separate these operators 

You have two operators together, In addition, if you have two 

brackets together, i.e. )( then you must separate them with a \ thus 


Should be one of +-*/ <>=%[] I), or J 

These are the valid operators at this point. 

Stack overflow, shorten entry 

There are too many pending operations. Cure this by splitting the 

expression into two or more cells. 

Text reference in an expression 

In this expression you have made a cell reference to a text entry. ' 

Text /Value change 2 

You are trying to change a formula or constant into a text entry or 1 
vice versa. If you really want to do this, use DF1 to blank the eel' 

The range must increase 

Only ranges that extend over at least two columns or lines are realty 

ranges. You see this error if the start and end coordinate are the 


Too long 

The String used by the Get command can only be 30 character* 

long at maximum. 

Too many chars 

Your filename has more than 8 characters. 

Ose partition first 

You have used one of the slash commands before the partition has 
been made on which these commands work. 



Worksheet too small. 

You will have to expand the worksheet area before you can copy 

any data in from a file. 

Wrong conditional layout 

You hove confused the layout of this conditional entry. 

Wrong range layout 

The way you have specified a range Is not correct. 

Zero argument 

You cannot have a logarithm of 0. 

0...9 or "." 

A numeral is expected at this point (the start of an exponent) 

15 sig figs max 

The Notebook spreadsheet calculates to 16 or 1 7 significant figures 
but for security always rounds down to 15. You can only give 15 
significant figures when entering numbers. 

255 lines max 

The maximum number of lines In a worksheet is 255. 

38 places max 

The floating point number system of the Notebook spreadsheet only 
goes down to E-38. 

52 columns max 

'he maximum number of columns is 52, they are marked A-Z then 

.TXT, .DIP, .DAT or .MEM 

Only these file extensions are valid If you are trying to load or save 

a file. 

end" wrong here 

- does not make sense to have "end" as the destination here. 

( " or " , " first 

A range must always be preceded by a bracket or comma. It 
rannot be used as part of an expression. 

#" cannot follow a range 

•ou cannot get the current value of a range. 


"x" is wrong after a co-ordinate ■ ■■*■■■■"■■■■ ^"-l"® 

This character is not a correct following operator. 

"x" is wrong here 

This character is not one of the options you were offered in the 
prompt list. 

"x" should be a numeral 

Only a numeral would be valid here. 

<B22> is used in <C3> ** 

You have attempted to remove or overwrite an expression that Is 

referred to in another expression. If you really don't mind losing the 
contents of the cell type Y. Blank entries will be assumed to contain 
zero for calculation purposes, 

%% 1 Entry destroyed in calculation 

%% 2 Column details corrupted 

%% 3 Internal coded format error 

%% 4 Entry not found to format 

%% 5 Entry not found for calc number 

%% 6 index table corrupted ,.-;■» 

%% 7 Main storage corrupted 

%% 8 Cannot delete index table item .;- 

%% 9 Negative number of index entries 

%% 10 Zero length entry y 

%% 11 Does not exist 

%% 12 Command corrupted 

%% 13 Memory corrupted, saved, check copy carefully 

%% 14 Opening space for index table error 

%% 15 Invalid binary number format 

%% 16 Number formatting error 

%% 1? Number formatting error . " r 

%% 18 Number stack corrupted 

%% 19 Operator decoding error .,..., 

%% 20 System error 

%% 21 Look -ahead buffer corrupted 

%% 22 Disk write record error 

%% 23 System error 

These are system error flags, that signal that a serious error has 
occurred In the working of the program rather than in the entry that 
you have typed, All being well you should never see one, however, 
they are the long stops in the event of system bugs. If you get one 



please note the exact circumstances of how it occurred and Inform 
your supplier. As a general rule your work will not be damaged even 
If you find such a bug. The Notebook spreadsheet will automatically 
check that your work has not been damaged. If it has then It will 
be filed automatically. Just press the &£ key in the usual way and 
you will be able to carry on. 


.,-.-i V 

<this p»g* intentionally blank> 


Appendix 1 


Table of characters available in the Notebook 

The following table shows the characters that can be used in the 
Notebook. The character numbers can be used when writing BASIC 
programs. All characters, apart from 7, 8, 9, 10. 12, 13 and 255, are 
available in the word processor, diary, address book, etc. 






























































































































































































































































»— 1 

























S 5 














© « «*> m ■* «*> 



Appendix 2 ? 

Summary of Word processor Editing Commands 

Block, Copy 

[Function) + QJ 

Block, Delete 

[Function] i p«'-*| 

Block, Move 

(FunctionJ + fZ] 

Block, Mark 

[Function| + (4 g ] 

Centre line 

Q + O 

Clear block markers 

E3 + G) 

Control codes, insert 

B + Oflbuce 


Control codes, show/hide 

function) + |» J 

Convert to upper case 

b+o . 

Convert to lower case 


Copy default ruler 
(first active ruler) 


Copy previous ruler but one 


Delete all text in document 

[Function] • f-r>*i] 

Delete one word back 

h US 

Delete one word forwards 

h l+B 

Delete line 

S + (T) 

Delete to start of line 


Delete to end of line 


Find text 

(function) + (*] 

Find next occurrence 


Find previous occurrence 

B + rs 

Find and Replace 

[Function) + f^J 


Finish what you are doing 

^0 ■ ■' :■■■■■'■■' 

Go to specified Line, 
Page or Column 

E3 + ED (Ln, Pn, Cn) 

Hyphen, non-break 

B + QE3 

Hyphen, soft 

B + O 

Insert date 


Insert line 

b + cj 

Insert on/off 

B + (ED 

Insert page break 


Insert special character 

highlight symbol then press C=D 

Insert time 

E3 + 

Justification on/off 

B + O 

Line drawing on/off 
Line drawing, double 

■ .oeid-noH 
B + h l+Pl 

Line drawing, select character 

B + h 1 + Fl 

Macro, use a 

EE3 + (user defined key) 

Markers, insert or go to 

B ED (0 to 9 ? L R ] or [ ) 

Move back 6 lines 

B + LD 

Move forward 6 lines 

f""H +m ^i iM i^iuii 

Move block 

[F u nction| + ff^] ";HCtVff *t03 

Move to start of marked block 

B+E3 O 

Move to end of marked block 

B+O o 

Move to end of line 

B + S 

Move to start of line 


Move to start of next line 

h 1+0 .::uJ -■■ ^>fiJ iwqt 


Move to end of document 


•-:- -,!T 

Move to start of document 



Move to last position 

B + FT] 

Move to next tab 

h Ul— 1 

Move one page back 

E3 + E3 

Move one page forward 

EB + O 

Move back one paragraph 


Move forward one paragraph 


Move back one word 

i- \ + m 

Move forward one word 

h \+m 

Multiple markers, insert 

E3E] O 


Multiple markers, go to 

Bl" 1 ( B forwards 
GD back) 


Non-break hyphen 



Non-break space 

£E3 + Q <spacebar> 

Program mode - absolute line/ 
character number display. 

Q+l" l+{%3 


Ruler line. Show 



Ruler line, switch to default 

e3 + n 

Ruler line, copy previous 

E3 + D ui6o- : , , 


Soft hyphen 

B + O 


Space, Insert 

E3+ ^=K> 

■ i 

Space, non-break 

£3 + Q <spacebar> 


Spaces, show/hide 

B + DD 


Spell check document 

[Function! P. 1 


Spell check from cursor 

B + a 



Spell check word EB+O 0QQA 

Status line, on/off 

Swap (transpose) 
two characters 

Tabs and returns, show/hide E3 + Q CD 

Undo last block/line EE3 + E3 

delete operation 

Word count B + GD 

Word wrap on/off E3 + Q 


;o To h. 

B + Q yolqaia 



Appendix 3 

Display of Macro definitions 

When the display macros command is used you will see the various 
FEB keys that have been assigned. Any characters in the table 
shown in Appendix 1 will appear normally but in addition to this you 
may see numbers contained within A characters. There is a number 
for each possible function In the word processor, The following is a 
list of those numbers and what they mean together with the key 
combination that is used to achieve the function. 


Keys used 




Set or go to marker 



Swap adjacent characters 



Centre line 



Default ruler 



Delete to end of line 



Format paragraph 



Go to column, line or page 



insert line 



Justify on/off 



Clear block markers 



Go to last position 



Move block 




Non break character 


h-Hh 11- xi 

Line/Character number display 



Spell check single word 



Insert previous ruler line 



Spell check from cursor 



Undelete block 



Various view options 



Word wrap on/off 



Enter control code 



Set block marker 

|F u nc.ion||4 9 | 

539 B3G3 Move to start of document 



540 F"iR 1 Convert to lower case ''■■■■'■■ 

541 BD Move to end of document 

545 B Delete forwards ■ ;J ■'> 

639 E"*:) Delete backwards * ^ 

722 |runct.on| Q Delete all text ■ **& 

723 I" I F- 1 ) Delete word backwards 

724 g g Delete to start of line 

727 R" I S Go to next marker 

728 F"-^}^ IIF1 Go to previous marker 

7 29 F"°]fF1 Previous find 

730 br:'°JIJlJ Back one paragraph 

731 EE3D Forwards one paragraph 

732 rE3E3 Back one page 

733 fcrlle-J Forward one page 

736 QE3 Find next 

737 EE3SD Insert on/off 

739 E3 EJ Soft hyphen 

740 F ~| t^ ) Move to next tab 

741 I" ) S Delete word right 

742 EE30D Delete line 

743 r:£^]lITl Convert to upper case 

744 F^^IF^ Delete block 

746 iFuns.^i fT-] Copy b | OCk 

747 rjEEJ<spacebar> Insert space 

748 F iMl Move to start of next line 

752 ffl Cursor up 

753 HD Cursor down 

754 E3 Cursor left 

755 ED Cursor right 

756 pL-£$ Scro " U P one line 
767 j" im Scroll down one line 

758 CELJS Move word left 

759 ll JED Move word right 

762 E3I53 Move to start of line 

763 £rzK =*l Move to end of line 

764 fcii3 Back out one level 

774 £^& Record macro 

776 f-^ h _ 1 F7] Line drawing mode on/off 

V7 p^pr- -] rg~| Select line drawing character 

^88 EEBF'l Current date 

89 E3Q Current time 


































[Functionl]* J 




Insert bold code 

Insert condensed code 

Insert elite code 

Insert italic code 

Insert enlarged code 

Insert proportional code 

Insert quality code 

insert subscript code 

Insert superscript code 

Insert underline code 

Choose character 

Print block 

Remove word from user dictionary 

Display user dictionary 

Word Count 

Count words in block 

Non break hyphen 

Non break space 

Insert multiple marker 

Function key pressed 

View codes on/off 

Status line on /off 

Display macros 

Create header 

Create footer 

Print to screen 

Insert page break 

Format text 


Appendix 4 

Serial Terminal - VT52 emulator 

When you are using the serial terminal program built into the 
Notebook it emulates a DEC VT52 type of terminal. If the computer 
to which you are connected can send V752 codes these will be 
acted upon by the serial terminal program. The VT52 codes that 
the terminal program will respond to or send are: 

ESC A moves the cursor up one line, stopping at the top 


ESC B moves the cursor down one line, stopping at the 

bottom margin, 

ESC C moves the cursor one column to the right, stopping 

at the right margin. 

ESC D moves the cursor one column to the left, stopping at 

the right margin. 

ESC H moves the cursor to the home position. 

ESC Ylc moves the cursor to the specified line and column. 

ESC K erase all characters from the current cursor position 

to the end of the current line. 

ESC J erase all characters from the current cursor position 

to the end of the screen. 

ESC I move the cursor up one line, scrolling the screen if 

the cursor is at the top margin. The new top line is 
filled with spaces. 

ESC Z on receiving this code the Notebook will send back 

ESC / Z to identify it as a VT52 compatible terminal. 

ESC 7 saves the current cursor position. 

ESC 8 returns to the previously saved cursor position. 


The following ASCII characters are treated In a special way by the 

serial terminal program: 

NUL ignored. 

ENQ 5 transmits answerback message - 'Amstrad NC200". 

BEL 7 generates bell tone. 

BS 8 moves the cursor left one character; if the cursor is 

at the left margin, character is ignored, 

HT 9 moves the cursor to the next tab stop, or to the right 

margin if there are no more tab stops. 

LF 10 moves the cursor down one line, scrolling the screen 

if the cursor is at the bottom margin. 

VT 1 1 processed as LF. 

FF 12 processed as LF, 

CR 13 moves the cursor to the left margin on the current 

line (also performs LF if "Add linefeed" option is set), 

DC1 1 7 processed as XON, causing the terminal to continue 

transmitting characters. 

DC3 19 processed as XOFF, causing the terminal to stop 

transmitting characters except XON or XOFF. 

ESC 27 begins an "escape" sequence as descibed in the 

table on the previous page. 

Most keys on the keyboard will send their standard ASCII code 
when pressed. The cursor control keys will be changed to their 
respective VT52 "escape" sequences. The Notebook specific keys 
will not transmit any characters. The £3 key will either send CR or 
CR, LF depending on the setting of "Add linefeed", 

The PF1 to PF4 codes generated by a standard VT52 terminal can 
be typed by holding down F j nc,io "l and pressing GZ), O, (ED or 5Z). 
These send the corresponding "escape" sequences - ESC P, ESC Q, 
ESC R or ESC S. 

The terminal will always check the state of the CTS signal on the 
RS232 port before transmitting a character. If the signal is in the 


"hold" state, the terminal will not transmit the character. If the 
terminal is prevented from transmitting characters for long enough 
it's own output buffer becomes full. In this case it will refuse to 
accept any further characters to transmit and will display a 
"communications failure" message. 

The terminal maintains the RTS signal in the "active" state provided 
it is able to store characters in its own internal buffer. If the buffer 
becomes full it will put the RTS line into the "hold" state until it can 
accept a character, 

Both the internal buffers for transmit and receive are 256 bytes long, 

The XON/XOFF software flow control protocol works as follows: If the 
terminal receives an XOFF character the terminal will stop 
transmission of any characters except XON/XOFF within one 
character of receiving the XOFF. 

If the terminal then receives the XON character It will continue 

transmission of all characters. 

When the internal receive buffer becomes two thirds full (at 1 70 
characters) it will send an XOFF character. If characters continue 
to build up within the buffer a further XOFF character will be sent 
when the buffer holds 200 characters. If characters continue to 
build up within the bufferan XOFF character will be sent for every 
character received after 240, 

When the internal buffer becomes oe third full (at 85 characters) 
the terminal will send an XON character if an XOFF had previously 

been sent. 

The hardware handshaking (CTS/RTS) will always have priority when 
determining the transmission of characters. 


Licence Agreement 

This software Is supplied strictly subject to the Licence terms and conditions printed 
below. If you do agree to comply with all the terms of the Licence, then by loading, 
entering, utilising, running, listing or otherwise manipulating the software in any way. 
you are deemed to accept the full terms of the conditions of the Licence. 

1 .4 Software Licence Agreement 

Amstrad Software licence agreement for all software described In this manual, 


Amstrad provides the Software and the Program described in this manual or In other 
documents strictly subject to the terms and conditions of this Licence Agreement. 

By entering, utilising, running, listing, copying or otherwise manipulating the Program, 
manual or other documentation other than for the purpose of erasure or destruction 
as set out below you agree to be bound by all the terms and conditions of this 
Licence Agreement. 

If you do not agree to be bound by any one or more of the terms and conditions of 
this Licence Agreement you must destroy the Software Package, manual and 
documents and erase the Program and Software from the disk, tape, hard disk or 
other media on or in which it is incorporated or embedded. 


1 • Machine means the single Notebook on which you use me Software. 

2. Software means Ihe set of programs, documentation and related materials 
described in and supplied with the Notebook. 

3. Program is a part of the Software and means the Instructions, codes, messages or 
other information contained in the Notebook. 

4. Amstrad means AMSTRAD PLC, 169 Kings Road, Brentwood, Essex, CM14 4EF. 

5. Licensee means the purchaser. 


Amstrad grants a non-exclusive Software Licence to Licensee to: 

1 . Use the supplied Program on a slngte Machine. 

2. Where copy protection is not incorporated, copy the Program into any 
machine-readable or printed form for backup or modification purposes In support 
of Licensee's use of the Program on a single Machine. Licensee may make only 
one (I) copy of the Program for such purposes. Copying of documentation and 
other printed materials is prohibited. Disassembly, reverse compilation and 
reverse engineering of the Program or Software is prohibited. 


1 , Software supplied by Amstrad Is copyright protected. Ucensee agrees to uphoW 

these copyrights. 



2. This Licence Agreement enters Into effect at the time you enter, use, run; Wt; fcopy 

or otherwise manipulate the Program, and is effective until terminated, 

3. Licensee may terminate this Licence Agreement at any time by destroying the 
Software together with all copies. The benefit derived by Licensee from the 
Licence will terminate automatically if the terms of this Agreement are violated 
and Amstraa may demand the return of the Software immediately. Any such 
termination shall be without prejudice to any accrued rights of the parties. 

4. This Licence is personal to Licensee and may not be assigned to any other person, 
persons or company. 

5. The right to lend, hire, rent, sell, or otherwise transfer the Software in part or in 
whole is not granted to Licensee. 

6. Licensee may not use. copy, modify, or transfer the Software or documents, or 

any copy, modification or merged portion, in whole or in part, except as expressly 
provided for In this Licence Agreement. 

7. The Program cannot be transferred via any media other than that on which it is 
supplied, It cannot therefore be transferred via such media as 
telecommunication lines. 

8. Licensee agrees to take all possible steps to protect the Software from 
unauthorised use. reproduction or distribution. 

Limited Warranty 




However, Amstrad gives a limited warranty that the media on which the Program is 
embedded and supplied by Amstrad, to be free from defects in materials and 
workmanship under normal use for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of 
receipt by, or of delivery to. Licensee as evidenced by a dated copy of Licencee's 
proof of purchase receipt. In the event that the media are found to be so defective 
within the said period. Amstrad will replace them free of charge, if they are returned 
postage prepaid. 

Amstrad will also. AT ITS DISCRETION, by modification or alteration endeavour to 
remedy any Program errors, attributable to Amstrad, which are provable and 
demonstrable, and reported to Amstrad in writing within the aforesaid period. 




Governing Law 

This agreement shall be construed, interpreted and governed In accordance with 
the Laws of England. 


If any of the above provisions thereof are Invalid or unlawful under any applicable 
Law they are to that extent only deemed omitted. 


1 69 Kings Road 


Essex j 

CM14 4EF . >\ 

©t992. 1993 Amstrad pIc.AII rights reserved. 



If you have difficulties when using your Notebook there is a good 

possibility that your question may be answered in the following list 
of common questions and answers, many of these are based on 
calls received about the NCI 00 and NCI 50 Notepad computers. 

I switch on but nothing shows on the screen. 

- Check that batteries are installed. 

- Adjust the brightness (contrast) control. 

- If using batteries disconnect AC Adaptor from Notebook, 

- If using mains power check AC adaptor is connected properly, 

The Notebook switches itself off when I'm not looking. 

This is a normal feature, designed to help conserve your batteries, 

you can adjust the time delay before power off 

I have set a password but forgotten It, what do I do? 

You must delete the current password and secret Information. Refer 
to "If you forget your password" in the user guide. If you've used 
the password to operate the complete "lock" then the whole 
machine must be reset as described In "Hard reset" below, 

I think my Notebook is running out of memory, what do I do? 
Copy some of your old documents to disk then delete them from 

Is there anything I can do to increase the memory? 

Standard JEIDA/PCMCIA Memory Cards will expand the Memory 
by up to 1 MB 

Where can I buy memory cards? 

Memory cards in sizes from 64KB up to 1 MB are available from the 
following address (telephone credit card orders can be made): 

Amstrad Spares Dept. 

169 Kings Road 


CM14 4EG Tel: 0277 209509 

Can I use a monitor or TV with the Notebook? 

No, this is not possible. 


Sometimes when I'm typing a document or worksheet, It 
disappears and other things appear on the screen. 

You have acciden tally invoked a command, possibly by prefing 
f'-^-H instead of EZH or B. Press l FL "' io JB or F-™<B&L to 
return to what you were doing. In the spreadsheet select the Restart 
option to continue where you left off,, 

I can't print £ signs on my printer 

1 ) Mak e sure you have set the Notebook for the correct sort of 
Printer ( [ hl -""'°"l f p *) then & :; -0) 

2) Make sure your printer and Notebook are set to use the same 
character set before you print. The IBM set will give you the largest 
range of characters (possibly including box symbols), however you 
may not get italic characters printed. The Epson set may limit the 

range of characters but should always enable italics. 

I can't get italics to print 

Some printers (such as the original Canon BJlOe) simply don't 

support printing in italics. 

If you are sure that your printer can print italics read the above 

answer about printing £ signs. 

How do I run a macro? 

Just hold down EE3 and press the letter key that you assigned the 

macro to. 

How do I reset the macros? 

You can only redefine each macro individually back to the value 
shown in the table in the Macro chapter. You can use the soft reset 
method (described below in "When ail else fails!") to reset all the 
macros in a single operation but all Notebook settings will also be 
set back to their factory default. 

How can you adjust line spacing on a printout? 

There are two ways to do this. While editing a document press 
|F..r. el i ^f» 7 ] to access the layout menu then set the bottom 
Line spacing option to V2. 1 . 1 V2. 2, 2V2 or 3. This will affect all 
documents that you write from now on. If you just want a single 
document to have an unusual line spacing put a ,> >LS" code at the 
start of the document (see the chapter on Stored Commands). 


How do l get page number* printed? 

Automatic page numbers can only be used in headers and footers. 
Where you put a % symbol in a header/footer it will be filled in with 
the page number when the document is printed. Headers/footers 
can be inserted manually with a >HE or >FO code or use the create 
options in the word processor menu (press C±^3 while editing). 

How do I turn off right justification so that the right margin of the 

text isn't always straight? 

For a single document just press &i3 E3, pre ss again to switch It on. 
If you have the status line showing (E^fHtLs,) the letters rj show 
when it is on. Jo disable it for new documents, use the configure 
menu ( ^"""H IS .1 and set the Right justify option to off. 

How do I print selected pages? 

At the list of documents to print press S3 and use the start at.. 
and End at., options to select the pages to print. 

How do I get back deleted files? 

You simply cannot. Once a file is deleted it is gone for good. If you 
think you may lose something because of this always copy your 
complete list of documents to a floppy disk before deleting any. 

How do I store the Address Book on a memory card? 

Put in the card, switch on, press IEEHC 5- ) to switch to the address 
book then Immediately press EF"1. At that moment the address book 
is written on the card. 

How do I change the printed page length 

To change all subsequent documents press F'^jEJ while editing 
and change the Page length entry. If you just want to change it 
for a single document put a >pl stored command at the top of the 
document (see section on Stored Commands). 

How do I print multiple copies? 

Put an >nc stored command in your document followed by the 

number to be printed (see section on Stored Commands). 

Can I use an Amstrad PCW printer? 

Apart from the Canon BJ10 printer supplied with some PCWs it is not 
possible to directly connect a PCW printer to the Notebook 
because, unlike most printers, the PCW printer has its "intelligent 
electronics" inside the main PCW unit. You could, however, transfer 
documents to the PCW and then print them either from LocoScript 
(import ASCII files) or use the CP/M version of Protext. 


How can I easily transfer documents to an Amstrad PCW? 

By far the simplest way to do this is to use the "Lapcat" cable and 
software that is available from Amor. You may also need a 
serial/Centronics interface to connect to the PCW. 

How do I get condensed printing? 

Like all styles in the word processor you can put in a code to switch 
on condensed printing by pressing H^3 PD in the editor and select 
the c - Condensed (or any other) option. Put in a second code to 
switch back to normal. For this to work your printer must, obviously, 
support condensed printing and you must have set the correct 
Printer option in the Print Options menu. 

How do I change the margins? 

Margins are changed using ruler lines. A letter L is used to show the 
position of an indented Left margin and a letter R is used to set the 
Right margin. See the section on "Aligning text using Ruler Lines*. 

How do I indent a paragraph? 

Use a ruler line with an L showing where the left margin of the 
subsequent paragraph shoul d be. Switch back to the previous 
margins after this by pressing l Fuoclio "l L' r 1 to insert the previous ruler 
line. For paragraph numbers move the cursor into the left margin 
space, type a number and then (jE= 1 to continue the paragraph. 

Can I print the secret information? 

No, as a security measure it is not possible to print this. You should 
consider just entering the information as a normal document if you 

really intend to print it. 

What is the size of the "user dictionary" and macros? 

The dictionary is 1KB, 1024 characters, which will hold about 150 
average length words. There are 256 characters for macros, 

What printer lead do I require? 

If using the parallel port the lead is exactly the same as used for an 
IBM PC compatible printer. Almost all printers are already supplied 
with such a lead. For serial printers see the diagrams in the section 
that describes Sending and Receiving files. 

I get Mistake" errors whenever I try to type commands in BASIC 

Caps Lock should normally be switched on when using BASIC as all 

commands must be typed in upper case. 


The calculator does not work In the same way as my pocket 

There is no single standard for how a calculator should work, some 
pocket calculators do work like this. 

What on Earth does abcefgijmnopqstvwxz!+-\/>. {' * mean? 
This shows you all the keys you can press at the main menu of the 
spreadsheet. Because there are so many commands, only the first 

letter of each is given. As always in the spreadsheet, you can press 
p::.:j to get detailed help on this. 

Everytime I press ti3 in the Spreadsheet I get the message 
'Space full' 

Press the space bar then use the Which files command to list other 
sheets in memory. Erase old ones to make space. In the limit you 
may have to remove data from the spread heet to make room. 

After printing from the spreadsheet my laser does not feed a page, 
what should I do? 

Type r 3 ^! then press EE3FD together, finally press @ or UU. 

I want to enable NLQ printing from within the spreadsheet 

This depends on the printer you have - check its manual for details 
but, if it is Epson compatible, the code to enable NLQ is "Esc x 1", 
So type C° J then press EfBO together (which sends "Esc"), then 
press Q then LU, finally press & or GZL 

How do I align the paper in my printer beforeprinting a worksheet? 

Type CZJ then hold down ErD and press L_l) as many times as 
necessary, finally press &"") or G=i), 

Graphs from the spreadsheet don't fit on a sheet of A4 paper in my 
24 pin printer - what should I do? 

This is because the graphic dots printed on a 24 pin printer are 
larger than on a 9 pin printer. However, the printout will fit if you start 
printing right at the top of the page and use the printers DIP switch 
settings to make it ignore the out of paper sensor, 

When all else fails! 

f, while using your Notebook, it simply refuses to respond to key 
oresses or appears to be behaving in an unexpected way there is 
a special key sequence that can be used to reset it. This is known 
as a "soft reset". This will keep all your documents, worksheets. 


address book, etc. intact but will set all system settings and merer 
choices back to their fatory settings, 

Soft Reset: If possible, before switching off, finish what you are doing 
by pressing hl2Z (otherwise your current work in document or 
address book will be lost) then hold down Ei". .'^ and bd together 
and switch the Notebook on, you will hear a high pitched "beep" 
if the reset is successful. 

If the machine still refuses to work correctly there is a more powerful 
reset mechanism known as a "hard reset". However, be warned, 
this will erase absolutely everything stored in the Notebook and is 
only provide as an absolute last resort when all else has failed. 

Hard reset: Switch off the Notebook then hold down the (^E3 S 
and H keys and switch on, You will hear a low pitched "beep" 
and the machine will be completely reset to exactly the same state 
as when you first bought it. 

Memory usage in the Notebook 

As you create documents and worksheets and make diary and 
address book entries there are three areas of memory in which the 
Notebook can store the information you type. These areas are the 
Lower Memory, the Upper Memory and the Card Memory - if a 
PCMCIA card is fitted. 

If you switch Document sizes and date display on in the system 
settings, menu you will see that each file in the List Stored 
Documents screen has an L, U or C beside it showing where it is 


The Notebook has 128K (131X172 bytes) of memory as supplied. It 
uses 20,200 bytes of this for its own operation (including 8,192 for 
the screen memory). The remainder appears as two separate 
areas. The Upper Memory is about 72,704 bytes while the remainder 
(38,184 bytes) forms the Lower Memory area. 

Whenever you edit a document it must be loaded into the Lower 
Memory while editing, this is why the maximum size of document 
you could ever edit is limited to 38K. When you press Q, if there is 

sufficient room, it will be stored away in the Upper Memory when 
you finish editing. If there is not sufficient room in Upper Memory, 
documents will be stored in Lower Memory but this reduces the 
amount of free space available for editing new documents. 


* - f„n message you should copy to 
,f you receive the M«ory i- f»li "g™^ old worksheets o, 
disk and then try to <teletewme ora ao dia You car 

remove old entries from your address boo a ^ 

increase the available D ^^ rd then documents will always b* 
card. If you have a RAM card, ther a enabled . Howevei 

stored on that while there ' »^^ rt , S ^ st be ioaded into th< 
when a document ° n ° <^* f^ tnat limits the maximum siz< 

Lower Memory as it can for W a d (j) fitted ). then 
5£?K ^rJSTi^S^ Mennoty o— . 

Wnen you start ^^0^ ^^aTmac 

reorganised to see if a full 64K ot upp • .p repar ing memory 

avanable (that's what ^^^^C^<^^ starts wi 
lf 6 4K in Upper can ^ m^e avartaWe jne p^ qu Qbc 

the maximum , amoun ^f^jXer 12,800 bytes used for c 
32.000 bytes to hold date ' P ,uS ^ ou how much memory 
indices). The spre ad sheet fg sV ° mand can be used to s 
ZTZZ™^ SSF**** information, press ^ 

see the figure. ^^^ 

, f MK ot upper ^>&'28SS%X%>ZS£? 
started it will start «J h »^°!, e sse ™ rely limited there will only 
index information, f me. mory s sever y .^ infomat| 

rnTJs^S r^s^^^phLc^on cannot be us, 

When yau have a memory -^-^^cart 
documents in memory UW« a ^ £ artswlth as mu ch 

rmcra^rarrx^s ««*» «. .«-*.. 



Hotline Support 

If, on unpacking your Notebook, it wilt not function at all it should 

be returned immediately to your dealer for replacement. 

As the Notebook is a very sophisticated item, you may find you 

need personal assistance when learning how to use it that a user 
guide cannot provide; our Hotline Support can provide further 
tuition. Dial the Hotline Support on 0891 808181,* 

From September to the end of January: 

Monday - Friday 9.00 am - 8,00 pm 
Saturday 10.00 am - 7.00 pm 

Sunday 1 1 .00 am - 5.00 pm 

All other times of year: 

Monday - Friday 9,00 am - 5.00 pm 

'Because the hotline is an additional tutorial service the calls are 
charged at the Premium Rate. At the time of printing the Premium 
Rates are 48 pence per minute at peak times and 36 pence off-peak. 

Note: We have analysed many thousands of calls received about 
the predecessors of the NC200 Notebook - the NCI 00 and NCI 50 
Notepads. From this we can see that the same questions re-occur 
many times, That information has been used to improve this manual 
and the most common questions have been included in the 
Troubleshooting section on the previous pages. It is well worth 
looking through that list before calling us as there is a strong chance 
that your question will be answered there. 


The product described in this manual and products for us*' with ft are subject to 

continuous development and Improvement. 

This manual is provided to you free of charge and is intended only to assist the reader 
in the use of the product and the information contained in this manual and literature 
provided with the product is given by AMSTRAD in good faith. 


This manual may include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes 
are periodically made to the information contained herein; these changes will be 
incorporated in new editions of the publication. AMSTRAD may make improvements 
and/or changes in the product described in this publication at any time but does 
not undertake to notify customers of these changes. 

The products referred to herein are not designed and should not be used for, or in 
connection with, life critical functions or any activity In which an error or a fault may 
result in physical damage or injury to person(s) and AMSTRAD does not authorise such 

You must carefully read these instructions and all other literature provided with the 




Nothing in this document Is Intended to exclude or restrict any of the consumer's 
rights where to do so would be Illegal. 

All correspondence relating to the product or this manual should 

be addressed to: 

Department NC200 
Amstrad pic 
POBox 1831 

CM14 4ER 

NC200 1st Edition 

©1992, 1993 Amstrad pic 
All rights reserved 


Neither the whole nor any part of the Information contained herein, nor the products 
described in this manual may be adapted or reproduced in any material form 
except with the prior written approval of AMSTRAD pic. 

The Spelling portion of this product is based on Proximity Linguistic 

The Proximity/Collins Linguibase 

© 1992 


©1992, 1993 All rights reserved 

Proximity Technology, Inc 

Project management by Cliff Lawson and Bill Edwards. 

BASIC written by Richard Russell 

Terminal and disk software written by Ranger Computers Ltd. 

Spreadsheet software written by Ian W Searle. 

All other software designed by Alan Sugar, Cliff Lawson and 

Arnor Ltd and written by Amor Ltd. 

Manual written by Alan Sugar, Cliff Lawson and Sue Maybee 

Typeset by Cliff Lawson and Janet Kiddier, 

Illustrations by Colin Seaman, Steve Hope and Cliff Lawson , 

Published by AMSTRAD pic 

. . i ; 

Acorn and Archimedes are trademarks of Acorn Computers Ltd 

Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga Inc 

Atari and ST are trademarks of Atari Corp 

Centronics is a registered trademark of Centronics Corp 

Epson is a trademark of Epson America Inc ■..» i 

IBM and IBM PC are registered trademarks of international Business Machines 


LaserJet 'is a trademark of Hewlett Packard Corporation 

MS-DOS is a registered trademark and Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corp. 

Protext is a trademark of Arnor Ltd 

Proximity and Linguibase are registered trademarks of Proximity Technology Inc 

VT52 is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp 

WordPerfect is a trademark of WordPerfect Corp. 

WordStar is a trademark of MicroPro International Corp. 



New product guarantee 

Congratulations on purchasing a tine AMSTRAD product. To mark our confidence in 
your new AMSTRAD product, which has been fully tested and inspected, it comes 
with this guarantee; the Oetails of which are set out below. This guarantee is in 
addition to. and does not reduce, your minimum statutory rights. 

Terms of guarantee 

1 . Your AMSTRAD product, when properly maintained, serviced, used and cared for, 
should give years of excellent performance. You must carefully read the user 
instruction manual and literature supplied with the product as Amstrad pic does 
not accept responsibility for any damage or defect caused by misuse, abuse, 
neglect or incorrect operation. 

2. The guarantee is strictly limited as follows: 

(a)ln the event of any manufacturing defect in materials or workmanship in any 
part of your AMSTRAD product (except consumable items such as tapes, discs, 
films, etc.) becoming apparent within 12 months of the date of original 
purchase or hire purchase of your new AMSTRAD product, you must return It at 
your own risk and cost to the dealer from whom it was purchased, within the 
12 month guarantee period. 

(b)The dealer will repair or replace any defective part covered by this guarantee 
free of charge. 

(c)When the product is repaired, you will be responsible for collecting it at your 
own risk and cost. 

3. If maintenance, service work or adjustments are required, ensure that it is 
performed by a qualified engineer to avoid damage that will not be covered by 
this guarantee. 

4. You must keep your original purchase receipt as proof of place, date and type 
of purchase. It must be produced when required. 

What this guarantee does not cover 

5. Amstrad pic will not compensate you under this guarantee for any loss or damage 
caused to any Item or article used with your AMSTRAD product such as (but not 
limited to) discs, tapes, records or films. 

6. Amstrad pic will not pay financial compensation under this guarantee in the event 
of any defect in or delay in repair of your AMSTRAD product. Amstrad pic's sole 
responsibility Is to ensure that any genuine under-guarantee repair is performed 
for you. 

Large and delicate Items 

7. Customers owning large or delicate products which are not easlfy or safety 
transported are advised to purchase on-site sen/ice contracts from their dealers 
at point of sale. 

Please complete and return the Product Registration Card now to register your guarantee 



Spreadsheet entries marked with: 


■ 1 command 


■ recap 


■ !-Force recalcutatlon command 


■ " command 


■ # command 


I recap 


■ ' command 


■ ( command 


■ '-Macro command "'■''' 


■ . command 


■ / command 


□ 12/24 hour time display 


■ \ command 


D £ signs, printing 


■ A-Auto command 


■ ABCEFGUMNO... what does it mean? 


■ ABS function 


□ AC Adaptor, use of 


□ Accented characters 

104 - 105, 125 

■ Accuracy of spreadsheet 


■ ACOS function ,-,... . 


■ ACOSR function 


D Adding entries to Address Book 


■ Adding lines 


■ Adding lines/columns 


D Address Book 


D copying to/from disk 


□ deleting entries 


□ deleting in one go 


□ Editing 


D finding entries 


D Inserting entry into document 


□ keeping more than one 


□ printing 


D storing on memory card 


□ using 


D Address for correspondence 


■ Address labels 

316, 399 

■ Adjusting references 


■ Advanced functions - recap 


□ Alarm function 

D adding messages 

□ cancelling 

□ setting ' ■ 
D only on some days 

D Aligning text 

■ Alphabetic list of spreadsheet functions 

■ Ambiguity error 
D Amstrad PCW 

■ AND function 

■ Arguments 

■ Arithmetic operators 
D Arnor 

□ ASCII character table 

□ ASCI I file conversion 

■ ASIN function 

■ ASINR function 

□ Assembler programming 

■ Asterisks displayed 

■ ATAN function 

■ ATANR function 

D Automatic power off 
D AV command 

■ AVERAGE function 







361, 431 

sae PCW 




70. 135 










171. 181 




■ B-Blank command 

D Backlight 

D setting the options 


D Alphabetic list of command 

D Clock program 

□ Differences between other versions 
D Error numbers 

□ Example programs 

D Immediate commands 

D Introduction 

□ Memory usage 
D Music program 

a Operating system commands 

□ OS error messages 
D Plotting program 

□ programs, copying to/from disk 

□ Reaction program 

□ Short tutorial 

Q Star commands 

D Writing programs 

□ Batteries 

□ inserting 

□ type to use 

□ Baud rate (serial) 



























Beginners, advice 
Blank command 
BLEEP function 
"Blocks", definition 
Blocks in Word Processor 


marking, moving and copying 

saving as separate document 


BM command 
Bold text 

Bottom margin 
boxes, drawing 
Browsing the address book 
Building expressions 
Business graph types 

an example 



















"C" at top right, what does it mean? 

C-Copy command 

Calculator '' 

starting to use the 

Capital letters 

change to 
Caps Lock ?u*nec 

Carriage return format 
Cash flow, simple example 
CE command 
Cell cursor 

Centring headers/footers 
Centring text 
CF command 
Changing case of text 
Character set 

Checksum/CRC, XModem 
CHOOSE function 
Circular references 

■ recap 

□ Clock, change to 12 hour 
D CO command 

■ Co-ordinates in expressions 
D Codes on/ off 

■ COMB (Combination) function 

■ "Command* functions 



see Diary 










104, 159 




see Graphics 


329, 383 






107,109- no 








Command Reference 
Comments in documents 
Conclusion to Section One 
Condensed text in Word Processor 
Condensed printing from spreadsheet 
Condensed printing from word processor 
Conditional functions 

Conditional operators 
Conditional printing 
Configuring the word processor 
Contents line 
Continuous printing 
Copy block 
Copy command 

Copying a whole Document 
Copying back from floppy disks 
Copying to floppy disks 
Correcting mistakes 
Correspondence address 
COS function 
COSR function 
COUNT function 
counting words 

Counting words in a document 
CP command 
"The Cracker" 
CRD function 

limitations of 
Creating worksheets 
Credits for this work of literary genius 
Cross reference checking 
CS command 
The "Cue" 

flashing, changing 

what is it 
CW command 









173, 184 





300, 309 













70, 136 

359, 383 








■ DAT files 

□ Data bits (serial) 

■ Database functions In spreadsheet 

■ recap 

□ Date format 

■ DATE function 

■ Date functions 

D date, insert into document 

□ Date, setting the 

■ DATEAFTER function 

■ DAY function 

312, 401 






331, 381 

108, 125 


331, 384 


■ DAYOFWK function 332, 384 

■ DAYOFYR function 332, 384 

■ DAYSAPART function 33 1 , 384 

■ Dec (Decimal places) format 407 

■ DEC (Decrement) function 384 

□ decimal tabs 122 

■ Default format 263 

■ Defined functions 296 

■ Defining worksheet from scratch 4)1 

□ Del keys 100 - 101 

■ DELAY function 385 

■ Delete (Zap) command 262, 283, 428 

□ Delete 

□ all text in a document 103 

□ block 709 
D characters 100 
D document/file In memory 97 
Q line 103 

□ to end of line 103 

□ to start of line 103 

□ word 103 

□ Deleted documents, recovering 455 

□ Deleting 

□ address book entries 37 

■ files 427 

■ lines/columns 428 

■ lines and columns - recap 368 

■ more than one file at a time 90 

■ rows/columns 262 

□ ruler lines 121 

□ text, how to recover It 103 

■ "delineators" for search commend 322 

■ Demonstration worksheets 25 1 

■ accessing 427 

■ Destinations, a note 266 

□ DF command 1 72, 1 79 

□ Diary 76 

□ audible warning (disabling) 94 

□ copying to/from disk 87 
D deleting all entries in on ego 87 
D making entries 39 

D printing entries 41,77 

□ reminder at switch on 77 

□ removing entries 40 
O using 38 
D Diary /Clock/ Address 8ook menu 30 

□ Dictionary, Upkeep User 128 

■ DIF files 311,400 

□ Directories on floppy disk 91 

□ Disabled users read this 68 

D Disks see Floppy disks 

□ Display Macros 444 

■ Dividing commas 335, 353 

D DM command 

■ DO function 

D Document 






(1st of stored 


maximum size 




sizes and date display 


starting a new one 



■ DPART (Decimal part of) function 

D Drawing boxes 

351,354, 385 


















e (Exponential constant) function 

e. the constant of natural logarithms 

E-Edit command 

EA command 

Editing in the spreadsheet 


address book entries 

ruler lines 

Ef command 
EH command 
El command 
EL command 
Elite text style 
ELSE function 
EM command 
Engineering graph types 
Entering data 
Entering text 
Entries, types of - recap 
Entry line, limit 
EP command 


Error checking on entry 
ERROR function 
Error messages in spreadsheet 
Escape codes tor VT52 terminal 
Evaluation of expressions 
Exchange (X) command 
Exp (Exponential) format 
EXP (Exponential) function 
Expanding the memory 
Exporting text 
Expression entry .. 










325, 386 



256, 267, 275 

269, 275, 394 

















I Expressions 

j evaluation 

I evaluation on entry 

I introduction 

I parts of 

■ F-Format command 

■ FACT (Factorial) function 

■ FALSE function 
G FF command 

□ conversion during copy to disk 

□ transfer, Simple 




D transfer, XModem J*' 

■ filenames, valid In spreadsheet 
D Files, making read only on disk 

■ Fin (Financial) format 
D find address 

■ Find data using Get command a,u 

□ Find 

□ next 

□ previous 

□ text in document 
D Finding entries In the Address Book 

□ Floppy disk 

□ address book and diary 

□ copying back from 

□ copying files from 

□ copying files to 
Q copying to 

□ directories ™ 

□ drive battery usage 

□ drive, use on batteries 

□ editing direct from disk 

□ file name restrictions/changes 

□ formatting 

□ listing contents 

□ protecting the information *" 

□ summary of simple usage 29 

□ using a * 

□ why they are used ' ■ 
O FM command !™ 

□ FO command J~ a 

□ Footer margin 

□ Footers 










118, 120 


□ footers and headers ]m - 105, 125 


□ Foreign characters 

□ forgotten password 

□ Format paragraph 


■ Formats 

■ changing -. 

■ Global 

M numeric 

■ recap 

■ summary 

■ text 

■ types of 

□ Formatting 

□ floppy disks 

D stored commands 

D text 

□ text, special characters 

■ Formulae 

■ printing 

□ FP command 

■ Functions 

■ alphabetic list of all 

■ G-Get (Find) command 

□ Games 

Q key to access 

□ playing 

■ Gen (General) format 

■ Get command 

■ Getting help 

■ Getting started, experts 

■ Global formats 

□ Go to command 

■ Graph plotting (T) command 

■ Graphics 

■ examples 

■ functions used 

1 limitations 

■ line of best fit 

■ printing 

■ using 

■ GROW function 

□ Guarantee 

D Hard reset 

D 'hard" spaces 

□ 'HD" type floppy disks 

D HE command 

■ Head (Heading) format 

D Header margin 

D Headers and footers 

■ Headings 

□ HELP !!! 


280, 416 























280, 416 










118, 120 




■ Help on the spreadsheet 247 
□ HM command 157 
D Hotline advice 460 

■ HOUR function 386 
D hyphens, soft and hard 1 13 

■ Hnsert command 41 1 

■ I/O functions 336 
D ID command 173 

D IE command 1 73 

□ IF command 173.184 

■ IF function 325, 386 

■ IN (from I/O port) function 386 
DiN command 170 

■ INC (increment) function 386 

■ INC function 353 
Q indent tabs 121 

□ indented paragraphs 100,118,120,456 

■ INIT function 356, 387 

□ insert 

□ address into document 108 

■ command 262 

□ on/off 102 

□ one document Into another 109 

■ rows/columns 262 
D ruler lines 120 

□ text Into a document 102 

■ INT (Integer part of ) function 387 

■ Int (Integer) format 408 

■ internal Rate of Return 330 

■ INTF.RP (Interpolate) function 328, 361 , 387 

■ Interpolation 328 
D Invoice example of mail merge 1 86 

□ Italic text 1 10 

D Italics, printing 111,454 

■ Iterative solutions 362 

■ recap 372 

□ lU command 173 

■ J- Jump command 266, 413 

D Justification 166 

□ Keyboard repeat, changing 1 3 1 
■ Keys used in spreadsheet 244 

□ Keys, the Important ones 5 


■ "Lagged" variables 
D 'Lapcat* 

D transfer format 

D transfer software /cable 

D Large documents 

D last position, go to 

□ Layout 

D . menu 

□ of page 
D page size 

D stored commands 

■ Leaving the spreadsheet 
D Left margin 

■ Line of best fit 

□ Line spacing, adjusting 

D Listing contents of floppy disks 

■ Listing files 

■ Lists, using in functions 

□ Lithium battery 

□ type 

Q warning 

■ LN (Natural logarithm) function 

■ Loading worksheets 

■ recap 

■ LOG 10 function 

■ Logical 

■ expressions 

■ functions 

■ operators 

■ LOOKUP function 

■ Looping functions 

■ recap 

■ Looping using DO and WHILE 

■ Low order of recalculation 

□ lower case, change to 

□ LS command 















257, 309, 400 





326, 379 - 360 

328, 386 








■ M-Move command 
□ Macros 

(") command 


displaying stored 

in the spreadsheet 



sequences of stored keypresses 

what the display macro entries mean 
Mail labels 







316. 399 


□ Mail merge '•*, \73 --"■-■ 

□ Addition of variables 185 
D Inputting data 18' 
D Invoices 186 
D No data file 186 
D Reading data ,eo 
D Reading variables ,79 
D Simple 177 
D Splitting variables 183 
P stored commands 171 

□ Using Address Book 185 

D Variables 17S. 179, 182 

□ "Main Screen" s 

D Mains adaptor, use of 4 - 62 

■ MAINTITLE function 339 

■ Make command 240 
D Margins ]" 
D changing 120 < 456 
D Mark block W 
D Marking files 

D for copying back from disk 28 

D for copying to floppy disk 25 

Q extra functions 90 

■ Mathematical functions 293 

□ mathematical symbols 105 

■ MAX function 388 

□ MC command ,67 

■ MEM files 311,401 

DMemory -,_-v -■- 453 

D BASIC 2 04 

D calculator 73 

□ cards * 8 

D cards, moving documents to 95 

□ expanding the 68 

□ where to buy cards 4S3 
D usage 68 . 458 
D Menus in word processor ! '* 

□ Micro spacing 167 

■ MIN function 388 

■ MINUTE function 388 

■ Mnemonics, what does it mean? 242 

□ Modem , using a ' 38 

■ MONTH function 388 

□ Move block 109 

■ Move command 299 
D Moving 

■ around 2 °* 
D around a document 101 
D around In the word processor 66 

■ around the worksheet 413 

■ around the worksheet - recap 369 

■ the ceil cursor 245 
D MS command l* 7 

□ MS-DOS compatible dteks 22 

□ Multiple 


address books and diary files 


copies, printing 




functions In one cell 


place markers 






335, 353 

■ N-New command 416 

□ name, document 95 

□ NC command 164 

□ Need help? 453 

■ Nesting functions 379 

■ New command 280 

□ New Page after printing 164 

■ NINT (Nearest Integer) function 388 
I NLQ printing from spreadsheet 457 

□ Non-break characters 1 13 

■ NOT function 388 

□ NP command 164 

■ NPV (Net present value) function 329, 389 
D Null Modem Cable 139 

□ N umber of copies 1 64 

■ Numbers and Text, the difference 272 

■ Numeric accuracy and range 378 

■ O-Out (to printer) command ...■; ,f^ 9 ,.-. ; ..,-.. 417 
D OC command ' 168 

□ OF command 164 

□ OH command 165 
DOM command ■ 157 

□ OP command 165 

■ Operators 

■ explained 287 

■ list/precedence 378 

■ valid 380 

■ OR function 389 

■ Order of calculation 29 1 

■ ensuring a low number 356 

■ Order of precedence 288 

■ OUT (to port) function 389 

■ Out command 315 

D Output printer codes ' -msb* "■■■-: '** 

■ Overflow display 409 

■ Overview of spreadsheet 366 

I P-Portition command 

□ PA command 

D back 

□ break 

□ break, forcing a 
D dimensions 

□ forward 
D layout 
D length 

D length, changing 

Q numbering 

D numbers, printing 

D paper size 

□ PANIC - don't! 

□ Paragraphs, indenting 
D Parity (serial) 

■ Partition command 
D Password 








changing your 
complete protection 
if forgotten 

printer, using 

transferring documents to/from 
D PE command 

■ PERM (Permutation) function 

■ PI 

I Pie charts, an example 
□'PL command 

□ place markers 

□ Playing the games 

■ Rot format 

■ Plotting graphs 

□ PN command 

□ PO command 

■ POS (Positive) function 

□ Power 

□ automatic 

□ consumption of Notebook 

□ time delay 

□ to the Notebook 

□ PP command 

■ Precedence of operators 

□ Preparing floppy disks 

□ Preserving the context 

□ Print to screen 













115- 116 

, 166 

























see Graphics 












□ Printer 

D lead required 


□ Codes 



□ Proportional printing 


□ Setup 


■ setup from within the spreadsheet 


□ ■ stored commands 


□ Printing 

□ £ signs 


□ Address Book 


a bold 


□ documents, first steps 


■ formulae 

r 399 

□ from word processor 


■ graphs 


□ italics 


D multiple copies 


■ problems in the spreadsheet 


■ problems solved 


D selected pages 

160, 165- 166, 


D underlining 


■ worksheets 

259, 309, 315 

■ worksheets - recap 


■ Problems printing worksheets 


D Problems? You need help fasti 


□ Protext 

70, 135 

mo^'o: ■ 

. — - 

■ Q-Quit command 


□ Quick editing flies from disk 


■ Quick start to spreadsheet 


D quick-key alternatives to menus 


■ Quitting from the spreadsheet 


■ Range of numeric values 


■ Ranges, using 


D Re-formatting text 


D Read only files on disk 


■ Recalculation, force (!) command 


■ Recap of spreadsheet tutorial 


□ Receive 

□ files using serial connection 


□ Simple 


D XModem 


□ Recording a macro 


■ Reference Guide for spreadsheet 


■ Relative cell references 


□ Remove codes 
■ Removina data 



O Renaming ■•«*>••-: 

D documents/files In memory 98 

□ files/directories on disk 92 

■ Repeating often used commands 349 

□ Replace text in document 123 

□ Resetting 

D the Notebook 84, 458 

□ the password 84 


□ returns, show on screen 105 
D Right align tab 122 

□ Right Justification 148 
□. disabling 455 
D display and on/off 117 

□ right margin, making it ragged 455 

□ RJ command 158 

■ RND (Random number) function 390 

■ ROUND function 390 
D RP command 174 

□ RU command 174,180 

□ ruler line, shown on screen 108 
D Ruler lines 120 
DRV command 174,179 

■ S-Sort command 422 

□ SA command 167 

□ Saving 

D a document 95 

■ worksheets 250, 258, 309 

■ worksheets - recap 374 

■ worksheets to files 401 

■ Scientific graph types 339 

■ an example 346 

■ Searching worksheets 322 

■ SECOND function 390 

□ Secret 67 

□ information 46, 81 
D information, printing? 456 
D Selected pages, printing 455 
D Sending 

□ files using serial connection 135 

□ Simple 145 
D XModem 148 

□ Serial Terminal 67,140 

□ battery usage 65 

□ introduction 51 

□ VT52 ESC codes 447 

□ Serial, Cable wiring 138 

■ SET function 352 

□ short cuts 66 

□ Side margin 118 

■ SUBTITLE function 339 

■ SUM function 391 

■ SUMIF function 391 

□ Summary of word processing commands 440 
D Super Blockade 4$ 

□ Superscript text style 1 1 2 

□ SV command 17S, 182 
D swapping characters -<■■ 104 

D Switching 

D off the Notebook 43 

D on the Notebook A3 

□ symbols 105 

■ Synchronisation 320 

□ System settings 93 

□ changing an entry 68 

■ T-Trace graph command 423 

□ tab key w *' ! 100 

■ Table filling using DO 358 

■ Table handling functions 328 

□ Tabs, 

□ . setting and using 121 

□ setting tab stops 120 

□ showing on screen 108, 122 

□ using 120 

■ TAN function 392 

■ TANR function 392 

D The "Template" 70-71 

D Terminal. Software connection 140 

■ Terminology 247 

■ Text and Numbers, the difference 272 

■ Text entry 394 
D Text styles 110 
D The last resort... 457 

■ THEN function 325, 386 

□ time and date, change 76 

□ Time display format 94 

■ TIME function 392 

■ Time functions 331, 381 

□ Time manager 41 . 79 

□ Time zones 45,79 
D changing current 80 

□ insert into document 1 08 
D setting the 3. 79 

■ TIM ELABEL function 340 

■ TIMELAPSE function 392 

□ TM command 158 

□ Top margin 118 

■ Trace command 337 

. ,tmut .s : 


D Transfer 

□ Choosing method 144 

D documents 70. 135 

D Local ■ 137 

D Parallel 136 

D Remote 137 

□ Serial '36 

■ Trigonometric functions 381 

□ Trikade 48 

□ Troubleshooting 463 

■ TRUE function 392 

■ The spreadsheet TUTORIAL 260 

■ TXT files 312,400 

■ TxtL (Text Left) format 408 

■ TxtR (Text Right) format 40« 

■ TYPE PLOT function 338 
D Typing 

□ documents 99 
D how not to 101 
D over Instead of inserting text 102 

D UN command 175 

D Undelete block ' 10 

□ Undeleting words, lines and btdctcs 1 03 

a Underlined text 1 1 1 

D Unmarklng a block 1 10 

■ User defined functions 296, 379 

□ User Dictionary 

D removing words 129 

□ Upkeep • 128 

■ V- Verify command 426 

■ VAL (Value from ceil) function 362, 392 

■ VAR (Variance) function 393 

□ Viewing codes 107 

□ VT52 Emulator 447 


■ W-Whlch files command 427 
DWC command 175 

□ WF command 1 75 

□ What to do when things go wrong 453 

□ When all else fails 467 

■ WHILE function 351,393 

■ Width of cells displayed, changing 416 

□ WM command 1 76 
D Word count 130 
D Word processing commands, summary 440 

□ word processing guide 

DWord processor 
D features 

□ menus 

□ starting to use the 

□ Word wrap 

D display and on/off 

D WordStar file conversion 

D Worksheets, copying to/from disk 

DWT command 










■ X-eXchange command 

■ X (exchange) command - recap 

■ XIABEL function 

■ XMAXIMUM function 

■ XMINIMUM function 
DXModem transfers 

■ XTSTIE function 

■ XVALUE function 



I YEAR function 
I YMAX1MUM function 
I YMINIMUM function 
I YHTLE function 
\ YVALUE function 


■ Z-Zap (Delete) command 

■ Zap (Delete) command 

■ ZEROTIME function 
D ZM command 


262, 283